Identifying Common Logical Fallacies

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| By Mgrunow
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Mgrunow
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 296
Questions: 25 | Attempts: 296

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Identifying Common Logical Fallacies - Quiz

Covers Bandwagon, Slippery Slope, Straw Man, Ad hominem, Circular Reasoning/Begging the Question, Hasty Generalization, Either/or, Red Herring.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    “Even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course.”

    • A.

      Begging the Question

    • B.

      Either/or

    • C.

      Red Herring

    • D.

      Hasty Generalization

    Correct Answer
    D. Hasty Generalization
    Explanation
    The statement "Even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course" is an example of hasty generalization. The person is making a broad generalization about the entire course based on just one day of experience. It is hasty because they are jumping to a conclusion without sufficient evidence or experience to support it.

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  • 2. 

    "America: love it or leave it."

    • A.

      Red Herring

    • B.

      Either/or

    • C.

      Hasty Generalization

    • D.

      Bandwagon

    Correct Answer
    B. Either/or
    Explanation
    The phrase "America: love it or leave it" presents a false dichotomy, suggesting that there are only two options - either love America or leave it. This is an example of an either/or fallacy, which oversimplifies the situation by excluding other possibilities or viewpoints. It ignores the fact that individuals can have nuanced opinions and can criticize certain aspects of their country while still loving it.

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  • 3. 

    "Since scientists cannot prove that global warming will occur, it probably won't."

    • A.

      Hasty Generalization

    • B.

      Slippery Slope

    • C.

      Straw man

    • D.

      Either/or

    Correct Answer
    A. Hasty Generalization
    Explanation
    The given statement is an example of hasty generalization because it assumes that since scientists cannot prove that global warming will occur, it probably won't. This is a hasty generalization because it jumps to a conclusion based on limited evidence or a single instance. It ignores the vast amount of scientific research and evidence that supports the existence and impact of global warming. It is important to consider a wide range of evidence and expert opinions before making conclusions about complex scientific phenomena like global warming.

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  • 4. 

    (1) Trinitarianism holds that three equals one.(2) Three does not equal one.Therefore:(3) Trinitarianism is false.

    • A.

      Bandwagon

    • B.

      Ad hominem

    • C.

      Hasty generalization

    • D.

      Straw Man

    Correct Answer
    D. Straw Man
    Explanation
    The given argument commits the fallacy of Straw Man. It misrepresents the position of Trinitarianism by stating that it holds that three equals one, which is an oversimplification and distortion of the actual belief. Trinitarianism actually holds that three distinct persons (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) are united in one divine essence. By misrepresenting the belief in this way, the argument sets up a weak and easily refutable version of Trinitarianism, allowing for the conclusion that it is false. This is a logical fallacy because it attacks a distorted version of the opponent's argument rather than addressing the actual belief.

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  • 5. 

    “If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers.”

    • A.

      Ad hominem

    • B.

      Slippery slope

    • C.

      Straw man

    • D.

      Begging the question

    Correct Answer
    B. Slippery slope
    Explanation
    The given statement presents a slippery slope fallacy. It argues that banning Hummers because they are bad for the environment will lead to the government banning all cars. This is a logical fallacy because it assumes that if one action is taken, it will inevitably lead to a series of increasingly negative actions without providing any evidence or logical reasoning to support this claim. The argument exaggerates the potential consequences of banning Hummers and uses this exaggeration to argue against the ban.

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  • 6. 

    Bill says that he likes the idea that people should work for their welfare when they can. His friends laugh at him, accuse him of fascist leanings, and threaten to ostracize him from their group. He decides to recant and abandon his position to avoid rejection.

    • A.

      Ad hominem

    • B.

      Slippery slope

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Straw man

    Correct Answer
    C. Bandwagon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Bandwagon". In this scenario, Bill is facing social pressure from his friends who disagree with his belief. He decides to abandon his position and conform to their views in order to avoid rejection and be accepted by the group. This is an example of bandwagon fallacy, where someone adopts a belief or behavior because it is popular or widely accepted, rather than based on its merits or logical reasoning.

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  • 7. 

     “If we allow same-sex couples to marry, then the next thing you know, we’ll be allowing people to marry their parents, cars, or even monkeys.” 

    • A.

      Bandwagon

    • B.

      Slippery slope

    • C.

      Ad hominem

    • D.

      Straw man

    Correct Answer
    B. Slippery slope
    Explanation
    The given statement is an example of a slippery slope fallacy. It suggests that if same-sex couples are allowed to marry, it will lead to a series of extreme and unrelated scenarios, such as people marrying their parents, cars, or monkeys. This argument is flawed because it assumes that one action will inevitably lead to a chain of negative consequences without providing any evidence or logical reasoning to support this claim. It exaggerates the potential outcomes and creates a false sense of inevitability.

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  • 8. 

    “People who don't support the proposed state minimum wage increase hate the poor.”

    • A.

      Begging the Question

    • B.

      Either/or

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Straw man

    Correct Answer
    D. Straw man
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Straw man. This fallacy occurs when someone misrepresents an opponent's argument in order to make it easier to attack. In this case, the statement suggests that people who oppose the state minimum wage increase hate the poor, which is an exaggerated and distorted representation of their actual position. This misrepresentation makes it easier to dismiss their argument without addressing their actual concerns or reasons for opposing the increase.

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  • 9. 

    “The level of mercury in seafood may be unsafe, but what will fishers do to support their families?”

    • A.

      Either/or

    • B.

      Red Herring

    • C.

      Hasty Generalization

    • D.

      Begging the Question

    Correct Answer
    B. Red Herring
    Explanation
    The given statement about the level of mercury in seafood being unsafe is used as a distraction or diversion from the main point of the discussion, which is about the actions of fishers to support their families. This diversionary tactic is known as a red herring, as it shifts the focus away from the original topic and introduces a new element that is unrelated to the argument.

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  • 10. 

    “We can either stop using cars or destroy the earth.”

    • A.

      Either/or

    • B.

      Begging the Question

    • C.

      Ad hominem

    • D.

      Straw man

    Correct Answer
    A. Either/or
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Either/or" because the statement presents a false dilemma by suggesting that the only options are to either stop using cars or destroy the earth. This is a logical fallacy because it assumes there are only two extreme choices when in reality, there may be other alternatives or solutions that are not mentioned.

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  • 11. 

    “George Bush is a good communicator because he speaks effectively.”

    • A.

      Either/or

    • B.

      Begging the Question

    • C.

      Ad hominem

    • D.

      Bandwagon

    Correct Answer
    B. Begging the Question
    Explanation
    The statement "George Bush is a good communicator because he speaks effectively" is an example of begging the question. Begging the question is a logical fallacy where the conclusion is assumed in the premise. In this case, the statement assumes that George Bush is a good communicator without providing any evidence or justification for that claim. It simply restates the conclusion as a premise, making it a circular argument.

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  • 12. 

    Everyone is selfish; everyone is doing what he believes will make himself happier. The recognition of that can take most of the sting out of accusations that you're being "selfish." Why should you feel guilty for seeking your own happiness when that's what everyone else is doing, too?

    • A.

      Ad hominem

    • B.

      Slippery Slope

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Straw man

    Correct Answer
    C. Bandwagon
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that everyone is selfish and seeks their own happiness, so there is no reason to feel guilty about it. This aligns with the concept of the bandwagon fallacy, which assumes that something is right or acceptable because everyone else is doing it. In this case, the idea is that seeking personal happiness is justified because everyone else is doing the same.

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  • 13. 

     “Steve said we should put more money into health and education. I am surprised Steve hates our country so much that he wants to leave it defenseless by cutting military spending.” 

    • A.

      Ad hominem

    • B.

      Slippery Slope

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Straw man

    Correct Answer
    D. Straw man
    Explanation
    The given statement is an example of a straw man fallacy. The speaker misrepresents Steve's argument by exaggerating it and attacking a distorted version of it. Steve's original argument was to allocate more funds towards health and education, but the speaker falsely portrays it as wanting to leave the country defenseless by cutting military spending. This misrepresentation allows the speaker to attack a weaker and distorted version of Steve's argument rather than addressing the actual argument.

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  • 14. 

    “Green Peace's strategies aren't effective because they are all dirty, lazy hippies.”

    • A.

      Straw man

    • B.

      Red Herring

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Ad hominem

    Correct Answer
    D. Ad hominem
    Explanation
    The given statement attacks the character of Green Peace by calling them "dirty, lazy hippies" instead of addressing the effectiveness of their strategies. This is a classic example of an ad hominem fallacy, where instead of addressing the argument or issue at hand, the person's character or personal attributes are attacked.

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  • 15. 

    "But, Mom, nobody really takes the law against texting and driving seriously. All my friends do it."

    • A.

      Straw man

    • B.

      Red Herring

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Ad hominem

    Correct Answer
    C. Bandwagon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Bandwagon. This fallacy occurs when someone argues that a belief or action is justified because many people do it or believe in it. In this scenario, the person is using the fact that their friends engage in texting and driving as a reason to dismiss the seriousness of the law against it. They are implying that since many people do it, it must not be a big deal.

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  • 16. 

    "A book is pornographic if and only if it contains pornography." 

    • A.

      Straw man

    • B.

      Begging the question

    • C.

      Slippery slope

    • D.

      Bandwagon

    Correct Answer
    B. Begging the question
    Explanation
    The statement "A book is pornographic if and only if it contains pornography" is an example of begging the question. Begging the question is a logical fallacy where the conclusion of an argument is assumed in one of the premises. In this case, the statement is circular and assumes that the definition of pornographic is synonymous with containing pornography. It does not provide any evidence or reasoning to support this assumption, making it a fallacious argument.

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  • 17. 

    “After Sally presented her stance for more equitable taxation, Sam responded by questioning whether we should believe anything from a woman who isn’t married, was once arrested, and smells a bit weird.”

    • A.

      Straw man

    • B.

      Begging the question

    • C.

      Ad hominem

    • D.

      Hasty generalization

    Correct Answer
    C. Ad hominem
    Explanation
    This is an example of ad hominem because Sam is attacking Sally's personal characteristics and unrelated issues instead of addressing the actual argument she presented about equitable taxation.

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  • 18. 

    "If we pass laws against fully automatic weapons, then it won't be long before we pass laws on all weapons, and then we will begin to restrict other rights, and finally we will end up living in a communist state. Thus, we should not ban fully automatic weapons."

    • A.

      Hasty Generalization

    • B.

      Straw man

    • C.

      Begging the Question

    • D.

      Slippery slope

    Correct Answer
    D. Slippery slope
    Explanation
    The given argument is an example of a slippery slope fallacy. The person argues that if laws are passed against fully automatic weapons, it will lead to laws being passed on all weapons, which will then lead to the restriction of other rights, ultimately resulting in a communist state. This argument assumes that one action will inevitably lead to a series of increasingly negative consequences without providing sufficient evidence or logical reasoning to support this claim. It exaggerates the potential outcome and creates a chain of events based on speculation rather than solid reasoning.

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  • 19. 

    "We should not believe President Clinton when he claims not to have had sex with Monica Lewinsky.  After all, he's a liar."

    • A.

      Either/or

    • B.

      Ad hominem

    • C.

      Slippery slope

    • D.

      Hasty generalization

    Correct Answer
    B. Ad hominem
    Explanation
    The given statement is an example of ad hominem fallacy. Ad hominem is a logical fallacy where instead of addressing the argument or claim made by someone, the person attacking the argument attacks the character or personal traits of the person making the argument. In this case, the statement dismisses President Clinton's claim by calling him a liar, without addressing the actual claim or providing any evidence to support the dismissal.

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  • 20. 

    "Fred, the Australian, stole my wallet. Thus, all Australians are thieves."

    • A.

      Either/or

    • B.

      Ad hominem

    • C.

      Slippery slope

    • D.

      Hasty generalization

    Correct Answer
    D. Hasty generalization
    Explanation
    This statement is an example of hasty generalization because it makes a broad generalization about all Australians based on the actions of one person, Fred. It assumes that because Fred, an Australian, stole the wallet, all Australians are thieves. This is a hasty and unfair generalization as it does not take into account the diverse characteristics and behaviors of individuals within a group.

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  • 21. 

    A teacher catches a student cheating during a test. The student in response says, “I know I’ve made a mistake. But think of my parents. They’re going to kill me”

    • A.

      Either/or

    • B.

      Red herring

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Slippery slope

    Correct Answer
    B. Red herring
    Explanation
    The student's response of bringing up their parents and the potential consequences they may face is a red herring. A red herring is a logical fallacy where irrelevant information is presented in order to divert attention from the main issue at hand. In this case, the student is trying to shift the focus away from their cheating and onto their parents' reaction, hoping to evoke sympathy or distract from their wrongdoing.

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  • 22. 

    Mother: It’s bedtime JaneJane: Mom, how do ants feed their babies?Mother: Don’t know dear. Close your eyes now.Jane: But mama, do ant babies cry when hungry?

    • A.

      Begging the Question

    • B.

      Hasty generalization

    • C.

      Red herring

    • D.

      Straw man

    Correct Answer
    C. Red herring
    Explanation
    In this conversation, Jane asks her mother a question about how ants feed their babies. Her mother, however, avoids answering the question by telling Jane to close her eyes and go to bed. This response is a red herring because it distracts from the original question and does not provide any relevant information about how ants feed their babies. Instead, the mother changes the subject and tries to divert Jane's attention away from her question.

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  • 23. 

    “This painting is trash because it is obviously worthless.”

    • A.

      Begging the question

    • B.

      Red herring

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Slippery slope

    Correct Answer
    A. Begging the question
    Explanation
    The statement "This painting is trash because it is obviously worthless" is an example of begging the question. Begging the question is a logical fallacy where the conclusion is assumed to be true in the premise. In this case, the statement assumes that the painting is worthless without providing any evidence or reasoning to support that claim. It is circular reasoning, as the conclusion is already embedded in the premise.

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  • 24. 

    • A.

      Red herring

    • B.

      Straw man

    • C.

      Slippery slope

    • D.

      Band wagon

    Correct Answer
    D. Band wagon
  • 25. 

    Four out of five dentists recommend Happy Glossy Smiley toothpaste brand.  Therefore, it must be great.

    • A.

      Begging the question

    • B.

      Slippery slope

    • C.

      Bandwagon

    • D.

      Straw man

    Correct Answer
    C. Bandwagon
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that because four out of five dentists recommend the Happy Glossy Smiley toothpaste brand, it must be great. This is an example of the bandwagon fallacy, which assumes that something is true or good simply because many people believe or do it. The statement does not provide any evidence or reasoning to support the claim that the toothpaste is great, other than the fact that a majority of dentists recommend it.

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