API 577 (Welding Inspection) [exercise]

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A discontinuity resulting from an arc, consisting of any localized re-melted metal, heataffected metal, orchange in the surface profile of any metal object is a description of _____________________.  

    • A.

      A. an arc strike

    • B.

      B. slag inclusion

    • C.

      C. arc blow

    • D.

      D. tungsten deposit 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. an arc strike
    Explanation
    An arc strike refers to a discontinuity caused by an arc, which can lead to localized re-melted metal, heat-affected metal, or a change in the surface profile of a metal object. This can occur when an electric arc unintentionally strikes a metal surface, causing damage or alteration to the material.

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  • 2. 

    What describes the level of learning or training offered by RP 577? 

    • A.

      A. Automatically makes one a welding inspector.

    • B.

      B. The same as required for an AWS CWI.

    • C.

      C. Consistent with an AWS CWI.

    • D.

      D. Not a replacement for AWS CWI training 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Not a replacement for AWS CWI training 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is d. Not a replacement for AWS CWI training. This means that RP 577 does not provide the same level of learning or training as required for an AWS CWI certification. It suggests that RP 577 should not be considered as a substitute for the training required to become an AWS CWI.

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  • 3. 

    In austenitic stainless steel, incomplete penetration is usually corrected by 

    • A.

      Reducing travel speed 

    • B.

      Proper heat input.

    • C.

      Controlling ferrite content. 

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    A. Reducing travel speed 
    Explanation
    In austenitic stainless steel, incomplete penetration is often corrected by reducing travel speed. Slowing down the welding process allows for better penetration and fusion of the material. While proper heat input is generally important, and controlling ferrite content can affect certain properties, reducing travel speed directly addresses the issue of incomplete penetration in the context of welding austenitic stainless steel.

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  • 4. 

    What is the other expression or abbreviation for penetrameter? 

    • A.

      A. D.E.Q

    • B.

      B. T.

    • C.

      C. B.E.P

    • D.

      D.  I.Q.I. 

    Correct Answer
    D. D.  I.Q.I. 
    Explanation
    The other expression or abbreviation for penetrameter is I.Q.I.

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  • 5. 

    What program is welding inspection an important part of? 

    • A.

      A. Quality Assurance.

    • B.

      B. ISO 9000.

    • C.

      C. Quality Process.

    • D.

      D. ISO 11000. 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Quality Assurance.
    Explanation
    Welding inspection is an important part of the Quality Assurance program. Quality Assurance ensures that all processes and products meet the required standards and specifications. Welding inspection plays a crucial role in ensuring the quality of welded joints, identifying any defects or issues, and ensuring that the welding process meets the required standards. It helps in preventing potential failures, ensuring the structural integrity of the welded components, and maintaining the overall quality of the final product. Therefore, welding inspection is an integral part of the Quality Assurance program.

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  • 6. 

    An arc welding power source with a volt-ampere relationship yielding a large welding current change from a small voltage change is known as a _______________________.

    • A.

      A. constant current power supply

    • B.

      B. current inverting power supply

    • C.

      C. constant voltage power supply 

    • D.

      D. linear voltage power supply

    Correct Answer
    C. C. constant voltage power supply 
    Explanation
    A constant voltage power supply is an arc welding power source that maintains a consistent voltage output regardless of changes in the welding current. This means that even with small changes in voltage, there will be a large change in welding current. This type of power supply is commonly used in applications where maintaining a stable voltage is crucial for achieving desired welding results.

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  • 7. 

    What should be checked prior to welding?

    • A.

      A. Confirm NDE examiners qualifications.

    • B.

      B. Review WPS, PQR and WPQ’s.

    • C.

      C. Confirm acceptability of heat treatment procedures.

    • D.

      D. All of the above should be checked prior to welding.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. All of the above should be checked prior to welding.
    Explanation
    Prior to welding, it is important to check all of the above mentioned factors. Confirming the qualifications of NDE examiners ensures that they are capable of performing the necessary non-destructive examinations. Reviewing WPS, PQR, and WPQ's helps to ensure that the welding procedures, qualifications, and performance records are in compliance with the required standards. Additionally, confirming the acceptability of heat treatment procedures ensures that the necessary heat treatment has been carried out correctly. Therefore, all of these factors should be checked prior to welding to ensure the quality and safety of the welding process.

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  • 8. 

    What should NDE examination personnel be qualified to when specified by the referencing code? 

    • A.

      A. SNT-TC-1A.

    • B.

      B. API 570.

    • C.

      C. ASME XII.

    • D.

      D. API 510. 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. SNT-TC-1A.
    Explanation
    NDE examination personnel should be qualified to SNT-TC-1A when specified by the referencing code. SNT-TC-1A is a recommended practice for the qualification and certification of nondestructive examination personnel. It provides guidelines for training, experience, and examination requirements for NDE personnel. This ensures that the personnel have the necessary knowledge and skills to perform NDE examinations effectively and accurately.

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  • 9. 

    What is an advantage of SMAW? 

    • A.

      A. Can be used on almost all commonly-used metal or alloy.

    • B.

      B. Slag must be removed from weld passes.

    • C.

      C. Equipment is very expensive.

    • D.

      D. Deposition rates are much higher than for other process. 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Can be used on almost all commonly-used metal or alloy.
    Explanation
    SMAW, or Shielded Metal Arc Welding, has the advantage of being able to be used on almost all commonly-used metals or alloys. This means that it is a versatile welding process that can be applied to a wide range of materials. This versatility makes SMAW a popular choice in various industries where different types of metals or alloys need to be welded together.

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  • 10. 

    When welding defects are discovered what should be done?

    • A.

      A. Radiographed to determine extent.

    • B.

      B. Evaluated to API 580 acceptance criteria.

    • C.

      C. Shearwave tested.

    • D.

      D. Removed and re-inspected.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Removed and re-inspected.
    Explanation
    When welding defects are discovered, the appropriate action to take is to remove the defects and then re-inspect the weld. This ensures that the defects are completely eliminated and the weld meets the required standards. Simply evaluating the defects or conducting tests may not be sufficient to address the issue, as they do not guarantee the removal of the defects. Therefore, the best course of action is to remove the defects and then re-inspect the weld to ensure its quality and integrity.

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  • 11. 

    A welding electrode has the following marking E-7018. Explain the meaning of the  number 1 in 7018.

    • A.

      A. The first lot of 7018 electrodes produced that month at the plant.

    • B.

      B. The electrodes are certified to be moisture free.

    • C.

      C. The 1 determines the position of welding recommended for this electrode

    • D.

      D. First quality electrode according to the Section IX. 

    Correct Answer
    C. C. The 1 determines the position of welding recommended for this electrode
    Explanation
    The number 1 in 7018 indicates the position of welding recommended for this electrode. Different welding positions require different techniques and considerations, and the number 1 helps identify which position is suitable for this particular electrode.

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  • 12. 

    What is generally used when Al and Mg is welded with GTAW?

    • A.

      A. CCPO.

    • B.

      B. DCEN.

    • C.

      C. AC.

    • D.

      D. DCEP. 

    Correct Answer
    C. C. AC.
    Explanation
    When aluminum (Al) and magnesium (Mg) are welded using the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process, alternating current (AC) is generally used. AC allows for better control of the heat input and helps prevent excessive melting or distortion of the base metals. Additionally, AC helps to clean the surface of the weld and remove any oxide layers, resulting in a stronger and more reliable weld joint.

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  • 13. 

    GTAW and SMAW are both used with____________ that distinguishers them from other processes: 

    • A.

      A. cv power supplies.

    • B.

      B. cc power supplies

    • C.

      C. Flux cored electrodes.

    • D.

      D. External gas shielding. 

    Correct Answer
    B. B. cc power supplies
    Explanation
    GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) are both welding processes that require a constant current (cc) power supply. Unlike other processes that may use constant voltage (cv) power supplies, GTAW and SMAW rely on cc power supplies to provide a stable and consistent current for the welding operation. This allows for better control and precision during the welding process. The use of cc power supplies is a key characteristic that distinguishes GTAW and SMAW from other welding processes.

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  • 14. 

    What is the coolest or fastest freezing transfer mode of GMAW? 

    • A.

      A. Pulse-spray.

    • B.

      B. Short circuiting.

    • C.

      C. Spray.

    • D.

      D. Globular. 

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Short circuiting.
    Explanation
    Short circuiting is the coolest or fastest freezing transfer mode of GMAW. In this mode, the wire electrode makes contact with the weld pool and creates a short circuit, causing the wire to melt and transfer metal droplets to the workpiece. This process is characterized by low heat input and a relatively low deposition rate, resulting in a cooler and faster freezing weld. Pulse-spray, spray, and globular transfer modes have higher heat inputs and deposition rates, making them less cool and slower freezing compared to short circuiting.

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  • 15. 

    What is one of the unusual aspects of SAW?

    • A.

      A. A gas is used for shielding.

    • B.

      B. It can be automated. 

    • C.

      C. The arc is not visible during welding. 

    • D.

      D. It is not an arc welding process. 

    Correct Answer
    C. C. The arc is not visible during welding. 
    Explanation
    One of the unusual aspects of SAW is that the arc is not visible during welding.

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  • 16. 

    What is a limitation of the FCAW process? 

    • A.

      A. Lower deposition than GTAW.

    • B.

      B. Slower than GTAW or SMAW

    • C.

      C. Slag removal.

    • D.

      D. Lack of fusion problems because of short arcing.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Slag removal.
    Explanation
    The limitation of the FCAW process is slag removal. FCAW (Flux-Cored Arc Welding) involves the use of a flux-cored electrode that creates a protective shield of gas around the weld. This process produces slag, which is a byproduct that forms on the surface of the weld. Slag removal can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, requiring additional cleaning and grinding to achieve a smooth and clean weld.

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  • 17. 

    Based on their ________ F numbers are assigned to electrodes. 

    • A.

      A. Usability characteristics 

    • B.

      B. Chemistry.

    • C.

      C. Alloy.

    • D.

      D. Flux coating. 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Usability characteristics 
    Explanation
    F numbers are assigned to electrodes based on their usability characteristics. This means that the F number indicates the usability of the electrode in terms of its performance, efficiency, and suitability for specific welding applications. The F number system helps welders select the appropriate electrode for their specific needs, considering factors such as weld position, type of joint, and welding process.

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  • 18. 

    Which kind of electrodes must be stored in a heated oven after initial removal from the package? 

    • A.

      A. Cellulose coated.

    • B.

      B. High nickel.

    • C.

      C. Low hydrogen.

    • D.

      D. GMAW rod. 

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Low hydrogen.
    Explanation
    Low hydrogen electrodes must be stored in a heated oven after initial removal from the package. This is because low hydrogen electrodes are extremely sensitive to moisture and can absorb moisture from the atmosphere, which can lead to hydrogen cracking in the weld. Storing them in a heated oven helps to keep the electrodes dry and prevent moisture absorption, ensuring the quality and integrity of the weld.

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  • 19. 

    A welder continuity log should be written for verification that every welder has utilized each welding process within a ____________ period. 

    • A.

      A. 2 year.

    • B.

      B. 3 month.

    • C.

      C. One year.

    • D.

      D. Six month. 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Six month. 
    Explanation
    A welder continuity log should be written for verification that every welder has utilized each welding process within a six-month period. This ensures that welders are regularly practicing and maintaining their skills in different welding processes. It also helps in tracking the progress and performance of each welder over time. Writing the log every six months allows for a reasonable timeframe to assess the welder's proficiency in various welding techniques.

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  • 20. 

     Undercut is usually found: 

    • A.

      A. In the base metal.

    • B.

      B. At the weld interface

    • C.

      C. In the weld metal.

    • D.

      D. At the root of the weld, only. 

    Correct Answer
    B. B. At the weld interface
    Explanation
    Undercut is a welding defect that occurs at the weld interface. It is characterized by a groove or depression in the base metal adjacent to the weld. Undercut is typically caused by excessive heat or improper welding technique, which leads to the melting and removal of the base metal at the weld interface. This defect weakens the weld joint and can result in structural failure. Therefore, it is important to properly control the welding parameters and ensure proper fusion between the base metal and weld metal to prevent undercut.

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  • 21. 

    What should be done with slightly damp low hydrogen electrodes? 

    • A.

      A. Re-baked in the storage oven.

    • B.

      B. Used “as is”.

    • C.

      C. Discarded.

    • D.

      D. Re-baked in special ovens. 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Re-baked in special ovens. 
    Explanation
    Slightly damp low hydrogen electrodes should be re-baked in special ovens. This is because low hydrogen electrodes are designed to have a low moisture content, and any moisture present can negatively affect the quality of the weld. Re-baking the electrodes in special ovens helps to remove the moisture and restore the electrodes to their proper condition for use.

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  • 22. 

     Weld under-bead cracking is usually found: 

    • A.

      A. In the throat of the weld.

    • B.

      B. In the HAZ.

    • C.

      C. In the weld root.

    • D.

      D. In the weld face. 

    Correct Answer
    B. B. In the HAZ.
    Explanation
    Under-bead cracking refers to the formation of cracks in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a weld. The HAZ is the area surrounding the weld where the base metal has been heated and cooled during the welding process. This area is prone to cracking due to the high levels of residual stress and changes in microstructure caused by the welding heat. Therefore, it is common to find under-bead cracking in the HAZ of a weld.

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  • 23. 

    What is the preferred NDE method to inspect butt joints volumetrically (through the  entire weld)? 

    • A.

      A. LT.

    • B.

      B. RT.

    • C.

      C. VT. 

    • D.

      D. PT. 

    Correct Answer
    B. B. RT.
    Explanation
    The preferred NDE method to inspect butt joints volumetrically (through the entire weld) is radiographic testing (RT). Radiographic testing involves the use of X-rays or gamma rays to create an image of the weld, allowing for the detection of any internal defects or discontinuities. This method is commonly used in industries such as construction, manufacturing, and oil and gas to ensure the quality and integrity of welds.

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  • 24. 

    What is the minimum qualification of an NDE examiner who performs radiographic film interpretation? 

    • A.

      A. ASNT Level IV.

    • B.

      B. ASNT Level III.

    • C.

      C. ASNT Level I.

    • D.

      D. ASNT Level II. 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. ASNT Level II. 
    Explanation
    The minimum qualification of an NDE examiner who performs radiographic film interpretation is ASNT Level II. This means that the examiner has completed the necessary training and has demonstrated the required knowledge and skills to interpret radiographic films accurately. ASNT Level II is a higher qualification than Level I, III, and IV, indicating a higher level of expertise in radiographic film interpretation.

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  • 25. 

    Hydrogen cracking can occur in all of the following welding processes, except: 

    • A.

      A. SAW.

    • B.

      B. FCAW.

    • C.

      C. SMAW.

    • D.

      D. GMAW. 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. GMAW. 
    Explanation
    Hydrogen cracking, also known as cold cracking or delayed cracking, is a type of welding defect that occurs when hydrogen atoms become trapped in the weld metal and cause it to crack. It is commonly associated with processes that produce high levels of hydrogen, such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), and submerged arc welding (SAW). However, gas metal arc welding (GMAW), also known as MIG welding, typically does not produce high levels of hydrogen and therefore is less prone to hydrogen cracking. Therefore, the correct answer is d. GMAW.

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  • 26. 

    ACFM is an NDE technique that is used to detect:

    • A.

      A. Surface indications in carbon, alloy and stainless steel 

    • B.

      B. Surface and sub-surface indications in stainless steel.

    • C.

      C. Sub-surface indications, in carbon steel.

    • D.

      D. Surface indications in carbon steel only. 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Surface indications in carbon, alloy and stainless steel 
    Explanation
    ACFM stands for Alternating Current Field Measurement, which is a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique used to detect surface indications in carbon, alloy, and stainless steel. This technique uses electromagnetic fields to identify any surface defects or flaws in the material being inspected. It is particularly effective in identifying cracks, corrosion, and other surface irregularities that may compromise the integrity of the steel. It should be noted that ACFM is not capable of detecting sub-surface indications or flaws in carbon steel, as indicated in the other options.

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  • 27. 

    What is one of the features of ACFM? 

    • A.

      A. Does not require a skilled operator.

    • B.

      B. Is a low temperature technique.

    • C.

      C. Requires no electricity

    • D.

      D. Requires no calibrations standards. 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Requires no calibrations standards. 
    Explanation
    ACFM (Alternating Current Field Measurement) is a non-destructive testing technique used to detect and measure surface-breaking cracks in metals. One of its features is that it does not require calibration standards. This means that it does not need to be calibrated against known standards or reference materials to ensure accurate measurements. This feature simplifies the testing process and allows for more efficient and cost-effective inspections.

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  • 28. 

     Due to the similarities in the shape of the grains and cooling characteristics, a weld can be called a small ________. 

    • A.

      A. Extrusion

    • B.

      B. Casting.

    • C.

      C. Forging

    • D.

      D. Ingot. 

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Casting.
    Explanation
    Due to the similarities in the shape of the grains and cooling characteristics, a weld can be called a small casting. Casting involves pouring molten metal into a mold and allowing it to solidify, which is similar to the process of welding where metal is melted and fused together. The grains formed during solidification in both casting and welding can have similar shapes and cooling characteristics, making the term "casting" an appropriate description for a weld.

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  • 29. 

    Where might hydrogen come from in welding? 

    • A.

      A. Moisture.

    • B.

      B. Lubricants.

    • C.

      C. Damp electrodes.

    • D.

      D. All of the above. 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. All of the above. 
    Explanation
    Hydrogen can come from moisture, lubricants, and damp electrodes in welding. Moisture in the form of water vapor can be present in the air or on the surface of the materials being welded. Lubricants used during the welding process can contain hydrogen, which can be released during welding. Damp electrodes can also contain moisture, which can then release hydrogen when heated during welding. Therefore, all of the above options can be potential sources of hydrogen in welding.

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  • 30. 

    A defect can also be called: 

    • A.

      A. Acceptable flaw.

    • B.

      B. An imperfection.

    • C.

      C. A non-relevant indication.

    • D.

      D. A rejectable flaw.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. A rejectable flaw.
    Explanation
    The term "defect" refers to a flaw or imperfection in a product or system. It suggests that there is something wrong or not up to standard. The term "rejectable" further emphasizes the severity of the flaw, indicating that it is not acceptable and should be rejected. Therefore, option d, "A rejectable flaw," is the most appropriate synonym for a defect.

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  • 31. 

    What is needed for a material with a high thermal conductivity? 

    • A.

      A. Higher heat input to weld.

    • B.

      B. Preheating.

    • C.

      C. Post-welded heating.

    • D.

      D. Lower heat input to weld. 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Higher heat input to weld.
    Explanation
    A material with high thermal conductivity requires a higher heat input to weld because it can quickly dissipate heat. This means that more heat needs to be applied during the welding process to ensure that the material reaches the desired temperature for proper joining. If the heat input is too low, the material may not reach the necessary temperature for welding, resulting in a weak or incomplete weld.

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  • 32. 

     What are the three common hardness tests? 

    • A.

      A. Schindler, Johnson, Williams.

    • B.

      B. Brinell, Vicky, Rockdale.

    • C.

      C. Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell.

    • D.

      D. Rockwell, UT, Shearwave.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is c. Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell. These three tests are commonly used to measure the hardness of materials. The Rockwell test measures the depth of indentation made by a hard steel ball or diamond cone, the Vickers test measures the size of the indentation made by a diamond pyramid, and the Brinell test measures the diameter of the indentation made by a hard steel ball. These tests are important in determining the strength and durability of materials in various industries.

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  • 33. 

    What is the reason that preheating CS tends to reduce hydrogen-included delayed cracking?

    • A.

      A. Eliminates SCC.

    • B.

      B. Prevents carbon migration.

    • C.

      C. Slows the cooling rate – prevents martensite formation.

    • D.

      D. Makes the grains grow so they won’t crack

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Slows the cooling rate – prevents martensite formation.
    Explanation
    Preheating CS (carbon steel) before welding reduces hydrogen-induced delayed cracking by slowing down the cooling rate and preventing the formation of martensite. Martensite formation is known to be a cause of cracking in steel. By slowing down the cooling rate, the steel is allowed to undergo a more controlled transformation, reducing the likelihood of cracking. This is because slower cooling allows the atoms to rearrange themselves more evenly, reducing the stress and strain on the material.

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  • 34. 

    What is one of the most common types of fracture toughness tests? 

    • A.

      A. Charpy

    • B.

      B. Tensile

    • C.

      C. Rockwell.

    • D.

      D. Stress-strain. 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Charpy
    Explanation
    One of the most common types of fracture toughness tests is the Charpy test. This test measures the amount of energy absorbed by a material when it is subjected to a sudden impact. It involves striking a notched specimen with a pendulum and measuring the energy required to break the material. The Charpy test is widely used to evaluate the toughness and impact resistance of materials, especially in the field of metallurgy.

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  • 35. 

    Preheat is generally monitored by: 

    • A.

      A. Thermocouples.

    • B.

      B. Contact pyrometer.

    • C.

      C. Crayons.

    • D.

      D. Any or all of the above. 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Any or all of the above. 
    Explanation
    The preheat process is generally monitored by various methods, including the use of thermocouples, contact pyrometers, or even crayons. Thermocouples are temperature sensors that can measure the heat of an object, while contact pyrometers are devices that can measure temperature by making direct contact with the surface. Crayons, on the other hand, are heat-sensitive sticks that melt at specific temperatures, providing a visual indication of the heat level. Therefore, any or all of these methods can be used to monitor preheat.

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  • 36. 

    The mechanical properties of a weldment are mainly influenced by what element? 

    • A.

      A. Nitrogen.

    • B.

      B. Carbon.

    • C.

      C. Nickel.

    • D.

      D. Silicon. 

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Carbon.
    Explanation
    The mechanical properties of a weldment are mainly influenced by carbon. Carbon is a key element in steel, and its content affects the strength, hardness, and toughness of the material. The presence of carbon allows for the formation of various phases in the steel microstructure, such as ferrite, pearlite, and martensite, which greatly impact the mechanical properties. Higher carbon content generally results in increased strength and hardness, but it can also reduce ductility. Therefore, controlling the carbon content is crucial in achieving the desired mechanical properties in a weldment.

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  • 37. 

    A material Test Report shows the chemistries listed below: Carbon – 0.15%, Chrome – 1.25%, Vanadium – 0.02% Manganese – 0.20%, Molybdenum – 1.00%, Silicon – 0.53%, Nickel – 0.35%, Copper – 0.01% What is the approximate CE of this material using the formula supplied in RP 577?

    • A.

      A. 0.9. 

    • B.

      B. 0.35.

    • C.

      C. 0.7.

    • D.

      D. 0.55. 

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 0.7.
    Explanation
    The approximate CE (Carbon Equivalent) of this material can be calculated using the formula supplied in RP 577. The formula for CE is: CE = C + (Mn/6) + (Cr+Mo+V)/5 + (Ni+Cu)/15. Plugging in the values given in the material test report, we get CE = 0.15 + (0.20/6) + (1.25+1.00+0.02)/5 + (0.35+0.01)/15 = 0.7. Therefore, the approximate CE of this material is 0.7, which matches option c.

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  • 38. 

     Considering a CE number above 0.55 what should generally be done after welding steel 

    • A.

      A. PWHT

    • B.

      B. No PWHT

    • C.

      C. Preheating

    • D.

      D. Preheat and PWHT 

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Preheat and PWHT 
    Explanation
    When the CE (Carbon Equivalent) number of steel is above 0.55, it indicates a higher risk of cracking during welding. To prevent this, preheating the steel before welding is recommended. Preheating helps to reduce the cooling rate and minimize the risk of cracking. Additionally, Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) is also advised. PWHT involves heating the welded steel to a specific temperature and holding it there for a certain period of time. This process helps to relieve residual stresses and improve the overall strength and integrity of the welded joint. Therefore, the correct answer is d. Preheat and PWHT.

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  • 39. 

    Austenitic stainless steels usually contain chrome and nickel, and they are used for: 

    • A.

      A. Sulfur resistance.

    • B.

      B. Resistance to high temperature degradation.

    • C.

      C. Corrosion resistance.

    • D.

      D. Both a and b, above. 

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Corrosion resistance.
    Explanation
    Austenitic stainless steels, which contain chromium and nickel, are primarily valued for their excellent corrosion resistance. They are widely used in various applications where resistance to corrosion is crucial, such as in the food and beverage industry, chemical processing, and medical equipment. While they may offer some degree of resistance to high temperatures, their main advantage lies in their ability to withstand corrosion. Therefore, option c. Corrosion resistance is the most appropriate choice.

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  • 40. 

    What is the most common measure of weldability and hot cracking of stainless steel?

    • A.

      A. Ferrite number.

    • B.

      B. Hydrogen number.

    • C.

      C. Charpy V-notch number.

    • D.

      D. Bend test. 

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Ferrite number.
    Explanation
    The most common measure of weldability and hot cracking of stainless steel is the Ferrite number. This number indicates the amount of ferrite present in the microstructure of the stainless steel weld. Ferrite is a type of iron that can help improve the weldability of stainless steel by reducing the risk of hot cracking. By measuring the Ferrite number, engineers and welders can determine the optimal welding parameters and ensure that the stainless steel weld has the desired properties.

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  • 41. 

    What is a common weld defect from the GMAW-S welding process? 

    • A.

      A. Cracking.

    • B.

      B. LOF.

    • C.

      C. Slag.

    • D.

      D. LOP. 

    Correct Answer
    B. B. LOF.
    Explanation
    LOF stands for Lack of Fusion, which is a common weld defect in the GMAW-S (Gas Metal Arc Welding - Short Circuit) process. Lack of fusion occurs when there is inadequate bonding between the weld metal and the base metal, resulting in a weak joint. This defect can lead to structural integrity issues and potential failure of the welded component.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Feb 13, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 24, 2019
    Quiz Created by
    Ipetroacademymlk
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