# Science Chapter 5 Quiz For Grade 9

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If you are studying in grade 9 and looking for Science chapter 5 questions and answers, you have arrived at the right place. Take the quiz below and make your preparation level better. The quiz consists of medium to hard level Science questions. So, if your basics are strong in this subject, this quiz will not be hard for you. Sounds cool? Give it a try and check how good your Science is. All the very best!

• 1.

### The substance of the physical world; occupies space; has inertia; cannot be created or destroyed under ordinary conditions; ordinarily exists in three basic states

Explanation
Matter refers to the substance of the physical world that occupies space and has inertia. It cannot be created or destroyed under ordinary conditions. Matter ordinarily exists in three basic states: solid, liquid, and gas. This answer accurately describes the properties and characteristics of matter.

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• 2.

### The property of resisting changes in motion

Explanation
Inertia refers to the property of resisting changes in motion. It is the tendency of an object to stay at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force. This means that an object will continue moving at the same speed and direction, or stay at rest, unless a force is applied to it. Inertia is a fundamental concept in physics and is closely related to Newton's first law of motion.

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• 3.

### Quantity of matter the object contains

Explanation
Mass is a measure of the quantity of matter an object contains. It is a fundamental property of an object and is independent of its location. Mass is often measured in kilograms and can be thought of as the amount of material present in an object. It determines the object's inertia and gravitational attraction. The greater the mass of an object, the more difficult it is to accelerate or move. Therefore, mass is the correct answer as it accurately describes the quantity of matter an object possesses.

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• 4.

• 5.

### The foundation of our understanding of matter

Explanation
The atomic theory of matter is the foundation of our understanding of matter. It states that all matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms, which are indivisible and indestructible. This theory explains various properties and behaviors of matter, such as the conservation of mass, the formation of compounds, and the interactions between atoms. It has been supported by numerous experiments and observations, leading to advancements in fields like chemistry and physics. Overall, the atomic theory of matter provides a fundamental framework for explaining the nature and behavior of all substances in the universe.

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• 6.

• 7.

### Composed of a single type of atom

Explanation
Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. They are composed of a single type of atom, meaning that all the atoms in an element have the same number of protons. Each element is represented by a unique symbol, such as "H" for hydrogen or "O" for oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is "elements" or "element" as it accurately describes substances that are composed of a single type of atom.

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• 8.

### Composed of more than one type of atom linked together

Explanation
A compound is composed of more than one type of atom linked together. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements chemically bond together, creating a new substance with unique properties. In compounds, the atoms are held together by chemical bonds, which can be either ionic or covalent. Compounds can have a fixed ratio of atoms or a variable ratio, and they can exist in solid, liquid, or gaseous states. Examples of compounds include water (H2O), sodium chloride (NaCl), and carbon dioxide (CO2).

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• 9.

### A group of atoms linked together

Explanation
A molecule is a group of atoms that are chemically bonded together. This bond holds the atoms together and forms a stable structure. Molecules can be composed of two or more atoms of the same element or different elements. They can exist in various forms, such as solids, liquids, or gases, and they are the building blocks of all substances. Molecules play a crucial role in chemical reactions and the formation of compounds.

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• 10.

### A unique abbreviation for each element based on either the common name or the Latin name

Explanation
The chemical symbol is a unique abbreviation for each element based on either the common name or the Latin name. It is a shorthand representation used to identify elements in the periodic table and chemical formulas. Each element is assigned a specific symbol, usually consisting of one or two letters. These symbols are widely recognized and used in scientific literature and chemical equations to denote the presence of specific elements in compounds or reactions.

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• 11.

### The random motion of microscopic particles that puzzled scientists for many years

Explanation
Brownian motion refers to the random movement of microscopic particles, such as pollen grains or dust particles, in a fluid medium, such as water or air. This phenomenon was first observed by the botanist Robert Brown in 1827, who noticed the erratic motion of pollen grains suspended in water. The explanation for Brownian motion came later, with Albert Einstein's work in 1905, which demonstrated that the motion is caused by the continuous bombardment of fluid molecules on the particles. This discovery had a significant impact on the development of the kinetic theory of matter and provided evidence for the existence of atoms and molecules.

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• 12.

### Molecules of matter are in constant motion

Explanation
The kinetic theory of matter states that molecules of matter are in constant motion. This means that the particles that make up matter are always moving, even if they are not visible to the naked eye. This motion is what gives matter its physical properties, such as its temperature and pressure. The kinetic theory of matter helps to explain many phenomena, such as the expansion of gases when heated and the behavior of liquids and solids. It is a fundamental concept in understanding the behavior and properties of matter.

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• 13.

### The process of mixing molecules of one substance through another by random molecular motion

Explanation
Diffusion refers to the process where molecules of one substance mix with another substance through random molecular motion. This occurs as a result of the natural movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration until equilibrium is reached. The random motion of molecules allows them to spread out and mix with other molecules, leading to diffusion.

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• 14.

### One-way diffusion through a semipermeable membrane

Explanation
Osmosis is the process of one-way diffusion through a semipermeable membrane. In osmosis, solvent molecules move from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, in order to equalize the concentration on both sides of the membrane. This movement of solvent molecules through the membrane allows for the balance of solute concentrations and the maintenance of osmotic pressure.

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• 15.

### Small particles of matter that make up atoms

Explanation
The given answer, "subatomic particles" or "subatomic particle," accurately describes small particles of matter that make up atoms. Subatomic particles are the building blocks of atoms and include particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons. These particles are smaller than atoms and are essential in understanding the structure and behavior of matter at the atomic level.

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• 16.

### Atom's dense central core

Explanation
The correct answer is "nucleus." The explanation for this is that the nucleus refers to the dense central core of an atom. It contains protons and neutrons, which are the subatomic particles that make up the majority of an atom's mass. The electrons, on the other hand, orbit around the nucleus in electron shells. Therefore, the nucleus is the correct term to describe the atom's dense central core.

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• 17.

### Carry a positive electrical charge

Explanation
Protons are subatomic particles that carry a positive electrical charge. They are found in the nucleus of an atom and are one of the three main particles that make up an atom, along with neutrons and electrons. Protons play a crucial role in determining the atomic number and identity of an element. They are attracted to electrons and help to balance out the negative charge of electrons in an atom, creating a neutral charge overall. Therefore, the answer "protons, proton" accurately describes the particles that carry a positive electrical charge.

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• 18.

### The number of protons in the nucleus

Explanation
The atomic number refers to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It is a unique identifier for each element on the periodic table. The number of protons determines the element's chemical properties and its position in the periodic table. Therefore, the atomic number is a crucial factor in understanding an element's characteristics and behavior.

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• 19.

### Electrically neutral; has no electrical charge

Explanation
A neutron is electrically neutral, meaning it has no electrical charge. Unlike protons, which have a positive charge, and electrons, which have a negative charge, neutrons do not possess any charge. This lack of charge allows neutrons to interact with other particles without being affected by electromagnetic forces.

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• 20.

### Small particles that make up neutrons

Explanation
Quarks are the small particles that make up neutrons. Neutrons are composed of three quarks: two down quarks and one up quark. These quarks are bound together by the strong nuclear force, which is one of the fundamental forces in nature. Quarks are elementary particles and cannot exist in isolation, but they combine to form larger particles such as protons and neutrons. Therefore, quarks are the correct answer to the given question.

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• 21.

### Electric charge of +2/3

Explanation
The given correct answer, "up quark," refers to one of the six types of quarks, which are elementary particles that make up protons and neutrons. The up quark has an electric charge of +2/3, indicating that it carries a positive charge that is two-thirds the magnitude of the elementary charge. This charge value is specific to the up quark and distinguishes it from other types of quarks, such as the down quark, which has an electric charge of -1/3.

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• 22.

### Electric charge of -1/3

Explanation
The given correct answer, "down quark," refers to one of the six types of quarks, which are elementary particles that make up protons and neutrons. The down quark has an electric charge of -1/3, which means it carries a negative charge that is one-third the magnitude of the elementary charge. This charge is important in determining the overall charge of particles that contain down quarks, such as protons and neutrons.

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• 23.

### Carry a negative charge

Explanation
An electron is a subatomic particle that carries a negative charge. It is one of the fundamental particles that make up an atom. Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom and are involved in various chemical reactions and electrical currents. Due to its negative charge, electrons are attracted to positively charged particles and repel other negatively charged particles. This property of carrying a negative charge is unique to electrons and distinguishes them from other particles such as protons and neutrons.

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• 24.

### Can only hold a certain number of electrons

Explanation
The electron shell refers to the specific energy levels or orbitals in an atom where electrons are found. Each electron shell has a maximum capacity to hold a certain number of electrons. This is because electrons are arranged in shells based on their energy levels, with the innermost shell having the lowest energy and the outermost shell having the highest energy. The maximum number of electrons that can be held in each shell depends on the specific shell and its energy level.

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• 25.

### Electron shells

Explanation
The term "energy levels" refers to the different states of energy that electrons can occupy within an atom. Electrons are arranged in specific energy levels or shells around the nucleus of an atom. These energy levels are represented by whole numbers (n=1, n=2, etc.) and each level has a maximum number of electrons it can hold. The electrons in an atom can move between energy levels by gaining or losing energy. Therefore, the term "energy levels" is a more accurate description of the arrangement of electrons in an atom compared to "electron shells".

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• 26.

### When an atom develops an electrical charge by losing or gaining electrons

Explanation
An ion is formed when an atom either loses or gains electrons, resulting in the development of an electrical charge. This occurs because electrons have a negative charge, so when an atom loses electrons, it becomes positively charged, while gaining electrons results in a negative charge. Ions are important in various chemical reactions and play a crucial role in the formation of compounds. They can also be found in various states, such as in solution or in the form of crystals.

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• 27.

### Negative ions

Explanation
Anions are negatively charged ions. They are formed when an atom gains one or more electrons. Anions play a crucial role in various chemical reactions and are often involved in the formation of compounds. They are attracted to positively charged ions, known as cations, creating a balanced electrical charge in a compound. Anions are essential in maintaining the overall charge neutrality and stability of many substances. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is anions or anion, which refers to negatively charged ions.

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• 28.

### Positive ions

Explanation
Cations are positively charged ions. They are formed when an atom loses one or more electrons. Cations play a crucial role in chemical reactions and are attracted to negatively charged ions, called anions, to form ionic compounds. The term "cation" is used to refer to a single positively charged ion, while "cations" is the plural form. Therefore, the given answer "cations, cation" is correct as it includes both the singular and plural forms of the term.

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• 29.

### "little neutral one" and interesting and puzzling subatomic particle that is related to the election but has no electric charge and little mass

Explanation
Neutrinos are subatomic particles that are related to the electron but have no electric charge and very little mass. They are often referred to as "little neutral ones" because they have no charge and are very small. The term "electron neutrino" specifically refers to a type of neutrino that is associated with the electron.

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• 30.

### Tiny particles such as elections do not absorb or release energy in a smooth flow, rather it is always absorbed or released in a discrete packet or quantum

Explanation
The answer "quantum" is correct because it refers to the discrete packets of energy that tiny particles such as electrons absorb or release. This concept is a fundamental principle in quantum mechanics, which states that energy is quantized and can only exist in specific amounts or levels. It explains why energy is not absorbed or released in a smooth, continuous flow, but rather in distinct and discrete units called quanta.

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• 31.

### The most familiar model of the atom, made by the German physicist Neils Bohr

Explanation
The given correct answer refers to the most familiar model of the atom, which was developed by the German physicist Neils Bohr. The Bohr model proposes that electrons orbit the nucleus in specific energy levels or shells, and that the electrons can jump between these levels by absorbing or emitting energy. This model was a significant advancement in understanding atomic structure and helped explain phenomena such as the emission and absorption of light. The Bohr model laid the foundation for further developments in quantum mechanics and atomic theory.

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• 32.

### Schrodinger's hypothesis; explained some puzzling features of atomic structure

Explanation
The wave-mechanical model is the correct answer because it is a theory that was developed by Schrodinger to explain the behavior of particles at the atomic level. This model incorporates the wave-particle duality of matter, which means that particles can exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties. Schrodinger's hypothesis, which is part of the wave-mechanical model, helped to clarify some of the perplexing aspects of atomic structure that were not adequately explained by previous models.

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• 33.

### It is impossible to measure the position and velocity of an electron simultaneously

Explanation
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to measure both the position and velocity of an electron simultaneously with perfect accuracy. This principle arises from the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics, where particles like electrons can behave as both particles and waves. When trying to measure the position of an electron, the act of measurement disturbs its velocity, and vice versa. Therefore, there will always be an inherent uncertainty in the simultaneous measurement of these two properties.

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• 34.

### A slightly different model of the atom

Explanation
The electron-cloud model is a slightly different model of the atom that suggests that electrons are not confined to specific orbits but rather exist in a cloud-like region around the nucleus. This model takes into account the wave-like nature of electrons and their uncertain positions. It provides a more accurate representation of electron behavior and explains phenomena such as electron diffraction and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

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• 35.

### The number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus

Explanation
The mass number of an atom refers to the total number of protons and neutrons present in its nucleus. It is a whole number and is used to identify different isotopes of an element. The mass number helps determine the overall mass and stability of the atom.

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• 36.

### Average atomic mass is measured by ____________

Explanation
The average atomic mass is a measurement of the average mass of an element's atoms, taking into account the different isotopes and their relative abundance. It is commonly expressed in atomic mass units (amu), which is a unit of measurement used to represent the mass of individual atoms. Therefore, the correct answer is atomic mass units.

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• 37.

### Average mass of all the various isotopes of an element

Explanation
The atomic mass refers to the average mass of all the various isotopes of an element. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus. Since different isotopes have different masses, the atomic mass is calculated by taking into account the abundance of each isotope and its mass. Therefore, the atomic mass represents the average mass of all the isotopes of an element.

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• 38.

### Any substance that is unstable

Explanation
The term "radioactive" refers to any substance that is unstable and undergoes spontaneous decay, emitting radiation in the process. These substances have an unstable nucleus that releases energy in the form of radiation to achieve a more stable state. This emission of radiation can have various effects on living organisms and the environment, making radioactive substances potentially hazardous. Therefore, the term "radioactive" accurately describes any substance that is unstable and exhibits this behavior.

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• 39.

### The length of time it takes for 1/2 of the original substance to decay into a new substance

Explanation
The term "half-life" refers to the amount of time it takes for half of the original substance to decay into a new substance. It is a measure of the rate of decay or the time it takes for a substance to lose half of its initial quantity. The concept of half-life is commonly used in fields such as radioactive decay, pharmacology, and chemistry to determine the stability and decay of substances over time.

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• 40.

### When a nucleus breaks up or changes, emitting radiation it is said to have undergone ________

Explanation
When a nucleus undergoes radioactive decay, it means that it has broken up or changed and emitted radiation. This process occurs when an unstable nucleus tries to achieve a more stable state by releasing excess energy in the form of radiation. This radiation can take different forms such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. Radioactive decay is a natural process that helps in the transformation of one element into another, often resulting in the release of energy and the formation of new elements.

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• 41.

### Occurs when a neutron in an atom's nucleus changes into a proton and emits an electron

Explanation
Beta decay is a radioactive decay process that occurs when a neutron in an atom's nucleus changes into a proton and emits an electron. This process is also known as β- decay, as the emitted electron is a beta particle. During beta decay, the number of protons in the nucleus increases by one, while the number of neutrons decreases by one, resulting in the transformation of one element into another. Beta decay plays a crucial role in nuclear physics and has various applications, such as in medical imaging and cancer treatment.

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• 42.

### Consists of electromagnetic waves of extremely high frequency and energy

Explanation
Gamma radiation consists of electromagnetic waves of extremely high frequency and energy. It is a type of ionizing radiation that is highly penetrating and can cause damage to living cells. Gamma radiation is typically emitted during radioactive decay or nuclear reactions. It is used in various fields such as medicine, industry, and research, but excessive exposure to gamma radiation can be harmful to human health.

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• 43.

### The nucleus splits into several pieces in a process called ___________ releasing an enormous amount of heat as well as gamma rays

Explanation
Nuclear fission is a process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into several smaller pieces. This process releases a significant amount of heat and gamma rays. It is a chain reaction where one atom splits, releasing energy and additional neutrons that can then go on to split other atoms. This process is used in nuclear power plants to generate electricity and in nuclear weapons to release a massive amount of energy in the form of an explosion.

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• 44.

### "domino effect"

Explanation
The term "domino effect" refers to a chain reaction where one event triggers a series of similar events. In this context, "chain reaction" is synonymous with the domino effect, as it implies that one action leads to a sequence of subsequent actions. Therefore, the correct answer is "chain reaction."

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• 45.

### A certain amount of fissionable material present

Explanation
Critical mass refers to the minimum amount of fissionable material required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction. When this amount is reached, the neutrons released from one nuclear reaction can go on to trigger subsequent reactions, resulting in a self-sustaining chain reaction. If there is less than the critical mass present, the neutrons will escape without causing further reactions, leading to the reaction dying out. Therefore, the concept of critical mass is crucial in understanding the conditions necessary for a nuclear chain reaction to occur.

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• 46.

### A controlled chain reaction harnessed to produce useful energy

Explanation
A nuclear reactor is a device that utilizes a controlled chain reaction to produce useful energy. In a nuclear reactor, the process of nuclear fission is harnessed, where the nucleus of an atom is split into two smaller nuclei, releasing a large amount of energy. This energy is then converted into electricity or used for other purposes. The controlled nature of the chain reaction ensures that it does not result in an uncontrolled explosion, but rather a sustained release of energy. Therefore, a nuclear reactor fits the description of a controlled chain reaction harnessed to produce useful energy.

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• 47.

### Produce more nuclear fuel than they use

Explanation
Breeder reactors refer to a type of nuclear reactor that has the capability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes. This is achieved by utilizing certain materials, such as plutonium, as fuel, which can undergo a process called nuclear transmutation to generate additional fuel. By effectively "breeding" more fuel, breeder reactors have the potential to significantly increase the availability of nuclear fuel, making them a promising solution for future energy needs.

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• 48.

### Caused at least 32 deaths and exposed many people to large amounts of radiation in a nuclear plant in _____________, Ukraine

Explanation
The given correct answer for this question is "Chernobyl" because it is the name of the place where a nuclear plant disaster occurred, resulting in at least 32 deaths and exposing many people to high levels of radiation. The question is asking for the location of the nuclear plant accident, and Chernobyl is the correct answer.

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• 49.

### The process of combining two nuclei to form a heavier nucleus and thereby releasing much energy

Explanation
Nuclear fusion refers to the process of combining two nuclei to form a heavier nucleus, resulting in the release of a significant amount of energy. This process is responsible for the immense energy produced by stars, including our sun. Through the fusion of atomic nuclei, such as hydrogen atoms, into helium, a substantial amount of energy is released, making nuclear fusion a promising potential source of clean and abundant energy for the future.

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• 50.

### All atoms seek to have ___ electrons in their outermost shell

Explanation
All atoms seek to have 8 electrons in their outermost shell. This is because having 8 electrons in the outermost shell, also known as the valence shell, makes the atom stable. This stability is achieved by either gaining, losing, or sharing electrons with other atoms through chemical bonding. This concept is known as the octet rule, which states that atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable electron configuration similar to the noble gases.

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