Chapter-13 Making Inference Quiz

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Chapter-13 Making Inference Quiz - Quiz

Making inferences can either lead you down the correct path or an entirely wrong one. One of the things that you need to make correct inferences is ensuring that you think through a statement before you react to it logically. In chapter 13, we got to know the secrets behind making inferences. Review what you got to understand by taking this test.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which key element of presentation speaking is represented by the guiding principle "enhance your believability"?

    • A.

      Audience

    • B.

      Credibility

    • C.

      Logistics

    • D.

      Content

    • E.

      Performance

    Correct Answer
    B. Credibility
    Explanation
    Credibility is the key element of presentation speaking that is represented by the guiding principle "enhance your believability." Credibility refers to the level of trust and reliability the audience has in the speaker. By enhancing credibility, the speaker can establish themselves as knowledgeable, trustworthy, and credible, which in turn helps to persuade and engage the audience. Building credibility can be achieved through various means, such as providing evidence, using credible sources, demonstrating expertise, and maintaining a confident and professional demeanor.

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  • 2. 

    Which key element of presentation speaking is represented by the guiding principle "select appropriate ideas and information"?

    • A.

      Purpose

    • B.

       Audience

    • C.

      Logistics

    • D.

      Content

    • E.

      Organization

    Correct Answer
    D. Content
    Explanation
    The key element of presentation speaking represented by the guiding principle "select appropriate ideas and information" is content. This means that when giving a presentation, it is important to carefully choose and include relevant and suitable ideas and information that will effectively convey the intended message to the audience. By selecting appropriate content, the speaker can ensure that the presentation is informative, engaging, and meets the needs and expectations of the audience.

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  • 3. 

    What question should you ask when determining a presentation's purpose?

    • A.

      Is there a natural order to the ideas and information you want to include in your presentation?

    • B.

      What do you want listeners to know, think, believe, or do as a result of your presentation?

    • C.

      How can you use information about your listeners to improve your presentation?

    • D.

      Where and how can you find good ideas and information for your presentation?

    • E.

      How can you adapt to the place where you will be speaking?

    Correct Answer
    B. What do you want listeners to know, think, believe, or do as a result of your presentation?
    Explanation
    When determining a presentation's purpose, it is important to ask what the presenter wants the listeners to know, think, believe, or do as a result of the presentation. This question helps to clarify the intended outcome and align the content and delivery of the presentation accordingly. It allows the presenter to focus on the key messages and objectives, ensuring that the presentation is effective in achieving its intended purpose.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following items will a speaker examine when analyzing the demographic traits of an audience or group of listeners?

    • A.

      Gender

    • B.

      Job titles

    • C.

      Special interests

    • D.

      Relationships with other members

    • E.

      Length of group membership

    Correct Answer
    A. Gender
    Explanation
    When analyzing the demographic traits of an audience or group of listeners, a speaker will examine gender. This is because gender is an important demographic factor that can influence communication styles, preferences, and interests. Understanding the gender composition of the audience can help the speaker tailor their message to effectively engage and connect with the listeners.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following items will a speaker examine when analyzing the individual attributes of an audience or group of listeners?

    • A.

      Gender

    • B.

      Job titles

    • C.

      Race

    • D.

      Religion

    • E.

      Ethnicity

    Correct Answer
    B. Job titles
    Explanation
    When analyzing the individual attributes of an audience or group of listeners, a speaker will examine job titles. This is because job titles can provide valuable insights into the professional backgrounds, knowledge, and interests of the audience. By understanding their job titles, the speaker can tailor their message and content to be relevant and engaging for the specific audience, ensuring effective communication and connection with the listeners.

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  • 6. 

    When you identify a belief or value that you share with audience members who disagree, you have found a basis for . . .

    • A.

      Demographic traits.

    • B.

      Individual attributes.

    • C.

       claim of value.

    • D.

      Common ground.

    • E.

      Personal credibility.

    Correct Answer
    D. Common ground.
    Explanation
    When you identify a belief or value that you share with audience members who disagree, you have found a basis for common ground. Common ground refers to shared beliefs, values, or interests that can be used as a starting point for finding agreement or understanding with others. By recognizing and acknowledging this common ground, it becomes possible to bridge differences and build connections with those who hold opposing views.

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  • 7. 

    All of the following answers constitute an aspect of an audience's demographics EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. Age

    • B.

      B. Gender

    • C.

      C. Race

    • D.

      D. Knowledge

    • E.

      E. Religion

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Knowledge
    Explanation
    The question asks for an aspect of an audience's demographics that is not included in the given options. While age, gender, race, and religion are all aspects of demographics, knowledge is not typically considered a demographic characteristic. Demographics usually refer to measurable characteristics such as age, gender, race, income, education level, etc. Knowledge is not a characteristic that can be easily measured or categorized in the same way. Therefore, the correct answer is d. Knowledge.

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  • 8. 

    If, when analyzing your listeners' opinions, you discover that most of them disagree with you, which of the following strategies would be most successful in adapting to or changing their attitudes?

    • A.

      A. Present a lot of information.

    • B.

      B. Summarize important ideas.

    • C.

      C. Make sure the goal of your presentation is realistic.

    • D.

      D. Motivate the audience to listen.

    • E.

      E. None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Make sure the goal of your presentation is realistic.
    Explanation
    When analyzing your listeners' opinions and discovering that most of them disagree with you, the most successful strategy in adapting to or changing their attitudes would be to make sure the goal of your presentation is realistic. This means that you need to assess whether your initial goal or objective is achievable and aligns with the expectations and beliefs of your audience. By adjusting your goal to be more realistic, you can address their concerns and increase the likelihood of changing their attitudes or opinions. This strategy acknowledges the importance of understanding and adapting to the perspectives of your listeners.

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  • 9. 

     If, at the end of your presentation, listeners conclude that you lack expertise on the subject and that they have reason to question your honesty and sincerity, you have failed to devote enough attention to . . . 

    • A.

      A. people.

    • B.

      B. place.

    • C.

      C. planning.

    • D.

      D. performance.

    • E.

      E. credibility.

    Correct Answer
    E. E. credibility.
    Explanation
    If listeners conclude that you lack expertise on the subject and question your honesty and sincerity, it implies that they do not find you credible. This suggests that you have failed to devote enough attention to building your credibility.

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  • 10. 

     The textbook identifies 3 major factors that contribute to a speaker's credibility. What are they?

    • A.

      A. competence, character, and caring

    • B.

      B. attitude, appearance, and delivery

    • C.

      C. demographics, individual, and personal attributes

    • D.

      D. common ground, competence, and reason giving

    • E.

      E. purpose, logistics, and content

    Correct Answer
    A. A. competence, character, and caring
    Explanation
    The textbook identifies three major factors that contribute to a speaker's credibility: competence, character, and caring. Competence refers to the speaker's knowledge, expertise, and qualifications on the topic being discussed. Character refers to the speaker's honesty, integrity, and trustworthiness. Caring refers to the speaker's genuine concern for the audience's well-being and their ability to connect with and understand the audience's needs and perspectives. These three factors are important in establishing the speaker's credibility and gaining the trust and respect of the audience.

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  • 11. 

     Aristotle's concept of ethos has evolved into what communication scholars now call . . . 

    • A.

      A. purpose.

    • B.

      B. audience.

    • C.

      C. content.

    • D.

      D. credibility.

    • E.

      E. performance.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. credibility.
    Explanation
    Aristotle's concept of ethos refers to the credibility and trustworthiness of a speaker or writer. It encompasses the character, expertise, and reputation of the communicator. Communication scholars now refer to ethos as credibility, which is an essential factor in effective communication. Credibility influences how an audience perceives and receives a message, making it crucial for establishing trust and persuasiveness. Therefore, the concept of ethos has evolved into the concept of credibility in modern communication studies.

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  • 12. 

     "What is the size and shape of the room? Do I need a microphone? Will I make the presentation in the morning or afternoon? What is my time limit?" Which oral presentation guideline is addressed by these questions?

    • A.

      A. logistics

    • B.

      B. content

    • C.

      C. organization

    • D.

      D. performance

    • E.

      E. purpose

    Correct Answer
    A. A. logistics
    Explanation
    The questions about the size and shape of the room, the need for a microphone, the timing of the presentation, and the time limit all pertain to the logistics of the oral presentation. These questions are focused on the practical aspects and arrangements that need to be considered in order to successfully deliver the presentation.

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  • 13. 

     Regardless of whether you have 5 minutes or 1 hour for your presentation, do not add more than _____% to your allotted time.

    • A.

      A. 5

    • B.

      B. 10

    • C.

      C. 15

    • D.

      D. 20

    • E.

      E. 50

    Correct Answer
    A. A. 5
    Explanation
    When giving a presentation, it is important to respect the time constraints and not exceed the allotted time. Adding more than 5% to the given time can result in the presentation running longer than expected and potentially causing inconvenience to the audience. Therefore, the correct answer is 5.

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  • 14. 

    Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for a presentation designed to explain a company's hiring procedures step by step?

    • A.

      A. time arrangement

    • B.

      B. space arrangement

    • C.

      C. problem-solution

    • D.

      D. comparison-contrast

    • E.

      E. causes and effects

    Correct Answer
    A. A. time arrangement
    Explanation
    A time arrangement organizational pattern would be most effective for a presentation designed to explain a company's hiring procedures step by step because it allows for a clear and logical progression of information. By presenting the steps in chronological order, the audience can easily follow the hiring process from start to finish. This pattern ensures that each step is explained in a sequential manner, making it easier for the audience to understand and retain the information.

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  • 15. 

    Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for a presentation that explains why trash recycling is needed and how the community can implement a more effective recycling program ?

    • A.

      A. time arrangement

    • B.

      B. space arrangement

    • C.

      C. problem-solution

    • D.

      D. comparison-contrast

    • E.

      E. causes and effects

    Correct Answer
    C. C. problem-solution
    Explanation
    The most effective organizational pattern for a presentation that explains why trash recycling is needed and how the community can implement a more effective recycling program would be the problem-solution pattern. This pattern allows the presenter to first discuss the problem of inadequate recycling and the negative effects of not recycling trash. Then, they can propose solutions and explain how the community can implement a more effective recycling program to address the problem. This pattern helps to clearly outline the problem and provide practical solutions, making it the most suitable choice for this presentation.

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  • 16. 

    Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for a presentation describing the hardships experienced by undocumented workers who do not seek medical care when they are very ill?

    • A.

      A. reason giving

    • B.

      B. problem-solution

    • C.

      C. causes and effects

    • D.

      D. stories and examples

    • E.

      E. compare-contrast

    Correct Answer
    C. C. causes and effects
    Explanation
    The most effective organizational pattern for a presentation describing the hardships experienced by undocumented workers who do not seek medical care when they are very ill would be the causes and effects pattern. This pattern allows the presenter to first discuss the reasons why undocumented workers do not seek medical care, such as fear of deportation or lack of access to healthcare, and then explore the effects of this behavior, such as worsening health conditions or the spread of infectious diseases. By using the causes and effects pattern, the presenter can effectively highlight the reasons behind the issue and the consequences that result from it.

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  • 17. 

    Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for a presentation assessing the merits of 2 political candidates?

    • A.

      A. time arrangement

    • B.

      B. space arrangement

    • C.

      C. problem-solution

    • D.

      D. compare and contrast

    • E.

      E. cause and effect

    Correct Answer
    D. D. compare and contrast
    Explanation
    A presentation assessing the merits of 2 political candidates would likely be most effective using the compare and contrast organizational pattern. This pattern allows for a clear and structured analysis of the similarities and differences between the candidates, allowing the audience to easily understand and evaluate their merits. By presenting information side by side, the audience can make informed comparisons and ultimately make a more informed decision.

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  • 18. 

    Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for a presentation examining 6 school systems and how public school funding varies based on the location and wealth of each school system's community?

    • A.

      A. time arrangement

    • B.

      B. space arrangement

    • C.

      C. problem-solution

    • D.

      D. topical

    • E.

      E. cause and effect

    Correct Answer
    B. B. space arrangement
    Explanation
    A space arrangement organizational pattern would be most effective for a presentation examining 6 school systems and how public school funding varies based on the location and wealth of each school system's community. This pattern would allow the presenter to discuss each school system separately, providing information about their specific location and community's wealth, and then analyze the corresponding public school funding for each system. By organizing the information spatially, the audience can easily understand and compare the funding variations across different school systems.

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  • 19. 

    An effective outline for a presentation should include . . . 

    • A.

      A. the central idea.

    • B.

      B. the main points of the presentation.

    • C.

      C. indications of supporting material.

    • D.

      D. an introduction and conclusion.

    • E.

      E. all of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. E. all of the above.
    Explanation
    An effective outline for a presentation should include the central idea, which is the main message or purpose of the presentation. It should also include the main points of the presentation, which are the key ideas or topics that will be covered. Indications of supporting material should be included to provide evidence or examples to support the main points. Additionally, an introduction and conclusion should be included to provide an overview and summary of the presentation. Therefore, all of the options mentioned (a, b, c, d) should be included in an effective outline for a presentation.

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  • 20. 

    _____________ is the most common form of presentation delivery.

    • A.

      A. Impromptu speaking

    • B.

      B. Extemporaneous speaking

    • C.

      C. Manuscript speaking

    • D.

      D. Memorized speaking

    • E.

      E. None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Extemporaneous speaking
    Explanation
    Extemporaneous speaking is the most common form of presentation delivery because it allows the speaker to prepare and organize their thoughts in advance, but still allows for flexibility and adaptability during the actual presentation. This style of speaking involves having a general outline or structure for the speech, but not memorizing the exact wording. It allows the speaker to connect with the audience and maintain a conversational tone while still delivering a well-prepared and organized presentation.

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  • 21. 

    In general, the best rate for presentation speaking is _________ words per minute.

    • A.

      A. 100–130

    • B.

      B. 125–150

    • C.

      C. 140–180

    • D.

      D. 160–200

    • E.

      E. 200–240

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 140–180
    Explanation
    The best rate for presentation speaking is typically between 140 and 180 words per minute. This rate allows the speaker to effectively communicate their message without speaking too quickly or too slowly. It gives the audience enough time to process the information being presented without feeling overwhelmed or bored. Speaking at this rate also helps the speaker maintain a steady pace and avoid rushing through their presentation.

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  • 22. 

    According to your textbook, which of the following answers is the most important physical characteristic in a presentation?

    • A.

      A. eye contact

    • B.

      B. articulation

    • C.

      C. volume

    • D.

      D. rate of speaking

    • E.

      E. pronunciation

    Correct Answer
    A. A. eye contact
    Explanation
    Eye contact is considered the most important physical characteristic in a presentation because it helps establish a connection with the audience and enhances credibility. Maintaining eye contact shows confidence and engagement, allowing the presenter to establish trust and effectively convey their message. It also helps in gauging the audience's reactions and adjusting the delivery accordingly. Articulation, volume, rate of speaking, and pronunciation are important aspects of a presentation, but eye contact plays a crucial role in capturing and maintaining the audience's attention.

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  • 23. 

     In a presentation to the county council, a group consisting of the parent of a disabled child, the director of the local disabilities commission, the school superintendent, and a disabled adult working at a local grocery store are given a total of 20 minutes to present and justify their request for better quality disability services. This presentation is an example of . . .

    • A.

      A. extemporaneous delivery.

    • B.

      B. a business agenda.

    • C.

      C. a panel discussion.

    • D.

      D. a team presentation.

    • E.

      E. a forum.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. a team presentation.
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes a group of individuals with different roles and expertise coming together to present and justify their request for better quality disability services. They are given a total of 20 minutes to present, indicating that they are working together as a team to deliver their message. Therefore, the presentation can be categorized as a team presentation.

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  • 24. 

    Which element of presentation speaking is represented by the following guideline for a team presentation: "Practice until the team presentation approaches perfection"?

    • A.

      A. purpose

    • B.

      B. performance

    • C.

      C. credibility

    • D.

      D. content

    • E.

      E. organization

    Correct Answer
    B. B. performance
    Explanation
    The given guideline, "Practice until the team presentation approaches perfection," suggests that the element of presentation speaking being represented is performance. This guideline emphasizes the importance of rehearsing and perfecting the delivery of the presentation, focusing on aspects such as body language, vocal tone, and overall presentation skills. It highlights the need for the team to effectively engage with the audience and deliver a polished and impactful performance.

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  • 25. 

    All of the following answers are guidelines for handling a question-and-answer session after an individual or team presentation EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. Don't change the subject.

    • B.

      B. Be specific.

    • C.

      C. Provide the most comprehensive answer possible.

    • D.

      D. Be honest. If you don't know the answer, admit it.

    • E.

      E. Be brief.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Provide the most comprehensive answer possible.
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is c. Provide the most comprehensive answer possible. This answer is incorrect because providing the most comprehensive answer possible is actually a guideline for handling a question-and-answer session after an individual or team presentation. It is important to provide as much information and detail as possible in order to address the audience's questions and concerns effectively.

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  • 26. 

    Your book makes 2 recommendations to help you "exercise restraint” when designing presentation slides. One of those recommendations is

    • A.

      A. use no more than 2 typefaces.

    • B.

      B. avoid type that is smaller than 18 points.

    • C.

      C. use no more than 1 slide per minute.

    • D.

      D. make only 1 point on each slide.

    • E.

      E. choose a modest background that will not compete with your words, charts, or graphics.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. make only 1 point on each slide.
    Explanation
    The book suggests making only one point on each slide as a recommendation to exercise restraint when designing presentation slides. This means that each slide should focus on conveying a single key message or idea, avoiding clutter and ensuring clarity for the audience. By limiting the number of points on each slide, the presenter can effectively communicate their message without overwhelming the audience with too much information.

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  • 27. 

    Your textbook makes 2 recommendations to help you "exercise restraint" when designing presentation slides. One of those recommendations is

    • A.

      A. avoid the fancy, but difficult-to-read fonts.

    • B.

      B. use common typefaces such as Arial and Times Roman.

    • C.

      C. follow the 6-by-6 rule.

    • D.

      D. respect copyright laws when choosing graphics from other sources.

    • E.

      E. use type that is larger than 36 points.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. follow the 6-by-6 rule.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is c. follow the 6-by-6 rule. This means that the presenter should limit each slide to no more than six bullet points and no more than six words per bullet point. This recommendation helps to ensure that the audience can easily read and understand the information on the slides without being overwhelmed by excessive text.

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  • 28. 

    Edward Tufte, a well-respected graphic designer, criticizes PowerPoint because .

    • A.

      A. it allows you to use words, charts, graphics, sound, and animation in a single presentation

    • B.

      B. when professors put their lecturers on PowerPoint, students are bored or even fall asleep.

    • C.

      C. it disrupts, dominates, and trivializes content.

    • D.

      D. paper handouts are better than PowerPoint.

    • E.

      E. speakers often break copyright laws when using images from web sources.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. it disrupts, dominates, and trivializes content.
    Explanation
    Edward Tufte criticizes PowerPoint because he believes it disrupts, dominates, and trivializes content. Tufte argues that PowerPoint's emphasis on flashy visuals and animations can distract from the actual message being conveyed. He believes that the software's structure and design encourage presenters to oversimplify complex information, leading to a loss of nuance and depth. Tufte advocates for a more thoughtful and content-focused approach to presentations, rather than relying on the flashy features of PowerPoint.

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  • 29. 

    When displaying presentation aids, which of the following delivery techniques should you use when presenting a set of slides?

    • A.

      A. Display the slide, and then explain the point.

    • B.

      B. Follow the 12x10 rule.

    • C.

      C. Use multiple typefaces.

    • D.

      D. Summarize your slide so listeners will not take the time to read it word-for-word.

    • E.

      E. Use a lot of sound and animation to spice up the presentation.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Display the slide, and then explain the point.
    Explanation
    When presenting a set of slides, it is recommended to display the slide first and then explain the point. This allows the audience to visually understand the content of the slide before you provide additional information or context. It helps to maintain clarity and ensures that the audience is able to follow along with your presentation effectively.

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