Gastrointestinal Diseases

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Gastrointestinal Diseases - Quiz

Gastrointestinal diseases are the malfunctioning of our digestive system. This informative quiz on gastrointestinal diseases will test your knowledge of the same. This quiz is helpful for students from the medical field. It has various questions that include easy, moderate, and hard-level questions, which will thoroughly test your knowledge and provide value addition to the existing reservoir of your understanding. So want to revise the topic before, this is the quiz you should take. If you like the quiz, share it with your friends. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the four common classes of symptoms and signs of GI disorders:

    • A.

      Abdominal or Chest pain

    • B.

      Altered Ingestion of Food

    • C.

      Fever

    • D.

      Altered Bowel Movements

    • E.

      GI Tract Bleeding

    Correct Answer
    C. Fever
    Explanation
    Fever is not one of the four common classes of symptoms and signs of GI disorders. The four common classes include abdominal or chest pain, altered ingestion of food, altered bowel movements, and GI tract bleeding. Fever is typically associated with infections or inflammation in the body, but it is not a specific symptom of GI disorders.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following lists all five examples given of clinical manifestations of altered ingestion of food:

    • A.

      Nausea, Vomiting, Dysphagia, Dysuria, Constipation

    • B.

      Nausea, Vomiting, Dysphagia, Odynophagia, Anorexia

    • C.

      Weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, GI tract bleeding, Nausea

    • D.

      Constipation, Diarrhea, Abdominal Pain, Dysphagia, Odynophagia

    Correct Answer
    B. Nausea, Vomiting, Dysphagia, Odynophagia, Anorexia
    Explanation
    All of these symptoms are related to GI tract disorders, but only the correct answer lists all five of the symptoms of altered ingestion of food, which is one of the four main clinical manifestations of GI diseases.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following gives the correct progress of food along the alimentary canal?

    • A.

      Mouth, Esophagus, Pharynx, Stomach, SI, LI, Rectum, Anal Canal and Sphincter

    • B.

      Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, LI, SI, Rectum, Anal Canal and Sphincter

    • C.

      Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Pharynx, SI, LI, Anal Canal and Sphinter

    • D.

      Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, SI, LI, Rectum, Anal Canal and Sphincter

    Correct Answer
    D. Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, SI, LI, Rectum, Anal Canal and Sphincter
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, SI, LI, Rectum, Anal Canal and Sphincter". This is the correct progression of food along the alimentary canal. The food enters the mouth where it is chewed and mixed with saliva. It then passes through the pharynx and into the esophagus, which carries it to the stomach. In the stomach, the food is further broken down by stomach acid and enzymes. From the stomach, it moves into the small intestine (SI) where nutrients are absorbed. The remaining undigested material then enters the large intestine (LI), where water is absorbed and waste is formed. Finally, the waste passes through the rectum, anal canal, and sphincter before being eliminated from the body.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is not considered part of the mouth according to our notes?

    • A.

      Teeth

    • B.

      Pharynx

    • C.

      Palate

    • D.

      Tongue

    • E.

      Salivary Glands

    Correct Answer
    B. Pharynx
    Explanation
    The pharynx is not considered part of the mouth according to the notes. The mouth includes the teeth, palate, tongue, and salivary glands, but the pharynx is a separate structure located behind the mouth. It serves as a passage for both air and food, connecting the mouth to the esophagus and the nasal cavity to the larynx.

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  • 5. 

    How many neurons are located within the numerous small ganglia of the enteric nervous system?

    • A.

      100,000

    • B.

      1,000

    • C.

      1,000,000

    • D.

      1,000,000,000

    Correct Answer
    C. 1,000,000
    Explanation
    The enteric nervous system is a complex network of neurons that controls the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of numerous small ganglia, and within these ganglia, there are approximately 1,000,000 neurons. These neurons are responsible for regulating various digestive processes such as peristalsis, secretion, and absorption.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is NOT true of the myenteric plexus of the enteric nervous system?

    • A.

      Does motor activity of the gut

    • B.

      Also called the Meissner's plexus

    • C.

      Located between longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers

    • D.

      Travels from from the esophagus to the rectum

    Correct Answer
    B. Also called the Meissner's plexus
    Explanation
    It is also called the Auerbach's plexus, not Meissner's plexus

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is NOT true of the submucosal plexus of the enteric nervous system?

    • A.

      It regulates motor activity of the gut.

    • B.

      Located between the circular smooth muscle and submucosa

    • C.

      Also called the Meissner's plexus

    • D.

      Confined to submucosa of the gut and is most prominent within the small intestine.

    Correct Answer
    A. It regulates motor activity of the gut.
    Explanation
    It regulates mucosal functions

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is NOT an additional plexus of the GI system:

    • A.

      Deep Muscular Plexus

    • B.

      Superficial Muscular Plexus

    • C.

      Periglandular Plexus

    • D.

      Villous Plexus

    Correct Answer
    B. Superficial Muscular Plexus
    Explanation
    The superficial muscular plexus is not an additional plexus of the GI system. The GI system has three main plexuses: the myenteric plexus (also known as the deep muscular plexus), the submucosal plexus, and the Meissner's plexus. These plexuses are responsible for coordinating the movement and function of the gastrointestinal tract. The superficial muscular plexus is not mentioned as one of the main plexuses and therefore is not an additional plexus of the GI system.

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  • 9. 

    Complete reflex arcs exist within the enteric nervous system.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The enteric nervous system is a division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for regulating the gastrointestinal system. It consists of a complex network of neurons that can function independently of the central nervous system. Reflex arcs are neural pathways that allow for rapid, automatic responses to stimuli. Since the enteric nervous system is capable of processing and responding to sensory information within the gastrointestinal system without input from the central nervous system, complete reflex arcs can indeed exist within it. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 10. 

    Where do neurons of the autonomic parasympathetic division project from?

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Medulla oblongata and sacral region

    • C.

      Thoracic and lumbar regions

    • D.

      Basal ganglia and thoracic region

    Correct Answer
    B. Medulla oblongata and sacral region
    Explanation
    The autonomic parasympathetic division is responsible for rest and digest activities in the body. Neurons of this division project from the medulla oblongata and sacral region. These neurons innervate various organs and glands in the body, promoting activities such as digestion, slowing heart rate, and increasing glandular secretions. The hypothalamus plays a role in regulating the autonomic nervous system but does not directly project neurons for the parasympathetic division. The thoracic and lumbar regions are associated with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The basal ganglia is involved in motor control and does not directly project neurons for the parasympathetic division.

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  • 11. 

    What effect does the parasympathetic nervous system have on the motor function and secretion of the gut?

    • A.

      Excitatory

    • B.

      Inhibitory

    Correct Answer
    A. Excitatory
    Explanation
    The parasympathetic nervous system has an excitatory effect on the motor function and secretion of the gut. This means that it stimulates and enhances the activity and movement of the digestive system, as well as promotes the secretion of digestive enzymes and fluids.

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  • 12. 

    What is the key parasympathetic nerver innervating the gut?

    • A.

      Sciatic Nerve

    • B.

      Phrenic Nerve

    • C.

      Vagus nerve

    • D.

      Ventral rami of T3-T9

    Correct Answer
    C. Vagus nerve
    Explanation
    The vagus nerve is the key parasympathetic nerve that innervates the gut. It is responsible for regulating various functions of the gastrointestinal system, including digestion, motility, and secretion. The vagus nerve originates in the brainstem and travels down the neck, chest, and abdomen, sending branches to innervate different organs in the gut. Its parasympathetic fibers stimulate the release of digestive enzymes, increase blood flow to the gut, and promote peristalsis, helping to facilitate the digestive process. Therefore, the vagus nerve is crucial for maintaining optimal gut function.

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  • 13. 

    What NT is released into the small intestine to control the activity of the vagus nerve?

    • A.

      Epinephrine

    • B.

      Dopamine

    • C.

      GABA

    • D.

      Serotonin

    Correct Answer
    D. Serotonin
    Explanation
    Serotonin is released into the small intestine to control the activity of the vagus nerve. Serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in regulating various functions, including the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles, secretion of fluids, and control of pain sensation. It is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and helps to coordinate the movement of food through the digestive system. By controlling the activity of the vagus nerve, serotonin helps to regulate the overall digestive process in the small intestine.

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  • 14. 

    Where do neurons of the autonomic sympathetic division project to the gut from?

    • A.

      Vagus nerve

    • B.

      Thoracic and first lumbar segments of the spinal cord

    • C.

      Lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal cord

    • D.

      Thoracic, lumbar and first sacral segments of the spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    B. Thoracic and first lumbar segments of the spinal cord
    Explanation
    Neurons of the autonomic sympathetic division project to the gut from the thoracic and first lumbar segments of the spinal cord. This means that the sympathetic nerves that innervate the gut originate from these specific regions of the spinal cord.

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  • 15. 

    What type of effect does the sympathetic nervous system have on the secretory and motor function in the gut?

    • A.

      Excitatory

    • B.

      Inhibitory

    Correct Answer
    B. Inhibitory
    Explanation
    The sympathetic nervous system has an inhibitory effect on the secretory and motor function in the gut. This means that it reduces the activity of the gut, including the secretion of digestive enzymes and the movement of food through the digestive tract. This is because the sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which prioritizes blood flow to the muscles and brain and reduces non-essential functions such as digestion.

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  • 16. 

    What are the two types of receptors in the gut that are sensitive to acetylcholine? 

    Correct Answer
    Muscarinic and nicotinic
    muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    muscarinic aceytlcholine receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Explanation
    Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are the two types of receptors in the gut that are sensitive to acetylcholine. These receptors play a crucial role in mediating the effects of acetylcholine on various physiological processes in the gut, such as smooth muscle contraction, secretion, and motility. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein coupled receptors, while nicotinic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels. Activation of these receptors by acetylcholine leads to the initiation of intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately regulate gut function.

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  • 17. 

    What is the KEY neurotransimiter used in the Sympathetic Nervous System?

    • A.

      Epinephrine

    • B.

      Dopamine

    • C.

      Acetylcholine

    • D.

      Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    D. Norepinephrine
    Explanation
    Acts on alpha and beta adrenergic receptors

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  • 18. 

    Name the two excitatory nonadrenergic/noncholinergic NTs

    Correct Answer
    Substance P and Neurokinin A
    Substance P, Neurokinin A
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Substance P and Neurokinin A. Substance P and Neurokinin A are both excitatory nonadrenergic/noncholinergic neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are involved in various physiological processes, including pain transmission, neurogenic inflammation, and regulation of smooth muscle contraction. They are released by sensory neurons and play a role in the transmission of pain signals in the peripheral and central nervous systems.

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  • 19. 

    Name the two inhibitory nonadrenergic/noncholinergic NTs

    Correct Answer
    NO, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
    NO and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
    Nitric Oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
    Nitric Oxide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
    Explanation
    The two inhibitory nonadrenergic/noncholinergic NTs are Nitric Oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is NOT a componant of sympathetic activation (Think about the pictoral diagram)

    • A.

      Short preganglionic fibers

    • B.

      Acetycholine binding to Nicotinic receptor

    • C.

      Longer postganglionic fibers

    • D.

      Norepinephrine binding to muscarinic receptor

    Correct Answer
    D. Norepinephrine binding to muscarinic receptor
    Explanation
    Norepinephrine binds to adrenergic receptors (either alpha or beta), this is the final step in the diagram

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT a componant of parasympathetic activation (Pictoral diagram again)

    • A.

      Short preganglionic fibers

    • B.

      Acetylcholine binding to nicotinic receptors

    • C.

      Shorter postganglionic fibers

    • D.

      Acetylcholine binding to muscarinic receptors

    Correct Answer
    A. Short preganglionic fibers
    Explanation
    Parasympathetic activation has long preganglionic fibers

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  • 22. 

    What are the two principal muscle layers that control motility of the GI tract?

    Correct Answer
    inner circular layer muscularis externa, outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa
    Explanation
    The two principal muscle layers that control motility of the GI tract are the inner circular layer of the muscularis externa and the outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa. These layers work together to create peristalsis, the wave-like contractions that propel food through the digestive system. The inner circular layer contracts to narrow the lumen of the GI tract, while the outer longitudinal layer contracts to shorten the length of the tract. This coordinated movement helps to mix and propel food along the digestive tract for digestion and absorption.

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  • 23. 

    Which muscle layer that controls motility in the GI tract is thickened in the gastric antrum and to form sphinters?

    • A.

      Inner circular layer muscularis externa

    • B.

      Outer longitudinal layer of muscularis externa

    Correct Answer
    B. Outer longitudinal layer of muscularis externa
    Explanation
    The outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa is thickened in the gastric antrum and forms sphincters. This layer of muscle controls the motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It helps in the movement of food through the digestive system and also aids in the regulation of the opening and closing of sphincters to control the flow of food and prevent backflow.

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  • 24. 

    What type of cells are involved in the generation of electrical pacemaker activity for GI motility?

    • A.

      Interstitial cells of cajal

    • B.

      Chromaffin cells

    • C.

      Sinoatrial node

    • D.

      Basal electrical cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Interstitial cells of cajal
    Explanation
    Interstitial cells of Cajal are involved in the generation of electrical pacemaker activity for GI motility. These cells are located in the muscular layer of the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for initiating and coordinating the rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscles in the GI tract. They generate electrical signals that regulate the motility of the digestive system, allowing for the movement of food and waste through the digestive tract.

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  • 25. 

    What does contraction of GI muscle cells depend on?

    • A.

      How much calcium enters the cell

    • B.

      How much calcium leaves the cell

    • C.

      How much sodium enters the cell

    • D.

      How much sodium leaves the cell

    Correct Answer
    A. How much calcium enters the cell
    Explanation
    Contraction of GI muscle cells depends on the amount of calcium that enters the cell. Calcium plays a crucial role in muscle contraction by binding to proteins and triggering the sliding of muscle fibers, leading to muscle contraction. When calcium enters the cell, it binds to specific proteins, causing the muscle cells to contract. Therefore, the amount of calcium entering the cell directly affects the contraction of GI muscle cells.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following does NOT modify amplitude and duration of slow waves in the GI muscle contration cycle?

    • A.

      Neurotransmitters

    • B.

      Hormones

    • C.

      Pheremones

    • D.

      Other paracrine signaling

    Correct Answer
    C. Pheremones
    Explanation
    Pheromones do not modify the amplitude and duration of slow waves in the GI muscle contraction cycle. Pheromones are chemical substances released by animals that elicit a specific response from other individuals of the same species. While neurotransmitters, hormones, and other paracrine signaling molecules can influence the amplitude and duration of slow waves in the GI muscle contraction cycle, pheromones do not have this effect.

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  • 27. 

    How many slow waves / min occur in the stomach?

    • A.

      4

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      3

    Correct Answer
    D. 3
  • 28. 

    How many slow waves / min occur in the intestines?

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      10

    • C.

      18

    • D.

      12

    Correct Answer
    D. 12
    Explanation
    Slow waves are rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscles in the intestines that help move food along the digestive tract. These waves occur at a frequency of around 12 per minute in the intestines. Therefore, the correct answer is 12.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic pattern of contraction in GI smooth muscle?

    • A.

      Clonic Contraction

    • B.

      Tonic Contraction

    • C.

      Peristaltic Contraction

    • D.

      Segmental contraction

    Correct Answer
    A. Clonic Contraction
    Explanation
    Tonic contractions: sphincters that act as one-way valves to prevent retrograde movement of material from distal to more proximal regions and thus facilitate flow in an aboral direction. The proximal parts of the stomach and gallbaldder also exhibit tonic contractions

    Peristatlic contractions: moving waves of contraction that propel digesta along the GI tract. Involves neurally mediated contraction of smooth muscle on the oral side of a bolus of digesta and a neurally mediated relaxation of muscle on the anal side of digesta. Occurs in pharynx, esophagus, gastric antrum, SI and LI

    Segmental Contractions: Produce narrow contracted segments between relaxed segments. Allows mixing of lumincal contects with GI tract secretions and increase exposure to mucoasl surfaces where absorption occurs. occurs in stomach and intestine.

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  • 30. 

    What are the three arteries that supply the GI tract?

    Correct Answer
    Celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric
    celiac and superior and inferior mesenteric
    celiac trunk, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric
    Explanation
    The correct answer is celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric arteries. These three arteries are responsible for supplying blood to the gastrointestinal tract. The celiac artery supplies blood to the upper gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach and liver. The superior mesenteric artery supplies blood to the midgut, including the small intestine and part of the large intestine. The inferior mesenteric artery supplies blood to the hindgut, including the remaining part of the large intestine and the rectum.

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  • 31. 

    What is the daily flud load in the GI tract?

    • A.

      2 L of oral intake, 2 L of secretions

    • B.

      7 L of oral intake, 7 L of secretions

    • C.

      7 L of oral intake, 2 L of secretions

    • D.

      2 L of oral intake, 7 L of secretions

    Correct Answer
    D. 2 L of oral intake, 7 L of secretions
    Explanation
    The 7 L of secretions is made up of:
    - 1.5 L saliva
    - 2.5 L gastric juice
    - .5 L bile
    - 1.5 L pancreatic juice
    - 1 L intestinal secretions

    Of this total 9 L, approximately 100 mL ends up in stool daily, the balance in recycled.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following areas has the highst flow rate per day of fluid passing through it?

    • A.

      Rectum

    • B.

      Middle jejunum

    • C.

      Bottom jejunum

    • D.

      Top jejunum

    Correct Answer
    D. Top jejunum
    Explanation
    Top : 9000 mL/d
    Middle: 3000 mL/d
    Bottom: 1000 mL/d
    Rectum: 100 mL/d

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  • 33. 

    ________ secretion and __________ absorption causes _____________, which can be fatal due to fluid and electrolyte loss

    • A.

      Increased, decreased, vomiting

    • B.

      Increased, decreased, diarrhea

    • C.

      Decreased, increased, vomitting

    • D.

      Decreased, increased, diarrhea

    Correct Answer
    B. Increased, decreased, diarrhea
    Explanation
    Increased secretion and decreased absorption causes diarrhea, which can be fatal due to fluid and electrolyte loss.

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  • 34. 

    What is thought to be the primary regulator of acid output?

    Correct Answer
    enterochromaffin cells secreting histamine
    enterochromaffin cells
    Explanation
    The primary regulator of acid output is thought to be enterochromaffin cells secreting histamine. These cells release histamine, which then binds to H2 receptors on parietal cells in the stomach lining. This binding stimulates the production of gastric acid, leading to increased acid output. Enterochromaffin cells themselves are also involved in regulating acid secretion, as they can directly influence parietal cell activity. Therefore, both enterochromaffin cells and their secretion of histamine play a crucial role in regulating acid output in the stomach.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the main stimulants for acid secretion?

    • A.

      Histamine?

    • B.

      Acetycholine

    • C.

      Dopamine

    • D.

      Gastrin

    Correct Answer
    C. Dopamine
    Explanation
    Dopamine is not one of the main stimulants for acid secretion. While histamine, acetylcholine, and gastrin are known to stimulate acid secretion, dopamine does not have this effect. Dopamine is primarily involved in regulating movement, mood, and the reward system in the brain. It does not play a significant role in acid secretion in the stomach.

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  • 36. 

    Intracellular factors wich increased acid secretion include cAMP and calcium. What do they act on to do this?

    Correct Answer
    Adrenal Medulla
  • 37. 

    What is a cyclic motor pattern occuring during fasting?

    Correct Answer
    Migrating motor complex
    Migrating myoelectric complex
    Explanation
    This is dependent on an intact enteric nervous system and originates in the antrum and goes to the terminal ileum.

    During Phase III - period of regular, intense and repetitive contracts which is key to move the contents along and to prevent bacterial overgrowth. **associated with an increase in motilin levels

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  • 38. 

    Absorption of water is driven by ______________, while secretion of water is driven by ____________________.

    • A.

      Sodium, Potassium

    • B.

      Potassium, Chloride

    • C.

      Sodium, Chloride

    • D.

      Chloride, Sodium

    Correct Answer
    C. Sodium, Chloride
    Explanation
    The absorption of water is driven by the movement of sodium ions, while the secretion of water is driven by the movement of chloride ions. Sodium ions play a crucial role in the absorption of water by creating an osmotic gradient that draws water into the cells. On the other hand, chloride ions are involved in the secretion of water by creating an osmotic gradient that causes water to move out of the cells. Therefore, the correct answer is Sodium, Chloride.

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  • 39. 

    Aggregates of lymphoid cells in the small intestine involved with immunologic defense of the GI tract are called:

    • A.

      Kupffer Cells

    • B.

      Peyer's Patches

    • C.

      Langerhan Cells

    • D.

      Macrophages

    Correct Answer
    B. Peyer's Patches
    Explanation
    Peyer's patches are aggregates of lymphoid cells in the small intestine that play a crucial role in the immunologic defense of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They are responsible for monitoring and responding to pathogens and foreign substances that enter the GI tract. Peyer's patches contain specialized immune cells, such as B cells and T cells, which help in the production of antibodies and the activation of immune responses. These patches are essential for maintaining the integrity of the GI tract and protecting it from infections and diseases.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is NOT a "non-immunologic defense" according to our notes:

    • A.

      Secretion of gastric and interstitial fluid, electrolyte and mucus

    • B.

      Diffuse populations of mucosal immune cells

    • C.

      Tight junctions between epithelial cells

    • D.

      Aantimicrobial peptides

    Correct Answer
    B. Diffuse populations of mucosal immune cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Diffuse populations of mucosal immune cells." According to the given options, all of them are examples of non-immunologic defenses except for diffuse populations of mucosal immune cells. This is because immune cells are part of the immune system and are involved in immunologic defense mechanisms, not non-immunologic defenses.

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  • 41. 

    The esophagus is a hollow tube that consists of:

    • A.

      Epithelial cell layer

    • B.

      Inner layer of circular muscle

    • C.

      Inner layer of longitudinal muscle

    • D.

      Myenteric nerve plexus

    • E.

      Outer layer of longitudinal muscle

    • F.

      Outer layer of circular muscle

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Epithelial cell layer
    B. Inner layer of circular muscle
    D. Myenteric nerve plexus
    E. Outer layer of longitudinal muscle
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes the different layers of the esophagus. The epithelial cell layer lines the inner surface of the esophagus, providing a protective barrier. The inner layer of circular muscle helps with the movement of food through the esophagus by contracting and relaxing. The myenteric nerve plexus is a network of nerves that control the muscle movements in the esophagus. The outer layer of longitudinal muscle provides support and helps with the movement of food. Overall, these layers work together to facilitate the swallowing and movement of food from the mouth to the stomach.

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  • 42. 

    The first third of the esophagus is composed of smooth muscle, the middle third is mixed striated ans mooth muscle and the lower third is purely striated muscle.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The first third is striated and the lower third is purely smooth

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  • 43. 

    What mechanisms cause the lower esophageal sphincter to be contracted between swallows?

    • A.

      NO and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    • B.

      Acetylcholine

    • C.

      Vagal cholinergic

    • D.

      Phrenic adrenergic

    Correct Answer
    C. Vagal cholinergic
    Explanation
    NO and vasoactive intestinal peptide allow for it to be relaxed during swallows.

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  • 44. 

    Cardiac mucosa secretes mucus.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pit/surface/foveolar cell and mucous neck cell both secrete mucus.

    - The pyloric mucosa also does this and uses the same cells to do so.

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  • 45. 

    Fundic mucosa secretes mucus, pepsin and _______.

    Correct Answer
    acid
    Explanation
    Pit/surface/foveolar cell secretes mucus
    Parietal cells secerete acid and intrinsic factor
    Zymogenic (cheif) cells secrete pepsinogen

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  • 46. 

    What are the three phases of acid secretion that occur during feeding?

    • A.

      Cephalic, Basilic, Intestinal

    • B.

      Cephalic, Gastric, Esophageal

    • C.

      Esophageal, Intestinal, Rectal

    • D.

      Cephalic, Gastric, Intestinal

    Correct Answer
    D. Cephalic, Gastric, Intestinal
    Explanation
    Cephalic: anticipation (sight/smell of food) stimulates vagus
    - 4 effects vagal stimulation has on acid secretion during this phase: increased pepsinogen release from chief cells, hydrogen release from parietal cells, histamine release from EC cells, gastrin release from G cells

    Gastric phase: (about 70% of the response) When food hits the stomach. Vagal motor nerves release acetylcholine in the stomach to promote acid secretion. (Gastric release from G cells in the pylorus --> gastrin stimulates acid secretion --> acidification of pylorus stimulates somatostatin release --> inhibits acid secretion through neg feedback

    Intestinal phase: (slowing down of release) Many substances (most noteably fat and acid) stimulate secretion of hormones that inhibit gastric acid secretion (ex: secretin and cholecystokinin)

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  • 47. 

    Where are chief cells found and what do they secrete?

    • A.

      Glands of gastric fundus, gastric acid

    • B.

      Glands of gastric fundus, pepsinogen

    • C.

      Glands of gastric corpus, gastric acid

    • D.

      Glands of gastric corpus, pepsinogen

    Correct Answer
    D. Glands of gastric corpus, pepsinogen
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is the main stimulant of pepsinogen secretion
    - pepsin accounts for 10% of total protein digestion

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  • 48. 

    What cells combine to form the mucus gel layer that adheres to the surface of epithelial cells ofthe stomach and form the physical protection for epithelial cells?

    • A.

      Mucins

    • B.

      Pepsinogens

    • C.

      Gastric Acids

    • D.

      Phospholipids

    • E.

      Bicarbonate

    • F.

      Water

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Mucins
    D. Phospholipids
    E. Bicarbonate
    F. Water
    Explanation
    The mucus gel layer that adheres to the surface of epithelial cells in the stomach is formed by a combination of mucins, phospholipids, bicarbonate, and water. Mucins are large glycoproteins that provide viscosity to the mucus, while phospholipids contribute to the stability of the mucus layer. Bicarbonate helps to neutralize the acidic environment of the stomach, protecting the epithelial cells from damage. Water is also essential for the formation and maintenance of the mucus gel layer. Together, these components form a physical barrier that protects the stomach epithelial cells from the harsh gastric environment.

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  • 49. 

    Which is NOT true of the villi of the small intestine?

    • A.

      They are projections of the mucosa containing a single terminal brach of the arterial venous and lymphatic tree

    • B.

      They decrease surface area

    • C.

      They secrete digestive enzymes

    • D.

      Densely packed microvilli make up a "brush border"

    Correct Answer
    B. They decrease surface area
    Explanation
    They INCREASE surface area which increases the absorptive capacity of enterocytes by 5-fold

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  • 50. 

    Crypts of Lieberkuhn are pentapotential stem cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    They are tetrapotential stem cells

    Can become: Enterocytes (absorb), Goblet cells (secrete mucus), Enteroendocrine cells (secrete hormones) Paneth cells (secrete antimicrobial peptides and growth factor)

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Apr 22, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 10, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Et167807
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