Get A Grip On Sarcopenia

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Get A Grip On Sarcopenia - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Is Sarcopenia both preventable and reversible?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    Correct Answer
    A. Yes
    Explanation
    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. It is believed to be preventable through regular exercise, particularly resistance training, and a balanced diet that includes adequate protein intake. Additionally, studies have shown that sarcopenia can be reversed to some extent through exercise interventions, such as strength training. Therefore, the answer "Yes" is correct as sarcopenia is both preventable and reversible through lifestyle interventions.

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  • 2. 

    In ANZ, how prevalent is Sarcopenia in people aged 65+ years?

    • A.

      Up to 20%

    • B.

      Up to 24%

    • C.

      Up to 34%

    • D.

      Up to 50%

    Correct Answer
    C. Up to 34%
    Explanation
    Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by the loss of muscle mass and strength, commonly associated with aging. The given answer suggests that in ANZ (Australia and New Zealand), the prevalence of sarcopenia in people aged 65+ years is up to 34%. This means that approximately one-third of the population in this age group may be affected by sarcopenia. This highlights the significance of addressing this condition and implementing appropriate interventions to prevent or manage it in older individuals.

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  • 3. 

    Which scan shows the presence of Sarcopenia?

    • A.

      Scan 1

    • B.

      Scan 2

    Correct Answer
    B. Scan 2
    Explanation
    Scan 2 shows the presence of Sarcopenia.

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  • 4. 

    Which full body scan shows the presence of Sarcopenia?

    • A.

      Left Hand Side

    • B.

      Right Hand Side

    • C.

      Both people have sarcopenia

    • D.

      Neither show sarcopenia

    Correct Answer
    B. Right Hand Side
    Explanation
    The right hand side full body scan shows the presence of Sarcopenia.

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  • 5. 

    Sarcopenia has an ICD-10 code 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sarcopenia, a condition characterized by the loss of muscle mass and strength, does have an ICD-10 code. The ICD-10 code for sarcopenia is M62.84. This code is used by healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose and document cases of sarcopenia in medical records. By having a specific code for sarcopenia, it allows for better tracking, research, and treatment of this condition.

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  • 6. 

    With ANZ's ageing population, we know that by 2050 there will be:

    • A.

      >1.5 million 65+ year olds in NZ & >8 million 65+ year olds in AU

    • B.

      >1 million 65+ year olds in NZ & >15 million 65+ year olds in AU

    • C.

      >0.8 million 65+ year olds in NZ & >6 million 65+ year olds in AU

    Correct Answer
    A. >1.5 million 65+ year olds in NZ & >8 million 65+ year olds in AU
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ">1.5 million 65+ year olds in NZ & >8 million 65+ year olds in AU." This answer is supported by the statement that ANZ's ageing population will result in these specific numbers of elderly individuals by 2050.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for Sarcopenia?

    • A.

      Cognitive impairment

    • B.

      Bed rest/immobility

    • C.

      Diabetes mellitus

    • D.

      Respiratory failure

    • E.

      Low protein intake

    • F.

      Physical activity

    • G.

      Chronic renal failure

    • H.

      Heart failure

    • I.

      Alcohol abuse

    • J.

      Liver disease

    Correct Answer
    F. Physical activity
    Explanation
    Physical activity is not a risk factor for Sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging. Risk factors for Sarcopenia include cognitive impairment, bed rest/immobility, diabetes mellitus, respiratory failure, low protein intake, chronic renal failure, heart failure, alcohol abuse, and liver disease. However, engaging in regular physical activity is actually beneficial for maintaining muscle mass and preventing Sarcopenia.

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  • 8. 

    What is Sarcopenia?

    • A.

      Loss of muscle mass

    • B.

      Loss of muscle strength

    • C.

      Loss of energy

    • D.

      Loss of both muscle mass and muscle strength

    Correct Answer
    D. Loss of both muscle mass and muscle strength
    Explanation
    Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of both muscle mass and muscle strength that occurs with aging. It is a condition characterized by the decline in muscle quantity and quality, leading to reduced physical function and increased risk of falls and fractures. This loss of muscle mass and strength can result in decreased mobility, difficulty performing daily activities, and overall decreased quality of life. Therefore, the correct answer is loss of both muscle mass and muscle strength.

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  • 9. 

    In ANZ, how prevalent is Sarcopenia in people aged 80+ years?

    • A.

      20%

    • B.

      30%

    • C.

      40%

    • D.

      50%

    Correct Answer
    D. 50%
    Explanation
    Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by the loss of muscle mass and strength, commonly associated with aging. The given answer, 50%, suggests that sarcopenia is prevalent in 50% of people aged 80+ years in ANZ. This indicates that a significant portion of the elderly population in ANZ is affected by this condition. Sarcopenia can have various negative impacts on the overall health and quality of life of individuals, making it an important concern in this age group.

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  • 10. 

    In the US, what would a 10% reduction in Sarcopenia be estimated to save in healthcare costs?

    • A.

      $100,000

    • B.

      $500,000

    • C.

      More than $1 million

    • D.

      More than $1 billion

    Correct Answer
    D. More than $1 billion
    Explanation
    A 10% reduction in Sarcopenia in the US would result in healthcare cost savings of more than $1 billion. This suggests that Sarcopenia, a condition characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength, has a significant financial impact on the healthcare system. By reducing the prevalence of Sarcopenia, healthcare costs can be significantly reduced, highlighting the importance of addressing and managing this condition effectively.

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  • 11. 

    What can be some consequences of Sarcopenia? (You may select multiple answers)

    • A.

      Falls

    • B.

      Fractures

    • C.

      Hospitalisations and institutionalisations

    • D.

      Functional decline

    • E.

      Malnutrition

    • F.

      Physical disability

    • G.

      Loss of independence

    • H.

      Reduced QOL

    • I.

      Death

    • J.

      High healthcare costs

    • K.

      Frailty

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Falls
    B. Fractures
    C. Hospitalisations and institutionalisations
    D. Functional decline
    F. Physical disability
    G. Loss of independence
    H. Reduced QOL
    I. Death
    J. High healthcare costs
    K. Frailty
    Explanation
    Sarcopenia can lead to various consequences. Falls can occur due to the loss of muscle strength and balance. Fractures can result from falls or weakened bones. Hospitalizations and institutionalizations may be necessary to address the health issues caused by sarcopenia. Functional decline can occur as daily activities become more difficult to perform. Malnutrition may arise as sarcopenia can affect appetite and nutrient absorption. Physical disability can limit mobility and independence. Reduced quality of life can result from the physical limitations and health problems associated with sarcopenia. In severe cases, sarcopenia can lead to death. The high healthcare costs are associated with treating the complications and managing the condition. Frailty is often observed in individuals with sarcopenia due to the overall decline in physical strength and health.

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  • 12. 

    Name three measurements to diagnose Sarcopenia.

    • A.

      Gait speed

    • B.

      Grip strength

    • C.

      Bicep circumference

    • D.

      Muscle mass

    • E.

      Eye colour

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Gait speed
    B. Grip strength
    D. Muscle mass
    Explanation
    The three measurements mentioned (gait speed, grip strength, and muscle mass) are commonly used to diagnose sarcopenia. Gait speed refers to the walking speed of an individual and is used to assess their mobility and muscle function. Grip strength is a measure of the strength and functionality of the muscles in the hand and forearm. Muscle mass is the amount of muscle tissue present in the body and can be measured using various methods such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). These measurements help healthcare professionals determine if an individual has sarcopenia, a condition characterized by the loss of muscle mass and strength.

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  • 13. 

    To test gait speed, what distance is the test usually measured over?

    • A.

      1 metre

    • B.

      2 metres

    • C.

      3 metres

    • D.

      4 metres

    Correct Answer
    D. 4 metres
    Explanation
    The gait speed test typically measures the distance over 4 meters. This distance is commonly used because it provides a long enough distance to accurately assess an individual's walking speed and gait pattern. A longer distance allows for a more reliable measurement of gait speed, as it takes into account the acceleration and deceleration phases of walking. Additionally, measuring gait speed over 4 meters allows for better differentiation between individuals with varying levels of mobility and walking ability.

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  • 14. 

    In metres per second, what is the gait speed which may indicate the presence of Sarcopenia?

    • A.

      > 0.8 metres per second

    • B.

      < 0.8 metres per second

    • C.

      > 0.6 metres per second

    • D.

      < 0.6 metres per second

    Correct Answer
    B. < 0.8 metres per second
    Explanation
    A gait speed of less than 0.8 meters per second may indicate the presence of Sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by the loss of muscle mass and strength, which can lead to decreased physical performance and mobility. A slower gait speed is often seen in individuals with Sarcopenia due to the weakened muscles and reduced overall physical function. Therefore, a gait speed of less than 0.8 meters per second can be indicative of Sarcopenia.

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  • 15. 

    What is the name of the hand grip strength measurement tool?

    • A.

      Dynamitemeter

    • B.

      Diannameter

    • C.

      Dynamometer

    • D.

      Dynasorousmeter

    Correct Answer
    C. Dynamometer
    Explanation
    A dynamometer is a hand grip strength measurement tool used to assess the strength and endurance of the muscles in the hand and forearm. It is commonly used in medical and rehabilitation settings to evaluate hand function and monitor progress during therapy. The other options, Dynamitemeter, Diannameter, and Dynasorousmeter, are not valid names for hand grip strength measurement tools and do not exist.

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  • 16. 

    What are the measurements of hand grip strength for males and females, which may indicate the presence of Sarcopenia?

    • A.

      < 20kg for females and < 30kg for males

    • B.

      < 25kg for females and < 35kg for males

    • C.

      > 25kg for females and > 35kg for males

    Correct Answer
    A. < 20kg for females and < 30kg for males
    Explanation
    The correct answer is < 20kg for females and < 30kg for males. This indicates that hand grip strength measurements below these thresholds may suggest the presence of Sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by the loss of muscle mass and strength, particularly in older adults. Lower hand grip strength is often associated with decreased muscle function and can be an indicator of Sarcopenia. Therefore, measuring hand grip strength can be a useful tool in identifying individuals at risk for or already experiencing Sarcopenia.

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  • 17. 

    What method/s can be used to measure muscle mass? (You may select more than one answer)

    • A.

      CT scan

    • B.

      MRI scan

    • C.

      DXA scan

    • D.

      Bio Impedence Analyser (BIA)

    • E.

      VO2 Max test

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. CT scan
    B. MRI scan
    C. DXA scan
    D. Bio Impedence Analyser (BIA)
    Explanation
    CT scan, MRI scan, DXA scan, and Bio Impedance Analyser (BIA) can all be used to measure muscle mass. CT scan and MRI scan provide detailed images of the body, allowing for accurate measurement of muscle mass. DXA scan uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone, muscle, and fat, providing a comprehensive assessment of body composition. BIA measures the resistance of electrical currents through the body, which can be used to estimate muscle mass. VO2 Max test, on the other hand, is used to measure aerobic capacity and is not directly related to muscle mass measurement.

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  • 18. 

    We know Sarcopenia is progressive and presents with a reduction in the size and number of muscle fibers. How much muscle mass is lost by the time we reach 80 years old?

    • A.

      10%

    • B.

      20%

    • C.

      30%

    • D.

      50%

    Correct Answer
    C. 30%
    Explanation
    Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength. As we age, our muscle fibers decrease in size and number, leading to a decline in overall muscle mass. By the time we reach 80 years old, it is estimated that we may experience a loss of approximately 30% of our muscle mass. This significant reduction in muscle mass can have various negative effects on our mobility, strength, and overall quality of life.

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  • 19. 

    How do we increase muscle mass AND strength?

    • A.

      Exercise

    • B.

      Drinking more alcohol

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Protein and exercise

    Correct Answer
    D. Protein and exercise
    Explanation
    To increase muscle mass and strength, a combination of protein and exercise is necessary. Protein is essential for muscle growth as it provides the building blocks (amino acids) needed for muscle repair and synthesis. Exercise, particularly resistance training, stimulates muscle fibers to adapt and grow stronger. By combining protein intake with exercise, the body has the necessary nutrients and stimulus to increase muscle mass and strength. Drinking more alcohol, on the other hand, does not contribute to muscle growth and can actually hinder progress by negatively affecting recovery and protein synthesis.

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  • 20. 

    What protein intake is recommended on a daily basis to treat Sarcopenia?

    • A.

      0.8g / kg / BW / day

    • B.

      1.0g / kg / BW / day

    • C.

      1.2 - 1.5g / kg / BW / day

    Correct Answer
    C. 1.2 - 1.5g / kg / BW / day
    Explanation
    The recommended protein intake on a daily basis to treat Sarcopenia is 1.2 - 1.5g / kg / BW / day. This range ensures that individuals with Sarcopenia consume enough protein to support muscle growth and maintenance. Higher protein intake within this range may be necessary for individuals with more severe cases of Sarcopenia or those who are physically active. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian to determine the specific protein needs based on individual factors such as age, sex, and overall health.

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  • 21. 

    If a 75kg man was recommended 1.2g / kg / BW / day, how many grams of protein in total would he need to consume in one day?

    • A.

      80g

    • B.

      85g

    • C.

      90g

    • D.

      95g

    Correct Answer
    C. 90g
    Explanation
    The recommended protein intake for a 75kg man is 1.2g per kg of body weight per day. To calculate the total amount of protein needed, we multiply 1.2g by 75kg, which equals 90g. Therefore, the man would need to consume 90g of protein in one day.

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  • 22. 

    For the same 75kg man, how much protein should be consumed at each meal throughout the day, including breakfast, lunch and dinner?

    • A.

      12g

    • B.

      15g

    • C.

      20g

    • D.

      25-30g

    Correct Answer
    D. 25-30g
    Explanation
    The recommended amount of protein consumption for a 75kg man at each meal throughout the day, including breakfast, lunch, and dinner, is 25-30g. This amount is necessary to support muscle growth, repair, and maintenance. It is important to distribute protein intake evenly throughout the day to optimize muscle protein synthesis and provide a steady supply of amino acids for the body's needs.

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  • 23. 

    Why do older people need to increase their daily intake of protein? (You may select more than one answer)

    • A.

      They often have an inadequate intake of protein

    • B.

      They have a reduced ability to utilise available protein

    • C.

      They have a greater need for protein

    • D.

      They are old, so need to lay down more fat

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. They often have an inadequate intake of protein
    B. They have a reduced ability to utilise available protein
    C. They have a greater need for protein
    Explanation
    As people age, they often have a decrease in appetite and may not consume enough protein in their diet, leading to an inadequate intake of protein. Additionally, older individuals may have a reduced ability to effectively utilize the protein they do consume, making it necessary to increase their daily intake. Lastly, older people have a greater need for protein due to factors such as age-related muscle loss and a higher risk of chronic diseases. The statement about needing to lay down more fat is not accurate and does not explain why older people need to increase their protein intake.

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  • 24. 

    In an older person, what could a shortfall in daily protein intake result in? (You may select more than one answer)

    • A.

      Loss of muscle

    • B.

      Loss of lean body mass

    • C.

      An increased risk of Sarcopenia

    • D.

      An increased risk of Osteoporosis

    • E.

      Dementia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Loss of muscle
    B. Loss of lean body mass
    C. An increased risk of Sarcopenia
    D. An increased risk of Osteoporosis
    Explanation
    A shortfall in daily protein intake in an older person can result in loss of muscle and loss of lean body mass. This is because protein is essential for maintaining muscle mass and preventing muscle wasting. Additionally, a low protein intake can increase the risk of sarcopenia, which is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that occurs with aging. It can also increase the risk of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. However, dementia is not directly related to protein intake and is caused by other factors.

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  • 25. 

    Which nutrient/s are key to preventing Sarcopenia? (You may select more than one answer)

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Energy

    • C.

      Calcium

    • D.

      Vitamin D

    • E.

      Niacin

    • F.

      Fat

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Protein
    B. Energy
    C. Calcium
    D. Vitamin D
    Explanation
    Protein, energy, calcium, and vitamin D are key nutrients in preventing sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, and these nutrients play crucial roles in maintaining muscle health. Protein is essential for muscle growth and repair, while energy (calories) provides the fuel needed for muscle function and maintenance. Calcium and vitamin D are important for bone health, which indirectly affects muscle health. Adequate intake of these nutrients can help prevent or slow down the progression of sarcopenia. Niacin and fat are not specifically associated with preventing sarcopenia.

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  • 26. 

    How much protein is provided in one bottle of Fortisip 200ml?

    • A.

      6g

    • B.

      10g

    • C.

      12g

    • D.

      18g

    Correct Answer
    C. 12g
    Explanation
    Fortisip is a nutritional supplement that comes in a 200ml bottle. The question asks about the amount of protein provided in one bottle of Fortisip. The correct answer is 12g. This means that one bottle of Fortisip contains 12 grams of protein.

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  • 27. 

    How much protein is provided in one bottle of Fortisip Compact Protein 125ml?

    • A.

      12g

    • B.

      15g

    • C.

      18g

    • D.

      20g

    Correct Answer
    C. 18g
    Explanation
    Fortisip Compact Protein is a nutritional supplement that comes in a 125ml bottle. The question asks about the amount of protein provided in one bottle of Fortisip Compact Protein. The correct answer is 18g. This means that each bottle contains 18 grams of protein, which can be beneficial for individuals who require additional protein in their diet.

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