# FMGE Past Questions - Psm

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Quizzes Created: 15 | Total Attempts: 30,505
Questions: 10 | Attempts: 1,579

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• 1.

### Prevalence is a:        (September 2007)

• A.

Rate

• B.

Ratio

• C.

Proportion

• D.

Percentage

B. Ratio
Explanation
Prevalence is a measure that quantifies the proportion of individuals in a population who have a specific condition or disease at a given point in time. It is calculated by dividing the number of individuals with the condition by the total population. A ratio, on the other hand, compares two quantities and is expressed as a fraction or a division of one quantity by another. In this context, prevalence can be seen as a ratio because it compares the number of individuals with the condition to the total population.

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• 2.

### True regarding cohort's study are all of the following except:     (September 2007)

• A.

Most reliable mean of showing an association between a suspected risk factor and subsequent disease

• B.

It can be retrospective or prospective

• C.

Odd's ratio can be calculated

• D.

Exposure rates can be calculated

C. Odd's ratio can be calculated
Explanation
Cohort studies are a type of observational study that follow a group of individuals over a period of time to determine the relationship between a suspected risk factor and the development of a disease. They can be either retrospective (looking back at past data) or prospective (collecting data going forward). Cohort studies are considered the most reliable means of showing an association between a risk factor and disease because they allow for the calculation of exposure rates and odds ratios. Therefore, the statement "odds ratio can be calculated" is incorrect, as odds ratios can be calculated in cohort studies.

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• 3.

### Prevention of developing risk factors in CAD comes under:     (September 2007)

• A.

Primary prevention

• B.

Secondary prevention

• C.

Primordial prevention

• D.

Tertiary prevention.

C. Primordial prevention
Explanation
Primordial prevention refers to the prevention of risk factors themselves, rather than preventing the development of diseases caused by those risk factors. In the context of CAD (coronary artery disease), primordial prevention would involve promoting healthy lifestyles and behaviors from an early age to prevent the development of risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and obesity. This approach aims to create a healthy environment and promote healthy behaviors to prevent the occurrence of risk factors in the first place.

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• 4.

### Relative risk is associated with:   ( September 2007)

• A.

Cohort studies

• B.

Cross sectional studies

• C.

Environmental studies

• D.

Case control studies

A. Cohort studies
Explanation
Cohort studies are associated with relative risk. A cohort study is a type of observational study where a group of individuals with a common characteristic or exposure are followed over a period of time to determine the occurrence of outcomes or diseases. Relative risk is a measure of the strength of association between an exposure and an outcome in a cohort study. It compares the risk of developing the outcome in the exposed group to the risk in the unexposed group. Therefore, cohort studies are directly related to the concept of relative risk.

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• 5.

### First noticed case of a disease is known as:   (March 2008)

• A.

Reference case

• B.

Secondary case

• C.

Tertiary case

• D.

Index case

D. Index case
Explanation
The first noticed case of a disease is known as the index case. This term is used to identify the initial individual who becomes infected and is responsible for the subsequent spread of the disease to others. The index case is crucial in understanding the origin and transmission of the disease, as well as in implementing control measures to prevent further spread.

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• 6.

### Herd Immunity is a feature of all of the following diseases except:   (September 2008)

• A.

Diphtheria

• B.

Polio

• C.

Tetanus

• D.

Measles

C. Tetanus
Explanation
Herd immunity is the resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population that occurs when a large proportion of individuals are immune to the disease, either through vaccination or previous infection. Diphtheria, polio, and measles are all diseases that can be prevented through vaccination, and achieving herd immunity for these diseases is an important public health goal. Tetanus, on the other hand, is not a contagious disease and is caused by a bacterial infection rather than a virus. Therefore, herd immunity does not apply to tetanus.

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• 7.

### Relative risk can be calculated by:     (September 2008)

• A.

Incidence of disease amongst exposed/incidence of disease amongst non-exposed

• B.

Incidence of disease amongst non-exposed/incidence of disease amongst exposed

• C.

Incidence of disease amongst exposed/total population of that area

• D.

Incidence of disease amongst non-exposed/total population of that area

A. Incidence of disease amongst exposed/incidence of disease amongst non-exposed
Explanation
Relative risk is a measure of the strength of association between an exposure and a disease. It compares the incidence of the disease among those who are exposed to a certain factor with the incidence among those who are not exposed. By calculating the ratio of the incidence of disease amongst exposed individuals to the incidence of disease amongst non-exposed individuals, we can determine the relative risk. This helps us understand the extent to which the exposure increases the likelihood of developing the disease compared to not being exposed.

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• 8.

### Sentinel surveillance is used to detect:        (March 2009)

• A.

New cases

• B.

Missed cases

• C.

Old cases

• D.

Reference cases

B. Missed cases
Explanation
Sentinel surveillance is a method used to detect missed cases. It involves monitoring a specific group of individuals or locations that are representative of a larger population. By focusing on this group, any missed cases that may have been overlooked by other surveillance methods can be identified. This allows for a more accurate understanding of the true prevalence of a disease or condition within the population.

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• 9.

### Specificity of a diagnostic test denotes:    (September 2009)

• A.

True negative

• B.

False positive

• C.

False negative

• D.

True positive

A. True negative
Explanation
Specificity of a diagnostic test refers to its ability to correctly identify individuals who do not have the condition or disease being tested for. In other words, it measures the proportion of true negative results among all individuals who do not have the condition. A true negative result means that the test correctly identifies a person as not having the condition when they actually do not have it. Therefore, the correct answer is "True negative".

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• 10.

### Cohort study is associated with:       ( March 2010)

• A.

Prevalence

• B.

Odd's ratio

• C.

Relative risk

• D.

Exposure rates

C. Relative risk
Explanation
A cohort study is a type of observational study that follows a group of individuals over time to determine the relationship between an exposure (such as a risk factor or treatment) and an outcome (such as a disease or health condition). The main measure of association used in cohort studies is the relative risk, which compares the risk of developing the outcome in the exposed group to the risk in the unexposed group. Therefore, the correct answer is relative risk.

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• Current Version
• Mar 22, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Jun 23, 2013
Quiz Created by
Fmgs India