Cm 3 Gerd & Infectious Esophagitis

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Cm 3 Gerd & Infectious Esophagitis - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    GERD: Reflux esophagitis is the recurrent reflux of gastric contents into the distal esophagus because of mechanical functional abnormality of the ____________________

    • A.

      Pyloric sphincter

    • B.

      Lower esophageal sphincter

    • C.

      Pylorus

    • D.

      Upper esophageal sphincter

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower esophageal sphincter
    Explanation
    Reflux esophagitis is caused by the recurrent reflux of gastric contents into the distal esophagus. This occurs due to a mechanical functional abnormality of the lower esophageal sphincter. The lower esophageal sphincter is a muscular ring that separates the esophagus from the stomach and normally prevents the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus. When this sphincter becomes weak or relaxes inappropriately, it allows stomach acid to flow back up into the esophagus, leading to the development of reflux esophagitis.

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  • 2. 

    Most times GERD presents as _________.  You must rule out everything else before you diagnose GERD.

    • A.

      Cough

    • B.

      Cold

    • C.

      Gnawing burning pain

    • D.

      Chest pain

    Correct Answer
    D. Chest pain
    Explanation
    GERD often presents as chest pain. However, it is important to rule out other possible causes before diagnosing GERD. Chest pain can be a symptom of various conditions, including heart problems, so it is necessary to eliminate other potential causes before attributing it to GERD.

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  • 3. 

    GERD is a common problem occuring in 10-20? of people in the west (5% in Asia) for people with weekly symptoms. Up to 60% of the population experiences "heartburn" at some point.  In infants, about 50% have reflux, but less than 10% have evidence of esophagitis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is indeed a common problem that affects a significant portion of the population in the western world. It is estimated that 10-20% of people in the west experience GERD symptoms on a weekly basis, while the prevalence is lower at around 5% in Asia. Additionally, it is reported that up to 60% of the population will experience "heartburn" at some point in their lives. In infants, reflux is common, with about 50% experiencing it, but only a small percentage, less than 10%, will have evidence of esophagitis. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 4. 

    What is not a factor that protects the esophagus?

    • A.

      Mucus

    • B.

      Gravity

    • C.

      Lower esophageal sphincter tone

    • D.

      Esophageal motility

    • E.

      Salivary flow

    • F.

      Gastric emptying

    • G.

      Tissue resistance

    Correct Answer
    A. Mucus
    Explanation
    Mucus is not a factor that protects the esophagus. The esophagus is protected by factors such as gravity, lower esophageal sphincter tone, esophageal motility, salivary flow, gastric emptying, and tissue resistance. Mucus, on the other hand, is primarily responsible for protecting the lining of the stomach and intestines. It helps to lubricate and provide a protective barrier for these organs, but it does not play a significant role in protecting the esophagus.

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  • 5. 

    In a minority of patients: Reflux causes erosion of the esophagus that leads to ________________.  Which is replacement of normal squamous epithelium with metaplastic columnar epithelium and can predispose to malignancy.

    Correct Answer
    Barrett's esophagitis
    Explanation
    Reflux causes erosion of the esophagus, leading to the replacement of normal squamous epithelium with metaplastic columnar epithelium. This condition is known as Barrett's esophagitis. Barrett's esophagitis can predispose individuals to malignancy.

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  • 6. 

    Check all that exacerbate GERD

    • A.

      Obesity

    • B.

      Caffeine

    • C.

      Alcohol

    • D.

      Smoking

    • E.

      IV drug use

    • F.

      Fatty meals

    • G.

      Medications

    • H.

      Pregnancy

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Obesity
    B. Caffeine
    C. Alcohol
    D. Smoking
    F. Fatty meals
    G. Medications
    H. Pregnancy
    Explanation
    Exacerbation refers to the worsening or increase in severity of a condition. In the case of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), certain factors can make the symptoms worse. Obesity can increase pressure on the stomach, leading to more frequent and intense reflux. Caffeine, alcohol, and smoking can relax the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus. Fatty meals can delay stomach emptying, prolonging the exposure of the esophagus to acid. Certain medications, such as NSAIDs and some antidepressants, can also worsen GERD symptoms. Pregnancy can increase abdominal pressure, contributing to reflux. Therefore, all of the listed factors can exacerbate GERD.

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  • 7. 

    The etiology/Pathophysiology of GERD is Weekly heartburn and mucosal damage that develops produced by ________ of gastric contents into the esophagus.  Can be caused by problems with LES pressure or Hiatal Hernia.

    • A.

      Heartburn

    • B.

      Undigested

    • C.

      Stalled portions

    • D.

      Abnormal reflux

    Correct Answer
    D. Abnormal reflux
    Explanation
    GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is characterized by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. This means that the stomach acid and other contents flow back up into the esophagus, causing irritation and damage to the esophageal lining. This abnormal reflux can be caused by problems with the pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), which is the muscle that normally prevents the backflow of stomach contents. It can also be caused by a hiatal hernia, which is when part of the stomach pushes up through the diaphragm into the chest cavity. Both of these issues can lead to the development of GERD symptoms such as weekly heartburn and mucosal damage.

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  • 8. 

    GERD has the most common presenting feature (of CP):

    • A.

      Tightness

    • B.

      Squeezing

    • C.

      Feeling of impending doom

    • D.

      Heartburn

    Correct Answer
    D. Heartburn
    Explanation
    Heartburn is the most common presenting feature of GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease). GERD is a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing a burning sensation in the chest or throat. This symptom is commonly referred to as heartburn. While tightness, squeezing, and a feeling of impending doom can also be associated with chest pain, they are not specific to GERD and can be indicative of other medical conditions. Therefore, heartburn is the correct answer as it is the most common presenting feature of GERD.

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  • 9. 

    Check all the symptoms of GERD

    • A.

      Increases at nighttime and when laying down

    • B.

      Often relieved with antacids

    • C.

      Worse before meals

    • D.

      Worse after meals

    • E.

      Regurgitation or dysphagia may occur.

    • F.

      Hematemisis may occur.

    • G.

      Hoarseness, halitosis, cough, hiccupping and atypical CP are less common symptoms of reflux.

    • H.

      More severe disease is generally caused by severe impairment of the lower esophageal sphincter tone: occurs spontaneously when supine.

    • I.

      Less severe GERD is associated with a pattern of heartburn following meals, but not associated with nighttime Sx's.

    • J.

      Can have asymptomatic "silent reflux" that is typically noticed by a dentist due to dental decay

    • K.

      May cause loss of hair if nutritional needs are not adequate

    • L.

      Main symptom is heartburn approx 30-60 min. after meals.

    • M.

      Patients may also present with asthma, globus sensation, recurrent laryngitis, sore throat, acid brash, waterbrash. Reterosternal CP

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increases at nighttime and when laying down
    B. Often relieved with antacids
    D. Worse after meals
    E. Regurgitation or dysphagia may occur.
    G. Hoarseness, halitosis, cough, hiccupping and atypical CP are less common symptoms of reflux.
    H. More severe disease is generally caused by severe impairment of the lower esophageal sphincter tone: occurs spontaneously when supine.
    I. Less severe GERD is associated with a pattern of heartburn following meals, but not associated with nighttime Sx's.
    L. Main symptom is heartburn approx 30-60 min. after meals.
    M. Patients may also present with asthma, globus sensation, recurrent laryngitis, sore throat, acid brash, waterbrash. Reterosternal CP
    Explanation
    The given answer includes all the symptoms of GERD. GERD symptoms include heartburn that increases at nighttime and when laying down, is often relieved with antacids, and worsens after meals. Regurgitation or dysphagia may occur. Less common symptoms include hoarseness, halitosis, cough, hiccupping, and atypical chest pain. More severe disease is caused by severe impairment of the lower esophageal sphincter tone and occurs spontaneously when supine. Less severe GERD is associated with heartburn following meals, but not at nighttime. Other symptoms may include asthma, globus sensation, recurrent laryngitis, sore throat, acid brash, waterbrash, and retrosternal chest pain.

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  • 10. 

    What is a long term symptom of GERD?

    • A.

      Diffuse esophageal spasm

    • B.

      Neurogenic dysphagia

    • C.

      Zenker's diverticulum

    • D.

      Dysphagia

    Correct Answer
    D. Dysphagia
    Explanation
    Dysphagia is a long-term symptom of GERD. It refers to difficulty or discomfort in swallowing food or liquids. This symptom occurs when stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing irritation and inflammation. Over time, this can lead to the development of scar tissue and narrowing of the esophagus, making it harder to swallow. Therefore, dysphagia is a common long-term consequence of GERD.

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  • 11. 

    Check all of the below possible mechanisms that result in GERD:

    • A.

      Sphincter incompetence

    • B.

      Poor digestion

    • C.

      Malabsorption

    • D.

      Transient LES relaxation (common GERD)

    • E.

      Hypotensive LES (More severe GERD)

    • F.

      Anatomical Disturbance of LES (Hiatal Hernia)

    • G.

      Obesity

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sphincter incompetence
    D. Transient LES relaxation (common GERD)
    E. Hypotensive LES (More severe GERD)
    F. Anatomical Disturbance of LES (Hiatal Hernia)
    Explanation
    GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a condition characterized by the backward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus. The correct answer options all relate to possible mechanisms that can result in GERD. Sphincter incompetence refers to the inability of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to properly close, allowing acid to reflux. Transient LES relaxation is a common cause of GERD, where the LES relaxes inappropriately, leading to acid reflux. Hypotensive LES refers to a weakened LES, which can lead to more severe GERD. An anatomical disturbance of the LES, such as a hiatal hernia, can also contribute to GERD. Obesity is not directly mentioned as a mechanism for GERD in the given options.

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  • 12. 

    In GERD, what is typically chosen to monitor the extent of tissue damage?

    • A.

      The lower GI

    • B.

      The Upper GI

    • C.

      The lower esophageal sphincter

    • D.

      The entire esophagus via endoscopy

    Correct Answer
    B. The Upper GI
    Explanation
    In GERD, the upper GI is typically chosen to monitor the extent of tissue damage. This is because GERD primarily affects the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the esophagus. Monitoring the upper GI allows healthcare professionals to assess the damage caused by the reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus. This can be done through various diagnostic tests such as upper endoscopy, which provides a direct visualization of the esophagus and can identify any inflammation or tissue damage.

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  • 13. 

    A clinical diagnosis can typically be made based on:

    • A.

      Family history

    • B.

      Undigested food remniants on pillow

    • C.

      A history of heartburn, regurgitation of gastric contents... especially if relieved by antacids.

    • D.

      A person's affinity for spicy foods

    Correct Answer
    C. A history of heartburn, regurgitation of gastric contents... especially if relieved by antacids.
    Explanation
    A clinical diagnosis can typically be made based on a history of heartburn, regurgitation of gastric contents, especially if relieved by antacids. This suggests that the individual may be experiencing symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is characterized by the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus. The fact that these symptoms are relieved by antacids further supports the diagnosis of GERD. The other options mentioned, such as family history and affinity for spicy foods, may provide additional context but are not sufficient on their own to make a clinical diagnosis.

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  • 14. 

    A more severe disease warrants endoscopy to confirm the Dx and to assess for epithealial damage.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Endoscopy is a medical procedure that allows doctors to visually examine the inside of a person's body using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached. In the context of a more severe disease, endoscopy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis (Dx) and evaluate any potential damage to the epithelial tissue. This procedure provides direct visualization and can help identify the extent and severity of the disease, allowing for appropriate treatment decisions to be made. Therefore, the statement that a more severe disease warrants endoscopy to confirm the Dx and assess for epithelial damage is true.

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  • 15. 

    ___________________ i warranted in patients older than 45 years with a new onset of symptoms, long-standing or frequently recurring symptoms and failure to respond to therapy or symptoms, indicating more severe conditions such as anemia, dysphagia, or recurrent vomiting.

    Correct Answer
    Endoscopy
    Explanation
    Endoscopy is warranted in patients older than 45 years with a new onset of symptoms, long-standing or frequently recurring symptoms, and failure to respond to therapy or symptoms indicating more severe conditions such as anemia, dysphagia, or recurrent vomiting. This means that endoscopy is recommended for these patients to further investigate their symptoms and potentially diagnose any underlying conditions that may be causing their symptoms. Endoscopy allows for direct visualization of the upper gastrointestinal tract, helping to identify any abnormalities or diseases that may be present.

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  • 16. 

    Medical Management for GERD:

    • A.

      Suggest lifestyle modifications: stop smoking, avoidance of eating at bedtime (6pm), avoidance of large meals, avoidance of alcohol, avoidance of irritating foods, raise the head of the bed, lose weight, posture changes.

    • B.

      Mild Symptomatic Tx: Anatacids or alginic acid

    • C.

      Mild GERD Tx: Histamine (H2 Blockers): may be used but in larger doses than for PUD. H2-blockers are the first-line treatment for mild GERD.

    • D.

      An Acid-suppressant proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The most powerful anti-GERD medication. PPIs are first-line Tx in moderate to severe disease or in patients who are unresponsive to H2-blockers or have evidence of erosive gastritis.

    • E.

      A combination of an H2 blocker at bedtime and a PPI in the daytime may be helpful in patients with significant nighttime symptoms.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Suggest lifestyle modifications: stop smoking, avoidance of eating at bedtime (6pm), avoidance of large meals, avoidance of alcohol, avoidance of irritating foods, raise the head of the bed, lose weight, posture changes.
    B. Mild Symptomatic Tx: Anatacids or alginic acid
    C. Mild GERD Tx: Histamine (H2 Blockers): may be used but in larger doses than for PUD. H2-blockers are the first-line treatment for mild GERD.
    D. An Acid-suppressant proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The most powerful anti-GERD medication. PPIs are first-line Tx in moderate to severe disease or in patients who are unresponsive to H2-blockers or have evidence of erosive gastritis.
    E. A combination of an H2 blocker at bedtime and a PPI in the daytime may be helpful in patients with significant nighttime symptoms.
    Explanation
    The correct answer provides a comprehensive approach to the medical management of GERD. It starts with suggesting lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, avoiding eating at bedtime, avoiding large meals, alcohol, and irritating foods, raising the head of the bed, losing weight, and making posture changes. For mild symptomatic relief, antacids or alginic acid can be used. H2 blockers are the first-line treatment for mild GERD, while proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for moderate to severe disease or when H2 blockers are ineffective or erosive gastritis is present. In patients with significant nighttime symptoms, a combination of H2 blockers at bedtime and PPIs during the day can be beneficial.

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  • 17. 

    What should be avoided with GERD?

    • A.

      B-agonists

    • B.

      A-adrenergic antagonist

    • C.

      Nitrates

    • D.

      Calcium channel blockers

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    B-agonists, a-adrenergic antagonist, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, anticholinergics, theophylline, morphine, meperidine, diazepam, and barbiturate agents decrease the lower esophaeal sphincter pressure and should be avoided.

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  • 18. 

    As a Tx for GERD weight loss has been shown to be as effective as a PPI.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Weight loss has been shown to be as effective as a PPI (proton pump inhibitor) in treating GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). This means that losing weight can be an alternative treatment option for GERD, providing similar benefits as medication. This suggests that weight loss can help alleviate symptoms of GERD and improve overall digestive health.

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  • 19. 

    When taking a PPI what may not be absorbed by the body?

    • A.

      Salts

    • B.

      Electrolytes

    • C.

      Magnesium

    • D.

      Calcium

    • E.

      A & b

    • F.

      C & d

    Correct Answer
    F. C & d
    Explanation
    When taking a PPI (Proton Pump Inhibitor), both magnesium and calcium may not be absorbed by the body. PPIs work by reducing the production of stomach acid, which can affect the absorption of certain minerals. Magnesium and calcium are essential minerals for various bodily functions, including bone health and nerve function. Therefore, when taking a PPI, it is important to monitor magnesium and calcium levels and potentially supplement them if necessary.

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  • 20. 

    Surgical & Endoscopic Techniques are available for ____________ but have NOT been shown to prevent complications of the disease.  Surgical Treatment for resolution of GERD is useful when the causative mechanism is a Hiatal Hernia.

    • A.

      Refractory cases

    • B.

      Active cases

    • C.

      Latent cases

    Correct Answer
    A. Refractory cases
    Explanation
    Surgical and endoscopic techniques are available for refractory cases of GERD, which means cases that do not respond to conventional treatment or continue to have symptoms despite treatment. However, these techniques have not been proven to prevent complications of the disease. Surgical treatment is only recommended when the underlying cause of GERD is a hiatal hernia.

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  • 21. 

    Patient education to give to patients should include:

    • A.

      Avoid acidic foods

    • B.

      Avoid alcohol

    • C.

      Avoid caffeine

    • D.

      Avoid chocolate

    • E.

      Avoid sleeping

    • F.

      Avoid garlic

    • G.

      Avoid onions

    • H.

      Avoid salt

    • I.

      Avoid peppermint

    • J.

      Avoid illegal drugs

    • K.

      Avoid smoking

    • L.

      Lose weight

    • M.

      Raise the head of the bed

    • N.

      Decrease fat intake

    • O.

      Drink moonshine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Avoid acidic foods
    B. Avoid alcohol
    C. Avoid caffeine
    D. Avoid chocolate
    F. Avoid garlic
    G. Avoid onions
    H. Avoid salt
    I. Avoid peppermint
    K. Avoid smoking
    L. Lose weight
    M. Raise the head of the bed
    N. Decrease fat intake
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes a list of recommendations for patient education. These recommendations focus on avoiding certain foods and substances that can worsen certain health conditions, such as acid reflux or heartburn. Additionally, it suggests lifestyle changes such as losing weight and raising the head of the bed to alleviate symptoms. It also emphasizes the importance of decreasing fat intake and avoiding smoking, which are known to have negative effects on overall health. The inclusion of "drink moonshine" is incorrect and does not align with the other recommendations.

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  • 22. 

    What is not a complication of GERD

    • A.

      Peptic ulcer disease

    • B.

      Barrett's Esophagitis/Malignancy

    • C.

      Ulcers/Strictures

    • D.

      Vocal Cord Errosion

    Correct Answer
    D. Vocal Cord Errosion
    Explanation
    Vocal Cord Erosion is not a complication of GERD. GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms like heartburn and acid regurgitation. Complications of GERD typically involve damage to the esophagus, such as peptic ulcer disease, Barrett's esophagitis/malignancy, and ulcers/strictures. Vocal cord erosion, on the other hand, is not directly caused by GERD and is unrelated to the esophagus. It refers to the wearing away or damage to the vocal cords, often caused by excessive use or misuse of the voice.

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  • 23. 

    Check ALL of the warning Sx's suggesting that complications have occurred in GERD:

    • A.

      Dysphagia

    • B.

      Rhinorrhea

    • C.

      Bleeding

    • D.

      Weight loss

    • E.

      Chest pain

    • F.

      Weight gain

    • G.

      Choking

    • H.

      Coughing, SOB, Hoarseness (caused by acid)

    • I.

      Lesions in the mouth

    • J.

      Longstanding symptoms requiring continuous treatment

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dysphagia
    C. Bleeding
    D. Weight loss
    E. Chest pain
    G. Choking
    H. Coughing, SOB, Hoarseness (caused by acid)
    J. Longstanding symptoms requiring continuous treatment
    Explanation
    The symptoms listed in the answer choice suggest complications that have occurred in GERD. Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, can indicate narrowing of the esophagus due to chronic acid reflux. Bleeding may occur if the lining of the esophagus or stomach is damaged. Weight loss can result from reduced appetite or difficulty eating. Chest pain may be a sign of esophageal spasms or inflammation. Choking can occur if acid reflux causes aspiration of stomach contents into the airway. Coughing, shortness of breath, and hoarseness can be caused by acid irritating the throat and lungs. Longstanding symptoms requiring continuous treatment indicate that the condition is chronic and may have led to complications.

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  • 24. 

    What is the "big culprit" causing Pill-induced esophagitis?

    • A.

      NSAIDS

    • B.

      Steriods

    • C.

      Doxycylcine

    • D.

      Acids

    Correct Answer
    C. Doxycylcine
    Explanation
    Doxycycline is the correct answer because it is a medication known to cause pill-induced esophagitis. This condition occurs when certain medications, such as doxycycline, irritate and damage the lining of the esophagus, leading to symptoms like chest pain and difficulty swallowing. NSAIDs and steroids can also cause esophagitis, but they are not specifically mentioned as the "big culprit" in this question. Acids, on the other hand, are not a cause of pill-induced esophagitis.

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  • 25. 

    Corrosive Esophagitis is caused by:

    • A.

      E. coli

    • B.

      S. pyogenes

    • C.

      Low pH

    • D.

      Alkalis or acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Alkalis or acids
    Explanation
    Corrosive esophagitis is caused by the ingestion of alkalis or acids. When these substances come into contact with the esophagus, they can cause severe damage and inflammation, leading to corrosive esophagitis. The corrosive nature of alkalis or acids can erode the lining of the esophagus, resulting in painful symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and heartburn. Prompt medical attention is necessary to treat corrosive esophagitis and prevent further complications.

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  • 26. 

    What is not a common cause of Infectious Esophagitis:

    • A.

      Candida sp. (fungus)

    • B.

      Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

    • C.

      Herpes simplex virus (HSV)

    • D.

      HIV

    • E.

      EBV

    • F.

      Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    • G.

      Mycobacterium avium intracellulare

    • H.

      Trick question... all of the above can be causes although we primarily talked about HSV, HIV, CMV, and Candida sp. in class.

    Correct Answer
    H. Trick question... all of the above can be causes although we primarily talked about HSV, HIV, CMV, and Candida sp. in class.
  • 27. 

    If oral thrush is present in Infectious Esophagitis, you would think the cause would be from:

    Correct Answer
    Candida sp.
    candida
    Explanation
    Infectious Esophagitis is commonly caused by Candida species, specifically Candida albicans. Candida is a type of fungus that can overgrow and cause infection in the esophagus, leading to symptoms such as white patches or plaques on the inner lining of the esophagus. Therefore, if oral thrush is present in Infectious Esophagitis, it is likely that the cause of the infection is Candida species.

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  • 28. 

    What is the main clinical feature of Infectious Esophagitis?

    • A.

      Odynophagia

    • B.

      Dysphagia

    • C.

      Both

    Correct Answer
    C. Both
    Explanation
    The main clinical feature of Infectious Esophagitis is both odynophagia and dysphagia. Odynophagia refers to painful swallowing, while dysphagia refers to difficulty swallowing. In Infectious Esophagitis, the esophagus becomes inflamed due to an infection, leading to these symptoms. Both odynophagia and dysphagia are commonly experienced by individuals with this condition.

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  • 29. 

    Endoscopy in patients with CMV or HIV reveals: _____________________.

    • A.

      Large, deep ulcers

    • B.

      Multiple shallow ulcers

    • C.

      White plaques

    Correct Answer
    A. Large, deep ulcers
    Explanation
    Patients with CMV (Cytomegalovirus) or HIV may present with large, deep ulcers during endoscopy. This finding is characteristic of these infections and can help in the diagnosis. The presence of large, deep ulcers is likely due to the immunocompromised state of these patients, which makes them more susceptible to severe tissue damage caused by the viral infection.

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  • 30. 

    Endoscopy in patients with Candidal infection reveals: _____________________.

    • A.

      Large, deep ulcers

    • B.

      Multiple shallow ulcers

    • C.

      White plaques

    Correct Answer
    C. White plaques
    Explanation
    Endoscopy in patients with Candidal infection reveals white plaques. This is because Candidal infection, also known as Candidiasis, often presents as white patches or plaques on the mucous membranes. These white plaques are caused by the overgrowth of Candida fungus, which can occur in various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, esophagus, and gastrointestinal tract. The presence of white plaques during endoscopy is a characteristic finding in Candidal infection and helps in diagnosing and managing the condition.

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  • 31. 

    Endoscopy in patients with HSV reveals: _____________________.

    • A.

      Large, deep ulcers

    • B.

      Multiple shallow ulcers

    • C.

      White plaques

    Correct Answer
    B. Multiple shallow ulcers
    Explanation
    Endoscopy in patients with HSV reveals multiple shallow ulcers. This is because HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus) commonly causes ulceration in the affected areas. These ulcers are typically shallow and can be seen during endoscopy. The presence of multiple shallow ulcers is a characteristic finding in HSV infection and helps in diagnosing the condition.

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  • 32. 

    What is needed for definitive diagnosis of infectious esophagitis?

    • A.

      Endoscopy

    • B.

      Cytology or culture from endoscopic brushings

    • C.

      Dexa scan

    • D.

      O&P

    Correct Answer
    B. Cytology or culture from endoscopic brushings
    Explanation
    A definitive diagnosis of infectious esophagitis requires obtaining cytology or culture from endoscopic brushings. This is because infectious esophagitis is caused by various infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and identifying the specific pathogen responsible is crucial for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Endoscopy allows direct visualization of the esophagus and collection of brushings for cytology or culture, which can help identify the causative organism and confirm the diagnosis. Dexa scan is not relevant to the diagnosis of infectious esophagitis, and O&P (ova and parasite) testing is typically used to detect parasites in stool samples, which is not directly related to esophagitis.

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  • 33. 

    What is the treatment for Candida sp. Infectious Esophagitis?

    • A.

      Acyclovir

    • B.

      Ganciclovir

    • C.

      Fluconazole or ketoconazole. Treat for at least 21+ days to ensure clearance. Repeat labs to ensure clearance.

    Correct Answer
    C. Fluconazole or ketoconazole. Treat for at least 21+ days to ensure clearance. Repeat labs to ensure clearance.
    Explanation
    The correct treatment for Candida sp. Infectious Esophagitis is Fluconazole or ketoconazole. These antifungal medications should be administered for a minimum of 21 days to ensure clearance of the infection. It is also recommended to repeat laboratory tests to confirm that the infection has been successfully cleared.

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  • 34. 

    What is the treatment for HSV Infectious Esophagitis?

    • A.

      Acyclovir

    • B.

      Ganciclovir

    • C.

      Fluconazole or ketoconazole. Treat for at least 21+ days to ensure clearance. Repeat labs to ensure clearance.

    Correct Answer
    A. Acyclovir
    Explanation
    The treatment for HSV Infectious Esophagitis is Acyclovir. This antiviral medication is commonly used to treat herpes infections, including HSV Infectious Esophagitis. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, reducing the severity and duration of the infection. Acyclovir is considered the first-line treatment for this condition and is typically prescribed for at least 21+ days to ensure clearance of the infection. Repeat labs may be done to confirm that the virus has been effectively cleared from the esophagus.

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  • 35. 

    What is the treatment for CMV Infectious Esophagitis?

    • A.

      Acyclovir

    • B.

      Ganciclovir

    • C.

      Fluconazole or ketoconazole. Treat for at least 21+ days to ensure clearance. Repeat labs to ensure clearance.

    Correct Answer
    B. Ganciclovir
    Explanation
    Ganciclovir is the correct treatment for CMV Infectious Esophagitis. This antiviral medication is effective against the cytomegalovirus (CMV) and is commonly used to treat CMV infections. Acyclovir is not effective against CMV, and fluconazole or ketoconazole are antifungal medications that would not be appropriate for treating a viral infection like CMV. Treatment with ganciclovir should be continued for at least 21+ days to ensure clearance of the infection, and repeat lab tests should be done to confirm clearance.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 17, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Stephanie Westrick

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