Hpmt 356- Bacterial Action And Strategies

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Hpmt 356- Bacterial Action And Strategies - Quiz

Quiz based on PPP for 2nd lecture for Microbiology- Bacterial Action and Strategies


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are Chelating compounds/siderophores and why do bacteria need them?

  • 2. 

    What is the difference between a bacteriostatic and a bacteriocidal agent; why may coadministration be antagonistic; what are some factors influencing which one should be administered?

  • 3. 

    Why is multi-therapy effective?

  • 4. 

    Which of the following do not describe murein?

    • A.

      found in the cytoplasm of gram positive bacteria

    • B.

      Target for antibiotics

    • C.

      Peptidoglycan

    Correct Answer
    A. found in the cytoplasm of gram positive bacteria
    Explanation
    found in the cell wall

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane not involved in?

    • A.

      Get nutrients into cell

    • B.

      Nascent proteins

    • C.

      Active difussion

    • D.

      Iron uptake

    • E.

      Group translocation

    Correct Answer
    D. Iron uptake
    Explanation
    nascent proteins can be secreted or incorporated into the membrane
    chelating compounds/ siderophores are responsible for iron uptake

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  • 6. 

    Membrane bound, heme containing proteins that carry out electron transport, are important in cell respiration and facilitate oxidatve metabolism

    • A.

      Transposons

    • B.

      Permeases

    • C.

      Nascent proteins

    • D.

      Cytochromes

    • E.

      Siderophores

    Correct Answer
    D. Cytochromes
    Explanation
    Cytochromes are membrane-bound, heme-containing proteins that play a crucial role in electron transport during cell respiration and oxidative metabolism. They are responsible for transferring electrons between different molecules within the cell, facilitating the production of ATP, the energy currency of the cell. Cytochromes are essential for the proper functioning of cellular respiration and are therefore important for the overall metabolism of the cell.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not a way that bacteria increase their iron uptake

    • A.

      By taking up their own form of iron

    • B.

      Producing their own

    • C.

      Having multiple siderophores

    • D.

      Take iron from protein bound forms (HgB, transferrin, ceruloplasmin)

    • E.

      Having multiple uptake systems

    Correct Answer
    B. Producing their own
    Explanation
    Bacteria increase their iron uptake through various methods, such as taking up their own form of iron, taking iron from protein bound forms, and having multiple siderophores and uptake systems. However, producing their own iron is not a way that bacteria increase their iron uptake. Bacteria do not have the ability to produce iron, but rather acquire it from external sources.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following would not lead to an increase in bacterial population

    • A.

      Loss of competing microorganisms

    • B.

      Plasmids from resistant bacteria

    • C.

      Iron Deficiency Anemia

    • D.

      Increase in iron levels

    Correct Answer
    C. Iron Deficiency Anemia
    Explanation
    bacteria need Iron to grow, anemia would decrease iron in the body, and as a result the amount of iron available to

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  • 9. 

    Developing protein that can be secreted or incorporated in the cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    nascent protein
    Explanation
    A nascent protein refers to a protein that is still in the process of being synthesized or formed. In this context, developing a protein that can be secreted or incorporated into the cell membrane implies that the protein is being newly formed or synthesized. Therefore, the term "nascent protein" accurately describes this process of protein development.

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  • 10. 

    Nascent proteins are found in ____________ where they are protected from potentially dangerous agents

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Hydrophillic space

    • D.

      Hydrophobic space

    • E.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrophobic space
    Explanation
    Nascent proteins are newly synthesized proteins that are still in the process of being formed. These proteins are typically found in the hydrophobic space, which refers to regions within the cell that are nonpolar and repel water. This environment protects the nascent proteins from potentially dangerous agents, such as enzymes or other molecules that could degrade or modify them. The hydrophobic nature of this space provides a shield-like protection for the nascent proteins, allowing them to fold properly and fulfill their biological functions.

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  • 11. 

    Check all that apply-  Improves bacterial resistance

    • A.

      Mutation

    • B.

      Capsules

    • C.

      DNA molecule/plasmid uptake

    • D.

      Iron uptake

    • E.

      Transposal elements

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Mutation
    B. Capsules
    C. DNA molecule/plasmid uptake
    Explanation
    Mutation, capsules, and DNA molecule/plasmid uptake can all contribute to improving bacterial resistance. Mutation refers to changes in the genetic material of bacteria, which can lead to the development of new traits or resistance to certain substances. Capsules are protective layers that surround some bacteria, making them more resistant to the immune system and antibiotics. DNA molecule/plasmid uptake refers to the ability of bacteria to acquire foreign genetic material, such as plasmids, which can contain genes that confer resistance to antibiotics. These mechanisms can all contribute to the ability of bacteria to resist the effects of antibiotics or other antimicrobial substances.

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  • 12. 

    Which describes a Frimbrae

    • A.

      Slimy outer coatings consisting of High Molecular Weight polysaccharides

    • B.

      Long helical filaments used for motility

    • C.

      Hair-like structures used for attachment to cells and other surfaces

    • D.

      Proteinaceous appendages used to adhere to other cells and to host cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Proteinaceous appendages used to adhere to other cells and to host cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "proteinaceous appendages used to adhere to other cells and to host cells." This answer describes Frimbrae as proteinaceous appendages that are used for adherence to other cells and host cells. This suggests that Frimbrae play a role in the attachment and colonization of bacteria to other surfaces, allowing them to establish infections and form biofilms. The other options, such as slimy outer coatings, long helical filaments, and hair-like structures, do not accurately describe Frimbrae.

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  • 13. 

    A bacteria exhibiting negative chemotaxis, moving away from a stimulus would most like be found displaying

    • A.

      A counterclockwise helical pitch

    • B.

      Tumbling

    • C.

      Movement of all flagella in the opposite direction of a stimulus

    • D.

      Forming flagella bundles

    • E.

      Sending out back up signals

    Correct Answer
    B. Tumbling
    Explanation
    Tumbling is caused by moving flagella clockwise, it inhibits the formation of bundles and causes bacteria to move away from a stimulus

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  • 14. 

    Which does not describe flagella

    • A.

      Long helical filaments

    • B.

      Used for motility

    • C.

      Peritrichous

    • D.

      Used to adhere to surfaces

    • E.

      Located at random points, or polar

    Correct Answer
    D. Used to adhere to surfaces
    Explanation
    Flagella are long helical filaments that are used for motility. They are not used to adhere to surfaces, as that is the function of pili or fimbriae. Flagella can be peritrichous, meaning they are located all over the surface of the cell, or they can be located at random points or polar.

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  • 15. 

    Flagella aid in virulence and fimbrae aid in pathogenicity

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    flagella aid in pathogenicity, fimbrae aid in virulence

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  • 16. 

    Capsules are

    • A.

      Long helical filaments used for motility

    • B.

      Slimy outer coatings that aid in resisting phagocytosis

    • C.

      Proteinaceous appendages used to adhere to one another and to host cells

    • D.

      Hair like structures used for attachment to cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Slimy outer coatings that aid in resisting phagocytosis
    Explanation
    Capsules are slimy outer coatings that aid in resisting phagocytosis. Capsules are structures found on the surface of some bacteria and other microorganisms. They are composed of polysaccharides or proteins and help protect the microorganism from being engulfed and destroyed by phagocytic cells of the immune system. The slimy nature of the capsule makes it difficult for phagocytes to adhere to the microorganism and engulf it, allowing the microorganism to evade the immune response.

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  • 17. 

    Which does not describe pilli

    • A.

      Plays a role in conjugation

    • B.

      Shorter than flagella

    • C.

      Proteinaceous appendages

    • D.

      Cover bacterial surface

    • E.

      Used for attachment to cells and other surfaces

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteinaceous appendages
    Explanation
    Pilli are proteinaceous appendages that cover the bacterial surface and are used for attachment to cells and other surfaces. They play a role in conjugation, which is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells. They are shorter than flagella, which are long whip-like structures used for movement. Therefore, the correct answer is "proteinaceous appendages" as it accurately describes pilli.

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  • 18. 

    Which describes the nutritional needs of all pathogens

    • A.

      Chemosynthetic

    • B.

      Photosynthetic

    • C.

      Facultative anaerobe

    • D.

      Strict aerobe

    • E.

      Need preformed organic compounds

    Correct Answer
    E. Need preformed organic compounds
    Explanation
    Pathogens are organisms that cause diseases, and they have specific nutritional needs to survive and reproduce. The answer "need preformed organic compounds" suggests that pathogens require ready-made organic compounds for their nutrition, rather than being able to synthesize their own nutrients through chemosynthesis or photosynthesis. This is because pathogens are typically unable to produce their own energy and rely on obtaining nutrients from their host or the environment.

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  • 19. 

    Which best describes a facultative anaerobe

    • A.

      Carrys out fermentation

    • B.

      Does not need oxygen to survive

    • C.

      Carrys out respiration

    • D.

      Can grow with or without oxygen

    • E.

      Can grow in the presence of oxygen

    Correct Answer
    D. Can grow with or without oxygen
    Explanation
    A facultative anaerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. This means that it has the ability to switch between aerobic respiration (using oxygen) and fermentation (not using oxygen) depending on the availability of oxygen in its environment. This adaptability allows facultative anaerobes to thrive in a variety of conditions and utilize different metabolic pathways for energy production.

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  • 20. 

    In the presence of envrironmental substrates and enzymes, what wont bacteria do

    • A.

      Grow faster

    • B.

      Increase their production of enzymes and substrates to build a reserve surplus

    • C.

      Use exogenous substances

    • D.

      Discontinue production of endogenous substances

    • E.

      Inhibit enzymatic activity in the presence of the corresponding substrate

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase their production of enzymes and substrates to build a reserve surplus
    Explanation
    Bacteria, in the presence of environmental substrates and enzymes, will increase their production of enzymes and substrates to build a reserve surplus. This is because they need these resources to adapt and survive in their environment. By producing more enzymes and substrates, bacteria can ensure that they have enough reserves to utilize when needed, allowing them to grow and thrive.

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  • 21. 

    Relaxes supercoils of Nucleoid through single stranded nicks

    • A.

      DNA Gyrase

    • B.

      Topoisomerase 1

    • C.

      Siderophores

    • D.

      Transposons

    • E.

      Tapas

    Correct Answer
    B. Topoisomerase 1
    Explanation
    Topoisomerase 1 is responsible for relaxing supercoils of the nucleoid through single stranded nicks. This enzyme cuts one strand of the DNA double helix, allowing it to rotate and relieve the tension caused by supercoiling. Once the supercoils are relaxed, the enzyme reseals the nick, restoring the integrity of the DNA molecule.

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  • 22. 

    Concerning DNA Replication, which is not true

    • A.

      Speed of DNA replication is dependent on the rate of cell growth

    • B.

      Does not occur unless DNA unwinds

    • C.

      Is aided by DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase

    • D.

      Starts at a point of origin and travels bidirectionally

    • E.

      Multiple DNA replications can occur simultaneously

    Correct Answer
    A. Speed of DNA replication is dependent on the rate of cell growth
    Explanation
    the rate of DNA replication/ speed of elongation is always constant; the rate of initiation does change however with and can become more frequent

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  • 23. 

    What is the principal biosynthetic activity of bacteria

    • A.

      Replication

    • B.

      Reproduction

    • C.

      Protein synthesis

    • D.

      Survival

    • E.

      Self-defense

    Correct Answer
    C. Protein synthesis
    Explanation
    protein synthesis requires most of the energy of the bacteria

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  • 24. 

    Which is the most influential in determining the amount of protein synthesis bacteria perform

    • A.

      Rate of growth of bacteria

    • B.

      Rate of protein synthesis

    • C.

      Amount of topoisomerase

    • D.

      Amount of ribosomes in the cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Amount of ribosomes in the cell
    Explanation
    The amount of ribosomes in the cell is the most influential factor in determining the amount of protein synthesis bacteria perform. Ribosomes are responsible for synthesizing proteins by translating the genetic information stored in mRNA. The more ribosomes a cell has, the more protein synthesis can occur simultaneously. Therefore, a higher amount of ribosomes in the cell would lead to a greater capacity for protein synthesis. The other options, such as the rate of growth of bacteria, rate of protein synthesis, and amount of topoisomerase, may have some influence on protein synthesis but are not as directly correlated as the amount of ribosomes.

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  • 25. 

    Pieces of DNA that can move from 1 genetic element to another

    Correct Answer
    transposable elements
    transposon
    insertion sequence
    Explanation
    Transposable elements, transposons, and insertion sequences are all types of DNA that have the ability to move from one genetic element to another. These elements can "jump" or transpose within the genome, causing genetic rearrangements and mutations. They play a significant role in genome evolution and can have both beneficial and harmful effects on the host organism.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following does not describe a Plasmid

    • A.

      Mini chromosomes

    • B.

      Transferred between cells

    • C.

      Can encode for antimicrobial resistance

    • D.

      Piece of DNA that can move from 1 genetic element to another

    Correct Answer
    D. Piece of DNA that can move from 1 genetic element to another
    Explanation
    A plasmid is a small, circular piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA in a cell. It is often referred to as a mini chromosome because it can replicate independently and be passed on to daughter cells during cell division. Plasmids can be transferred between cells through processes such as conjugation, transformation, or transduction. They can also carry genes that encode for various traits, including antimicrobial resistance. However, the statement "piece of DNA that can move from 1 genetic element to another" is not a characteristic of plasmids.

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  • 27. 

    What is the correct sequence for gene expression

    • A.

      Initiation, transcription, translation, replication, elongation, termination

    • B.

      Replication, translation, transcription, initiation, elongation, termination

    • C.

      Replication, transcription, translation, initiation, elongation, termination

    • D.

      Initiation, transcription, replication, translation, elongation, termination

    • E.

      Termination, initiation, transcription,replication, translation elongation

    Correct Answer
    C. Replication, transcription, translation, initiation, elongation, termination
    Explanation
    The correct sequence for gene expression is replication, transcription, translation, initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication is the process of copying DNA, followed by transcription where the DNA is used as a template to synthesize RNA. Translation then occurs, where the RNA is used to synthesize proteins. Initiation is the start of transcription, elongation is the process of RNA synthesis, and termination is the end of transcription.

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  • 28. 

    Check all that apply. Time for one bacteria to become two

    • A.

      Generation time

    • B.

      Half life

    • C.

      Doubling time

    • D.

      Life time

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Generation time
    C. Doubling time
    Explanation
    The correct answer is generation time and doubling time. Generation time refers to the time it takes for one bacterium to divide and become two. Doubling time is the time it takes for the population of bacteria to double in size. Both terms are used to measure the rate of bacterial growth and reproduction.

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  • 29. 

    Regarding the Law of Growth, what occurs during the Log Phase

    • A.

      Slow growth- bacteria adjust to environment

    • B.

      Multiply exponentially- doubling every few minutes

    • C.

      Growth stops, bacteria compete for nutrients

    • D.

      Bacteria die, due to toxic build up and lack of nutrients

    Correct Answer
    B. Multiply exponentially- doubling every few minutes
    Explanation
    During the Log Phase, bacteria experience a period of rapid growth where they multiply exponentially, doubling their population every few minutes. This phase is characterized by the bacteria adjusting to their environment and efficiently utilizing available resources for reproduction. As a result, the growth rate is at its maximum, and the population size increases rapidly. The Log Phase ends when the growth rate slows down and the bacteria start competing for nutrients, leading to a decline in growth.

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  • 30. 

    Substance produced by a microorganism that kills or inhibits the growth of other microorganisms

    Correct Answer
    antibiotic
    bacteriocin
    chemotherapeutic agents
    Explanation
    The correct answer is antibiotic, bacteriocin, and chemotherapeutic agents. These substances are all produced by microorganisms and have the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat bacterial infections, while bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria to kill or inhibit the growth of closely related species. Chemotherapeutic agents, on the other hand, are drugs used to treat various types of infections, including those caused by microorganisms.

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  • 31. 

    Check all that apply. Which is not an ideal quality of an Antimicrobial agent

    • A.

      Kill or inhibit the growth of pathogens

    • B.

      Cause no damage to the host

    • C.

      Cause no allergic reaction in the host

    • D.

      Be stable when stored in liquid or solid form

    • E.

      Remain in specific tissues in the body long enough to be effective

    • F.

      Kill pathogens before they mutate and become resistant to the agent

    • G.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    G. None of the above
    Explanation
    An ideal quality of an antimicrobial agent is that it should kill or inhibit the growth of pathogens, cause no damage to the host, cause no allergic reaction in the host, be stable when stored in liquid or solid form, remain in specific tissues in the body long enough to be effective, and kill pathogens before they mutate and become resistant to the agent. Therefore, none of the above options are an ideal quality of an antimicrobial agent.

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  • 32. 

    Which is not a mechanism of action of antimicrobial agents

    • A.

      Inhibition of cell wall synthesis/ damage to cell membrane

    • B.

      Inhibition of iron synthesis

    • C.

      Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis

    • D.

      Inhibition of protein synthesis

    • E.

      Inhibition of enzyme activity

    Correct Answer
    B. Inhibition of iron synthesis
  • 33. 

    Which is not a limitation on drug efficacy

    • A.

      Whether it is broad spectrum or narrow

    • B.

      Sensitivity of target

    • C.

      Side effects

    • D.

      Cost

    • E.

      Therapeutic index

    Correct Answer
    D. Cost
    Explanation
    Cost is not a limitation on drug efficacy because the effectiveness of a drug is not determined by its price. The efficacy of a drug refers to its ability to produce the desired therapeutic effect. While cost may impact accessibility and affordability, it does not directly affect the drug's efficacy in treating a specific condition or disease. Therefore, cost is not considered a limitation on drug efficacy.

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  • 34. 

    Check all that apply. Which is not a way bacteria become resistant

    • A.

      Synthesize enzymes that breakdown the drug molecule

    • B.

      Chemical modifications of the drug that interferes with its function

    • C.

      Prevent access to the target site by inhibiting uptake of the drug

    • D.

      Prevent access to the target site by increasing export of the drug from the bacterial cell

    • E.

      Modification of the target site

    • F.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    F. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given answer "none of the above" is correct because all of the listed options are ways in which bacteria can become resistant. Bacteria can synthesize enzymes that breakdown the drug molecule, chemically modify the drug to interfere with its function, prevent access to the target site by inhibiting uptake of the drug, and prevent access to the target site by increasing export of the drug from the bacterial cell. Additionally, bacteria can also become resistant by modifying the target site. Therefore, none of the listed options are incorrect.

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  • 35. 

    Which does not describe Beta-Lactams

    • A.

      Penetrate the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria

    • B.

      Bacteria inactivate the drug by changing their cell wall

    • C.

      Wide spectrum

    • D.

      Bacteria inactivate the drug by producing inactivating enzymes

    • E.

      Includes penicillin and cephalosporins

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacteria inactivate the drug by changing their cell wall
    Explanation
    Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that are known for their wide spectrum of activity against various types of bacteria. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to the death of the bacteria. However, the statement "bacteria inactivate the drug by changing their cell wall" is incorrect. Bacteria do not have the ability to change their cell wall in order to inactivate beta-lactam drugs. Instead, some bacteria can produce enzymes called beta-lactamases that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. This is one of the mechanisms by which bacteria can develop resistance to beta-lactam drugs.

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  • 36. 

    Bactrial defense against this antibiotic includes modification of the cell wall

    • A.

      Beta-lactam

    • B.

      Quinolones

    • C.

      Vancomycin

    • D.

      Aminoglycosides

    • E.

      Tetracyclines

    Correct Answer
    C. Vancomycin
    Explanation
    Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that works by inhibiting cell wall synthesis in bacteria. It binds to the D-Ala-D-Ala terminal of the peptidoglycan precursor, preventing its incorporation into the growing cell wall. This mechanism of action makes it effective against bacteria that have modified their cell wall structure to resist other antibiotics, such as beta-lactams. Therefore, vancomycin is able to overcome bacterial defense mechanisms by targeting the cell wall, making it the correct answer in this case.

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  • 37. 

    Bacterial defense against this drug includes drug inactivation

    • A.

      Vancomycin

    • B.

      Quinolones

    • C.

      Aminoglycosides

    • D.

      Macrolides

    • E.

      Tetracylcines

    Correct Answer
    C. Aminoglycosides
    Explanation
    Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of bacteria. However, some bacteria have developed defense mechanisms to counteract the effects of aminoglycosides. One of these defense mechanisms is drug inactivation, where the bacteria produce enzymes that can modify or break down the antibiotic, rendering it ineffective in killing the bacteria. This allows the bacteria to survive and continue to cause infection. Therefore, bacterial defense against aminoglycosides includes drug inactivation.

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  • 38. 

    Inhibits the action of bacterial topoisomerases; prevents replication

    • A.

      Quinolones

    • B.

      Beta-lactams

    • C.

      Vancomycin

    • D.

      Aminogylcosides

    • E.

      Oxazolidinones

    Correct Answer
    A. Quinolones
    Explanation
    Quinolones are a class of antibiotics that work by inhibiting the action of bacterial topoisomerases. Topoisomerases are enzymes that are involved in the replication of bacterial DNA. By inhibiting these enzymes, quinolones prevent the replication of bacterial DNA, ultimately leading to the death of the bacteria. Therefore, quinolones are effective in treating bacterial infections. Beta-lactams, vancomycin, aminoglycosides, and oxazolidinones are other classes of antibiotics that work through different mechanisms and are not directly related to inhibiting bacterial topoisomerases.

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  • 39. 

    Bacterial defense against this drug includes drug excretion

    • A.

      Oxazolidinones

    • B.

      Vancomycin

    • C.

      Aminoglycosides

    • D.

      Tetracyclines

    • E.

      Beta-lactams

    Correct Answer
    D. Tetracyclines
    Explanation
    Tetracyclines are a class of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat various bacterial infections. One of the ways bacteria can develop resistance to tetracyclines is through drug excretion. This means that the bacteria have mechanisms to pump the drug out of their cells, reducing its concentration and effectiveness. By doing so, the bacteria can survive and continue to multiply even in the presence of tetracyclines. This is a common defense mechanism that bacteria employ to protect themselves against the effects of certain drugs.

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  • 40. 

    Check all that apply. Bacterial defense against antibiotic(s) includes drug excretion/ efflux pumps

    • A.

      Quinolones

    • B.

      Tetracyclines

    • C.

      Macrolides

    • D.

      Oxazolidinones

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Quinolones
    B. Tetracyclines
    C. Macrolides
    Explanation
    Bacterial defense against antibiotics includes the use of drug excretion/efflux pumps. These pumps help the bacteria to remove the antibiotics from their cells, preventing them from having an effect. Quinolones, tetracyclines, and macrolides are all types of antibiotics that can be targeted by these efflux pumps, allowing the bacteria to resist their effects. Therefore, the correct answer is quinolones, tetracyclines, and macrolides.

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  • 41. 

    Check all that apply. Bacterial defense against antibiotic(s) includes target modification

    • A.

      Macrolides

    • B.

      Oxazolidinones

    • C.

      Beta-lactams

    • D.

      Aminoglycosides

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Macrolides
    B. Oxazolidinones
    Explanation
    Bacterial defense against antibiotics includes target modification. Macrolides and oxazolidinones are examples of antibiotics that can be modified by bacteria to evade their effects. This modification can occur through various mechanisms, such as altering the target site of the antibiotic or producing enzymes that inactivate the antibiotic. Beta-lactams and aminoglycosides, on the other hand, are not typically modified by bacteria as a defense mechanism. Therefore, the correct answers are macrolides and oxazolidinones.

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  • 42. 

    This disease is best treated with multi-drug therapy

    Correct Answer(s)
    tuberculosis
    Explanation
    Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multi-drug therapy is the most effective treatment for tuberculosis because it involves using a combination of different drugs to target the bacteria from multiple angles. This approach helps to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of the bacteria and increases the chances of successful treatment.

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  • 43. 

    Effectiveness of combo therapy is greater than that of either one alone

    • A.

      Synergistic

    • B.

      Indifference

    • C.

      Antagonism

    • D.

      Catabolism

    • E.

      Apathy

    Correct Answer
    A. Synergistic
    Explanation
    The term "synergistic" refers to a situation where the combined effect of two or more things is greater than the sum of their individual effects. In the context of the given question, it suggests that the effectiveness of combo therapy (a combination of two or more therapies) is greater than that of either therapy used alone. This implies that the therapies work together in a synergistic manner to produce better results compared to using them separately.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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