Gly Test 3 Practice Ch 20

40 Questions | Total Attempts: 50

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Gly Test Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Fetch refers to ________.
    • A. 

      A large expanse of open water over which the wind blows and generates waves

    • B. 

      Ocean currents moving parallel to the beach

    • C. 

      The rotational movements of water particles beneath a passing, surface wave

    • D. 

      The beachfront area where rapid erosion is taking place

  • 2. 
    A deep-water wave exists when ________.
    • A. 

      The wavelength exceeds one-half the water depth

    • B. 

      The wavelength exceeds one-half the wave height

    • C. 

      The water depth exceeds one-half the wavelength

    • D. 

      The wave height exceeds the water depth

  • 3. 
    Water movement and sand transport parallel to the beach are fundamentally caused by
    • A. 

      Strong, offshore winds creating a pileup of water along the beach front

    • B. 

      Deep-water waves breaking offshore

    • C. 

      Waves impinging obliquely onto a beach

    • D. 

      A long fetch parallel to the beach

  • 4. 
    Swash and backwash describe ________.
    • A. 

      Movements of water and sand as waves break along a beach

    • B. 

      The oscillatory movement of water beneath a passing wave

    • C. 

      The swirling action and sand movements produced when a shallow water wave impinges on the bottom

    • D. 

      The forward and backward water movements as storm waves reflect from a seawall or groin

  • 5. 
    How does refraction affect the crest and trough orientations of incoming waves along a beach?
    • A. 

      As the waves move into shallower water, the angle between the wave crests (troughs) and the shoreline increases.

    • B. 

      As the waves move into shallower water, the angle between the wave crests (troughs) and the shoreline decreases.

  • 6. 
    ________ are built more or less parallel to the beach.
    • A. 

      Jetties

    • B. 

      Seawalls

    • C. 

      Groins

    • D. 

      Breakers

  • 7. 
    Over the past few thousand years, how, if at all, has sea level been changing?
    • A. 

      It has fallen about 10 inches per century.

    • B. 

      It has risen about 10 centimeters per century.

    • C. 

      It has remained about the same.

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 8. 
    How can crashing, collapsing, storm waves generate explosive forces and stresses on rocky outcrops and manmade structures?
    • A. 

      Pressurized water and compressed air are driven into cracks and fissures

    • B. 

      Backwash breaks out blocks of rock or concrete and carries them out to deeper water

    • C. 

      Oscillating, refractive waves shake the hard materials into small fragments

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 9. 
    Increasing quantities of ________ will eventually produce global warming.
    • A. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • B. 

      Ozone

    • C. 

      Water vapor

    • D. 

      Volcanic aerosols

  • 10. 
    Erosional retreat of a ________ leads to enlargement and extension of a wave-cut platform in the inland direction.
    • A. 

      Wave-cut cliff

    • B. 

      Wave-cut barrier beach

    • C. 

      Wave-cut tombolo

    • D. 

      Offshore, wave-cut, breakwater bar

  • 11. 
    How are spits, hooks, and baymouth bars formed?
    • A. 

      A headland is eroded and the sand is deposited in an offshore basin.

    • B. 

      Wave erosion cuts away both sides of a long sand bar, leaving a sand ridge aligned parallel to the shore.

    • C. 

      Sand is deposited from longshore currents.

    • D. 

      Sand eroded from a wave-cut diff is deposited around sea stacks and arches.

  • 12. 
    Which one of the following coastlines would typically have wave-cut cliffs, sea stacks, sea arches, and wave-cut platforms?
    • A. 

      One where bedrock is vigorously eroded as sea level rises

    • B. 

      One where a bedrock, wave-cut cliff is rapidly retreating inland as sea level falls

    • C. 

      One where unconsolidated sediments are being eroded as sea level falls

    • D. 

      One where unconsolidated sediments are being rapidly eroded as sea level rises

  • 13. 
    Emergent coastlines of Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden) and the Hudson Bay region of Canada result from which one of the following combinations?
    • A. 

      The rate of glacial rebound exceeds the rate of sea level rise

    • B. 

      The tectonic subsidence rate exceeds the rate of sea level rise

    • C. 

      The rate of glacial rebound is less than the rate of sea level rise

    • D. 

      The rate of tectonic uplift exceeds the rate of sea level fall

  • 14. 
    Large estuaries are more common on a ________ coastline.
    • A. 

      Submergent

    • B. 

      Retreating

    • C. 

      Stable

    • D. 

      Emergent

  • 15. 
    A ________ tide is an incoming or rising tide.
    • A. 

      Drift

    • B. 

      Flood

    • C. 

      Ebb

    • D. 

      Rip

  • 16. 
    ________ are the maximum-amplitude tides produced when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned.
    • A. 

      Rip tides

    • B. 

      Spring tides

    • C. 

      Surf tides

    • D. 

      Neap tides

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is true regarding the gravitational forces affecting Earth?
    • A. 

      The lunar force is about twice that of the Sun.

    • B. 

      The solar and lunar gravitational forces are about the same magnitude.

    • C. 

      The solar force is about twice that of the Moon.

    • D. 

      The gravitational forces of each vary depending upon seasons on Earth.

  • 18. 
    Which of the following statements concerning the Mississippi delta lands is not true?
    • A. 

      Coastal erosion and loss of delta lands will continue as sea level continues to rise.

    • B. 

      Artificial levees help spread river-borne sediment uniformly over the delta swamps and wetlands.

    • C. 

      The sediment supply has dropped since large reservoirs were constructed on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers.

    • D. 

      The thick sediment pile is slowly compacting and the delta is slowly subsiding.

  • 19. 
    ________ refers to the broad dome of water moving with the eye and frontal portion of a hurricane.
    • A. 

      Cyclonic mound

    • B. 

      Storm surge

    • C. 

      Eyewall ridge

    • D. 

      Sea dome

  • 20. 
    ________ low initial costs and modest maintenance costs; high potential for storm damages and low to moderate potential for negative environmental effects
    • A. 

      Promote coastal development; build massive, hardened structures to stop all but the most powerful storm waves

    • B. 

      Prohibits coastal development; build nothing, declare victory over the sea and retreat from the coastline

    • C. 

      Allow coastal development; make a long-term commitment to beach nourishment

  • 21. 
    ________ high initial costs and eventually high maintenance costs; high potential for storm damage and negative environmental consequences
    • A. 

      Promote coastal development; build massive, hardened structures to stop all but the most powerful storm waves

    • B. 

      Prohibits coastal development; build nothing, declare victory over the sea and retreat from the coastline

    • C. 

      Allow coastal development; make a long-term commitment to beach nourishment

  • 22. 
    ________ low initial costs and low maintenance costs; low potential for storm damages and for negative environmental consequences
    • A. 

      Promote coastal development; build massive, hardened structures to stop all but the most powerful storm waves

    • B. 

      Prohibits coastal development; build nothing, declare victory over the sea and retreat from the coastline

    • C. 

      Allow coastal development; make a long-term commitment to beach nourishment

  • 23. 
    ________ is not a dynamic characteristic of a wave of oscillation.
    • A. 

      Fetch

    • B. 

      Velocity or speed

    • C. 

      Wavelength

    • D. 

      Period

  • 24. 
    ________ are currents that move sand and water parallel to the beach.
    • A. 

      Reflected

    • B. 

      Longshore

    • C. 

      Translational

    • D. 

      Ebb tide

  • 25. 
    When does a deep-water wave change to a shallow water wave?
    • A. 

      Only when the wave period is greater than one-half the water depth

    • B. 

      Only when the wavelength is about twice the water depth

    • C. 

      Only when the wavelength is about one-half the water depth

    • D. 

      Only when the wave period is greater than twice the water depth

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