Humidity And Aerosol Therapy I

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Humidity is measured by

    • A.

      Particle Size

    • B.

      Partial Pressure

    • C.

      Percentage

    • D.

      Water Content

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Partial Pressure
    C. Percentage
    Explanation
    Humidity is a measure of the amount of moisture present in the air. It can be measured using two different methods: partial pressure and percentage. Partial pressure refers to the pressure exerted by the water vapor in the air, while percentage measures the amount of water vapor present in the air as a percentage of the maximum amount it can hold at a given temperature. Both methods provide an indication of the humidity level, with partial pressure being more commonly used in scientific and meteorological applications.

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  • 2. 

    An Aerosol is defined as

    • A.

      Water contained in a gas as vapor

    • B.

      Particulate matter suspended in a gas

    • C.

      The maximum amount of water content a gas can contain at a given temperature

    • D.

      The actual water content of a gas at a given temperature

    Correct Answer
    B. Particulate matter suspended in a gas
    Explanation
    An aerosol is defined as particulate matter suspended in a gas. This means that tiny solid or liquid particles are dispersed and floating in a gas medium. These particles can range in size and composition, and can be natural or man-made. Aerosols can have various effects on the environment and human health, depending on their composition and concentration. They can contribute to air pollution, affect climate change by scattering or absorbing sunlight, and can also have health impacts when inhaled.

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  • 3. 

    The definition of capacity is 

    • A.

      Water contained in a gas as vapor

    • B.

      Particulate matter suspended in a gas

    • C.

      The maximum amount of water content a gas can contain at a give temperature

    • D.

      The actual water content of a gas at a given temperature

    Correct Answer
    C. The maximum amount of water content a gas can contain at a give temperature
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the maximum amount of water content a gas can contain at a given temperature." This definition of capacity refers to the maximum amount of water that a gas can hold or contain at a specific temperature. It indicates the upper limit of water content that a gas can have before it becomes saturated.

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  • 4. 

    Relative Humidity is defined as

    • A.

      Water contained in a gas as vapor

    • B.

      The actual water content of a gas at a given temperature

    • C.

      The maximum amount of water content as gas can contain at a given temperature

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. The actual water content of a gas at a given temperature
    Explanation
    Relative humidity is a measure of the actual water content of a gas at a given temperature. It represents the amount of water vapor present in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at that temperature. It is expressed as a percentage and is an important factor in determining the comfort level and potential for precipitation in the atmosphere.

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  • 5. 

    Water Vapor is defined as 

    • A.

      Water contained in a gas as vapor

    • B.

      Particulate matter suspended in a gas

    • C.

      The actual water content of a gas at a given time

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Water contained in a gas as vapor
    Explanation
    Water vapor is defined as water in its gaseous state. When water evaporates, it turns into water vapor, which is invisible to the naked eye. It is different from particulate matter suspended in a gas, as it refers specifically to the gaseous form of water. Similarly, it is also different from the actual water content of a gas at a given time, as it specifically refers to the water molecules present in the gas as vapor. Therefore, the correct answer is "water contained in a gas as vapor."

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  • 6. 

    You must deliver a maximal amount of humidity to a patients airway; how could this be accomplished using a wick humidifier

    • A.

      Increase Thermostat to 37 C

    • B.

      Keep water in reservoir at correct level

    • C.

      Ensure total flow through humidifier exceeds patient requirements

    • D.

      Use water traps or drainage bag in the circuit

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase Thermostat to 37 C
    B. Keep water in reservoir at correct level
    C. Ensure total flow through humidifier exceeds patient requirements
    D. Use water traps or drainage bag in the circuit
    Explanation
    A wick humidifier works by evaporating water from a wick, which then adds moisture to the air. To deliver a maximal amount of humidity to a patient's airway using a wick humidifier, several steps can be taken. First, increasing the thermostat to 37°C will help to increase the evaporation rate of the water from the wick. Second, keeping the water in the reservoir at the correct level ensures a constant supply of water for evaporation. Third, ensuring that the total flow through the humidifier exceeds the patient's requirements ensures that an adequate amount of moisture is being delivered. Finally, using water traps or a drainage bag in the circuit helps to prevent any excess moisture from reaching the patient and causing discomfort.

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  • 7. 

    You are administering oxygen to a patient via a bubble type humidifier, you know the humidity output is 14.5 mg/L. What is the humidity deficit

    • A.

      14.5 mg/L

    • B.

      29.4 mg/L

    • C.

      43.9 mg/L

    • D.

      47.0 mg/L

    Correct Answer
    B. 29.4 mg/L
    Explanation
    The humidity deficit is the difference between the actual humidity in the patient's airway and the ideal humidity level. In this case, the given humidity output is 14.5 mg/L, so the deficit would be the difference between this value and the ideal humidity level. Since the answer is 29.4 mg/L, it suggests that the ideal humidity level is 43.9 mg/L.

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  • 8. 

    An advantage of the heated wick humidifier, compared with a bubble humidifier is

    • A.

      High flow outputs at high humidity are possible

    • B.

      It is designed for low flow oxygen delivery systems

    • C.

      It only delivers cool aerosol

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. High flow outputs at high humidity are possible
    Explanation
    The advantage of the heated wick humidifier, compared with a bubble humidifier, is that it allows for high flow outputs at high humidity. This means that it is able to deliver a large amount of humidified air even when the humidity level is set to a high level. This is beneficial in situations where a patient requires high levels of humidity, such as in the treatment of respiratory conditions.

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  • 9. 

    The majority of humidifiers operate using the principle of 

    • A.

      Bernoulli's principle

    • B.

      Ultrasonic waves

    • C.

      Evaporation

    • D.

      Ventruis principle

    Correct Answer
    C. Evaporation
    Explanation
    Humidifiers increase the moisture in the air by evaporating water. When the water is heated or exposed to air, it turns into water vapor and gets released into the surrounding environment. This process is known as evaporation. As the water vapor mixes with the air, it increases the humidity level, making the air more comfortable to breathe. Therefore, the majority of humidifiers operate based on the principle of evaporation.

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  • 10. 

    Ways to improve a humidifiers efficiency include

    • A.

      Increase the temperature

    • B.

      Increase the jets lateral pressure

    • C.

      Increase the surface area

    • D.

      Increase the gas velocity through the device

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase the temperature
    C. Increase the surface area
    Explanation
    Increasing the temperature of a humidifier can improve its efficiency because warmer air has a higher capacity to hold moisture. This means that when the air is heated, it can absorb more water vapor, resulting in a more effective humidification process. Increasing the surface area of the humidifier also helps improve efficiency as it provides more contact area for the water to evaporate into the air. This allows for a larger volume of water to be evaporated, increasing the humidity levels in the room.

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  • 11. 

    The magnitude of the pressure exerted by water vapor is dependent upon

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      Relative humidity

    • C.

      Barometric pressure

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Relative humidity
    Explanation
    The magnitude of the pressure exerted by water vapor is dependent upon relative humidity. Relative humidity is a measure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to the maximum amount it can hold at a given temperature. As the relative humidity increases, the pressure exerted by water vapor also increases. This is because water vapor molecules become more energetic and collide more frequently with the air molecules, resulting in an increase in pressure. Therefore, relative humidity plays a crucial role in determining the pressure exerted by water vapor.

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  • 12. 

    Factors that influence an aerosols deposition in the lungs include

    • A.

      Particle size

    • B.

      Gravity

    • C.

      Inertia

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Particle size
    B. Gravity
    C. Inertia
    Explanation
    The factors that influence aerosol deposition in the lungs are particle size, gravity, and inertia. Particle size is important because smaller particles can penetrate deeper into the lungs. Gravity plays a role in determining the settling of particles in the lungs. Inertia is also a factor as it affects the movement and deposition of particles in the respiratory system. Therefore, all three factors mentioned in the answer (particle size, gravity, inertia) are correct.

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  • 13. 

    The piezoelectric crystal in an ultrasonic nebulizer

    • A.

      Converts electrical energy to mechanical energy

    • B.

      Converts water to vapor

    • C.

      Vibrates at a low frequency causing hydrolysis

    • D.

      Cools the aerosol when operated with the fan

    Correct Answer
    A. Converts electrical energy to mechanical energy
    Explanation
    The piezoelectric crystal in an ultrasonic nebulizer is responsible for converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. This conversion occurs when an electric current is applied to the crystal, causing it to vibrate at a high frequency. These vibrations then create pressure waves in the liquid (usually water) surrounding the crystal, which in turn creates aerosol droplets that can be inhaled. Therefore, the piezoelectric crystal plays a crucial role in the functioning of the nebulizer by transforming electrical energy into mechanical energy to generate the desired aerosol mist.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following humidifiers would be suitable for use for a patient requiring a simple oxygen mask

    • A.

      Bubble humidifier

    • B.

      Wick humidifier

    • C.

      Heat pass over humidifier

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Bubble humidifier
    Explanation
    A bubble humidifier would be suitable for use for a patient requiring a simple oxygen mask. This type of humidifier uses water to create bubbles that add moisture to the oxygen being delivered through the mask. It is a simple and effective way to humidify the oxygen and make it more comfortable for the patient to breathe. Wick humidifiers and heat pass over humidifiers are not typically used for oxygen therapy and may not be suitable for this specific patient's needs.

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  • 15. 

    You must provide humidified gas for a patient who is intubated; which of the following divides would be the most appropriate

    • A.

      Bubble humidifier

    • B.

      Wick humidifier

    • C.

      A small volume nebulizer

    • D.

      A heated wick humidifier

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Wick humidifier
    D. A heated wick humidifier
    Explanation
    A wick humidifier or a heated wick humidifier would be the most appropriate device to provide humidified gas for an intubated patient. These devices are specifically designed to add moisture to the inhaled gas, preventing the patient's airways from drying out and reducing the risk of complications such as mucus plugs or damage to the respiratory system. A bubble humidifier is not suitable for intubated patients as it does not provide adequate humidity control, and a small volume nebulizer is used for delivering medication rather than humidification.

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  • 16. 

    When checking oxygen in a patients room, you hear an audible chirping or whistling sound. The most likely cause is

    • A.

      The patients inspiratory stridor

    • B.

      The nurses call button

    • C.

      The humidifier pop off

    • D.

      Flow throughout the patients Venturi Mask

    Correct Answer
    C. The humidifier pop off
    Explanation
    The most likely cause of the audible chirping or whistling sound when checking oxygen in a patient's room is the humidifier pop off. This is because the humidifier pop off valve is designed to release excess pressure and prevent the build-up of pressure in the oxygen delivery system. When the pressure exceeds the set limit, the valve opens, creating a chirping or whistling sound as the excess pressure is released. This sound is a clear indication that the humidifier pop off valve is functioning properly.

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  • 17. 

    Contemporary high output humidifiers employ which of the following in their operation?

    • A.

      Bernoullis principle

    • B.

      A wick

    • C.

      A piezoelectric crystal

    • D.

      A heater

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. A wick
    D. A heater
    Explanation
    Contemporary high output humidifiers use a wick and a heater in their operation. The wick helps to absorb water from a reservoir and distribute it evenly, allowing for efficient evaporation. The heater then heats the water, increasing the rate of evaporation and ensuring a consistent output of humidified air. Both components play a crucial role in maintaining the desired humidity levels in a room.

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  • 18. 

    The most common type of humidifier in clinical practice is 

    • A.

      The bubble humidifier

    • B.

      The room humidifier

    • C.

      The wick humidifier

    • D.

      The pass over humidifier

    Correct Answer
    A. The bubble humidifier
    Explanation
    The bubble humidifier is the most common type of humidifier in clinical practice. It works by bubbling air through a water reservoir, which helps to add moisture to the air. This type of humidifier is often used in medical settings, such as hospitals, to provide humidification for patients who may have respiratory conditions or who are receiving oxygen therapy. It is a simple and effective method of humidification that is widely used in clinical practice.

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  • 19. 

    An indication that a heat and moisture exchanger is becoming obstructed would be 

    • A.

      The patients WOB is increased

    • B.

      The water reservoir rarely needs filling anymore

    • C.

      The resistance to tags flow decreases

    • D.

      pressure decrease distal to the exchanger

    Correct Answer
    A. The patients WOB is increased
    Explanation
    If a heat and moisture exchanger is becoming obstructed, it can cause an increase in the patient's work of breathing (WOB). This is because the obstruction can make it more difficult for the patient to breathe in and out, leading to increased effort and discomfort. The other options mentioned, such as the water reservoir rarely needing filling anymore, a decrease in resistance to gas flow, or a pressure decrease distal to the exchanger, do not directly indicate obstruction in the heat and moisture exchanger.

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  • 20. 

    A heat moisture exchanger should be

    • A.

      Placed between the ventilator circuit, or oxygen therapy equipment, and the patients airway

    • B.

      Used for short term applications (Less than 24 Hours)

    • C.

      Monitored for obstruction

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Placed between the ventilator circuit, or oxygen therapy equipment, and the patients airway
    B. Used for short term applications (Less than 24 Hours)
    C. Monitored for obstruction
    Explanation
    A heat moisture exchanger should be placed between the ventilator circuit, or oxygen therapy equipment, and the patients airway because it helps to warm and humidify the inspired air, preventing drying and damage to the airway. It should be used for short term applications (less than 24 hours) as prolonged use can lead to increased resistance and potential obstruction. Therefore, it is important to monitor the HME for any signs of obstruction to ensure proper airflow and patient safety.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following humidifiers would be suitable for use with a mechanical ventilator?

    • A.

      Fisher and Paykel MR850

    • B.

      Smiths Medical Theramist Humidifier

    • C.

      Hudson RCI Neptune

    • D.

      A Large Volume USN

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fisher and Paykel MR850
    C. Hudson RCI Neptune
    Explanation
    The Fisher and Paykel MR850 and Hudson RCI Neptune humidifiers would be suitable for use with a mechanical ventilator.

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  • 22. 

    Advantages of Metered Dose Inhalers include

    • A.

      Small size

    • B.

      Ease of use

    • C.

      Inert nature of the propellants

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Small size
    B. Ease of use
    Explanation
    Metered Dose Inhalers (MDIs) have several advantages. Firstly, they are small in size, which makes them portable and convenient for users to carry with them. Secondly, MDIs are easy to use, as they typically involve a simple press-and-breathe technique. Lastly, MDIs use inert propellants, which means that they do not react with the medication, ensuring the stability and effectiveness of the drug. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."

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  • 23. 

    A valved holding chamber when used with an MDI may be helpful

    • A.

      To improve the patients coordination and timing

    • B.

      To improve the particle size inhaled by the patient

    • C.

      In that it acts as a baffle and reservoir

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. To improve the patients coordination and timing
    Explanation
    A valved holding chamber is a device used with a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) to improve the coordination and timing of medication delivery to the patient. It helps the patient to inhale the medication effectively by providing a space for the medication to be held and inhaled at the right time. This can be particularly helpful for patients who have difficulty coordinating their breath with the actuation of the MDI.

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  • 24. 

    When using and MDI, the patient should be instruct to

    • A.

      Take a slow deep breath

    • B.

      Squeeze the MDI shortly after inspiration has begun

    • C.

      Hold his or her breath allowing inspiration

    • D.

      Exhale passively

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Take a slow deep breath
    B. Squeeze the MDI shortly after inspiration has begun
    C. Hold his or her breath allowing inspiration
    D. Exhale passively
    Explanation
    When using an MDI (Metered Dose Inhaler), the patient should be instructed to take a slow deep breath to ensure proper inhalation of the medication. They should then squeeze the MDI shortly after inspiration has begun to release the medication into their airways. Holding their breath allows the medication to reach deeper into the lungs. Finally, exhaling passively helps to ensure that the medication is fully distributed throughout the airways.

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  • 25. 

    The most important aspect of using MDI's is 

    • A.

      Equipment care and cleaning

    • B.

      Patient instruction

    • C.

      Use of a spacer

    • D.

      Infection control

    Correct Answer
    B. Patient instruction
    Explanation
    Patient instruction is the most important aspect of using MDIs (Metered Dose Inhalers). This is because proper patient instruction ensures that the patient knows how to correctly use the MDI, including the correct technique for inhalation and coordination of actuation. Without proper instruction, patients may not receive the full dose of medication, leading to ineffective treatment. Patient instruction also includes educating the patient about potential side effects and proper maintenance of the MDI, which are crucial for successful and safe medication administration.

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  • 26. 

    You are using a large volume nebulizer to deliver aerosol and an FiO2 of 0.40 to a patient who is intubated. You measure the oxygen concentration and your analyzer reads 89%. The entrainment and flowmeter settings are correct. How might you trouble shoot this problem?

    • A.

      Check for water in the tubing

    • B.

      Check for kinks or obstructions

    • C.

      Check for loose fittings

    • D.

      Make sure the nebulizer is a assembled correctly and is not leaking

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Check for water in the tubing
    B. Check for kinks or obstructions
    Explanation
    To troubleshoot the problem of low oxygen concentration despite correct entrainment and flowmeter settings, you should check for water in the tubing and kinks or obstructions. Water in the tubing can interfere with the delivery of the aerosol, leading to lower FiO2 readings. Kinks or obstructions in the tubing can also disrupt the flow of the aerosol and reduce the oxygen concentration. By checking these factors, you can identify and resolve any issues that may be causing the low oxygen concentration reading.

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  • 27. 

    An advantage of the Misty Ox Gas Injection Nebulizer (GIN) is that 

    • A.

      High flow rates are possible

    • B.

      It may be heated

    • C.

      It is permanent and may be reused

    • D.

      Only one gas source is required

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. High flow rates are possible
    B. It may be heated
    Explanation
    The Misty Ox Gas Injection Nebulizer (GIN) has the advantage of being able to achieve high flow rates, which means it can deliver a larger volume of medication or gas to the patient in a shorter amount of time. Additionally, it can be heated, which can help improve patient comfort during the administration of the medication or gas.

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  • 28. 

    Entrainment of a liquid into a near sonic stream of gas by shear forces and vorticity is an application of 

    • A.

      Evaporation

    • B.

      Henry's Law

    • C.

      Choked flow

    • D.

      Therodynamics

    Correct Answer
    C. Choked flow
    Explanation
    Choked flow refers to a condition where the flow rate of a fluid is limited by a constriction or restriction in the flow path. In the given context, the entrainment of a liquid into a near sonic stream of gas by shear forces and vorticity can cause a choked flow situation. This means that the gas flow becomes restricted due to the presence of the liquid, causing the flow to reach its maximum capacity or "choke." Therefore, choked flow is the correct answer as it accurately describes the phenomenon described in the question.

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  • 29. 

    A patient may have difficulty using an MDI because

    • A.

      The volume is so large

    • B.

      The particle size is too large

    • C.

      It produces body humidity

    • D.

      Of coordination

    Correct Answer
    D. Of coordination
    Explanation
    A patient may have difficulty using an MDI because of coordination. This means that the patient may struggle to coordinate the steps required to properly use the MDI device, such as inhaling at the right time or pressing down on the canister while breathing in. This coordination issue can make it difficult for the patient to effectively administer the medication from the MDI, leading to potential difficulties in managing their condition.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following nebulizers employs chocked flow in its operation?

    • A.

      RCI Hudson Neptune

    • B.

      Nouvag Ultraneb

    • C.

      Airlife large volume nebulizer

    • D.

      Aeroneb Solo

    Correct Answer
    C. Airlife large volume nebulizer
    Explanation
    The Airlife large volume nebulizer employs choked flow in its operation. Choked flow occurs when the flow of a fluid is restricted or limited by a constriction in the flow path. In the case of the Airlife nebulizer, the flow of medication is restricted by the design of the device, allowing for more efficient and controlled delivery of the medication to the patient.

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  • 31. 

    Increasing the amplitude of an ultrasonic nebulizer

    • A.

      Increases the water temperature

    • B.

      Increases the rate of evaporation

    • C.

      Increases he amount of aerosol output

    • D.

      Decreases the particle size

    Correct Answer
    C. Increases he amount of aerosol output
    Explanation
    Increasing the amplitude of an ultrasonic nebulizer causes the liquid to be agitated more vigorously, resulting in a greater amount of aerosol output. As the amplitude increases, the nebulizer generates larger droplets, which leads to an increase in the overall output of aerosol. This means that more of the liquid is being converted into aerosol particles, resulting in a higher amount of aerosol output.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following provides high density aerosol at an MMAD of 3-5 microns

    • A.

      MistyOx GIN

    • B.

      Airlife large volume nebulizer

    • C.

      Nouvag Ultraneb

    • D.

      Airlife nebulizer

    Correct Answer
    B. Airlife large volume nebulizer
    Explanation
    The Airlife large volume nebulizer provides high density aerosol at an MMAD of 3-5 microns.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 08, 2016
    Quiz Created by
    One_militantmind
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