Excretia

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Excretia - Quiz

Biologie clasa a XI-a


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Rinichii:

    • A.

      Sunt componente ale căilor urinare

    • B.

      Conţin piramide renale în zona medulară

    • C.

      Sunt organe nepereche

    • D.

      Se află în partea anterioară a abdomenului

    Correct Answer
    B. Conţin piramide renale în zona medulară
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "conţin piramide renale în zona medulară". This is because the statement describes the characteristics of the kidney. The kidney contains renal pyramids in the medullary region, which are responsible for the filtration and concentration of urine.

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  • 2. 

    Unitatea structurală şi funcţională a rinichiului este:

    • A.

      Nefronul

    • B.

      Neuronul

    • C.

      Piramida renală

    • D.

      Ureterul

    Correct Answer
    A. Nefronul
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "nefronul" (the nephron). The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. It is responsible for filtering the blood and producing urine. Each kidney contains millions of nephrons, which consist of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The renal corpuscle filters the blood, while the renal tubule reabsorbs useful substances and excretes waste products. Therefore, the nephron plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's fluid balance and eliminating waste.

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  • 3. 

    Căile urinare extrarenale sunt:

    • A.

      Uretere, vezica urinară, anus

    • B.

      Uretra, vezica urinară, bazinet

    • C.

      Uretere, vezica urinară, uretra

    • D.

      Calice, bazinet, uretra

    Correct Answer
    C. Uretere, vezica urinară, uretra
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "uretere, vezica urinară, uretra." The question asks for the extrarenal urinary pathways, which refers to the structures outside of the kidneys. The ureters are the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder, allowing urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder. The bladder is a muscular organ that stores urine until it is expelled through the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Therefore, the correct answer includes all three structures that are part of the extrarenal urinary pathways.

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  • 4. 

    Prin excreţie se elimină substanţe străine pătrunse în mediul intern, cum ar fi alcoolul sau unele substanţe provenite din medicamente.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    By excretion, foreign substances that have entered the internal environment, such as alcohol or certain substances from medications, are eliminated. This process involves the removal of waste products from the body, ensuring the proper functioning of various organs and systems.

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  • 5. 

    Prin excreţie se elimină unele substanţe rezultate din dezasimilaţie, cum ar fi ureea.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because excretion is the process by which waste products, such as urea, are eliminated from the body. Urea is a byproduct of protein metabolism and is produced in the liver. It is then filtered out by the kidneys and excreted in urine. Therefore, excretion plays a vital role in eliminating waste substances from the body.

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  • 6. 

    Prin excreţie se elimină unele substanţe în exces, cum ar fi apa.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because excretion is the process by which excess substances, such as water, are eliminated from the body. Excretion helps maintain the balance of various substances in the body and removes waste products that are no longer needed.

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  • 7. 

    Ultrafiltrarea glomerulară se realizează la nivelul:

    • A.

      Tubului contort distal

    • B.

      Tubului contort proximal

    • C.

      Tubului colector

    • D.

      Corpusculului renal

    Correct Answer
    D. Corpusculului renal
    Explanation
    Ultrafiltrarea glomerulară se realizează la nivelul corpusculului renal. Acesta este format din glomerulul renal și capsula Bowman, care împreună formează unitatea de bază a rinichiului responsabilă de filtrarea sângelui. Glomerulul renal are o structură specializată care permite trecerea substanțelor din sânge în capsula Bowman, iar acest proces de filtrare este cunoscut sub numele de ultrafiltrare glomerulară. Tubulii contorți distal și proximal, precum și tubulul colector, sunt implicați în reabsorbția și secreția substanțelor filtrate în urină.

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  • 8. 

    Ultrafiltrarea glomerulară constă în:

    • A.

      Trecerea plasmei sanguine prin membrana filtranta în tubul urinifer

    • B.

      Trecerea elementelor figurate din glomerul in capsul Bowman

    • C.

      Trecerea apei din tubii uriniferi in capilarele peritubulare

    • D.

      Trecerea sangelui din capilarele peritubulare in tubii uriniferi

    Correct Answer
    A. Trecerea plasmei sanguine prin membrana filtranta în tubul urinifer
    Explanation
    Ultrafiltration in the kidney occurs in the glomerulus, where blood plasma is filtered through the glomerular membrane into the tubules of the nephron. This process separates waste products, ions, and small molecules from the blood, which then continue to be processed and eventually excreted as urine. The passage of formed elements (such as red and white blood cells) from the glomerulus into Bowman's capsule does not occur during ultrafiltration. Similarly, the movement of water from the tubules into the peritubular capillaries and the movement of blood from the peritubular capillaries into the tubules are not part of the process of ultrafiltration.

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  • 9. 

    In urma procesului de ultrafiltrare se formează:

    • A.

      Urina primara - 180l/24h

    • B.

      Urina finala - 120ml/min

    • C.

      Urina finala - apa si 5% substante dizolvate

    • D.

      Ultrafiltratul glomerular ce contine elemente figurate

    Correct Answer
    A. Urina primara - 180l/24h
    Explanation
    During the process of ultrafiltration, the kidneys filter the blood and produce a primary urine. The given answer states that the primary urine produced is 180 liters per day. This means that the kidneys filter a large volume of fluid from the blood, which is then further processed to produce the final urine.

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  • 10. 

    Blocajul renal este incapacitatea rinichiului de a asigura echilibrul hidroelectrolitic şi de a elimina produşii de metabolism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement states that renal failure is the inability of the kidney to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes and eliminate metabolic waste products. This is true because renal failure occurs when the kidneys are damaged and can no longer perform their functions effectively, leading to imbalances in the body's fluid and electrolyte levels and the accumulation of waste products.

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  • 11. 

    Inflamaţia glomerulilor renali este:

    • A.

      Nefrita

    • B.

      Cistita

    • C.

      Insuficienta renala

    • D.

      Blocajul renal

    Correct Answer
    A. Nefrita
    Explanation
    Inflamația glomerulilor renali este cunoscută sub numele de nefrită. Aceasta este o afecțiune în care glomerulii renali, care sunt structurile responsabile pentru filtrarea sângelui și producerea urinei, devin inflamați. Nefrita poate fi cauzată de diverse factori, cum ar fi infecții, boli autoimune sau utilizarea anumitor medicamente. Această inflamație poate afecta funcția renală și poate duce la simptome precum edem, hipertensiune arterială și modificări ale urinei. Tratamentul pentru nefrită poate include administrarea de medicamente antiinflamatoare și imunosupresoare pentru a controla inflamația și a proteja rinichii.

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  • 12. 

    Inflamaţia vezicii urinare este:

    • A.

      Nefrita

    • B.

      Cistita

    • C.

      Glomerulonefrita

    • D.

      Insuficienta renala

    Correct Answer
    B. Cistita
    Explanation
    Cistita este inflamația vezicii urinare, care poate fi cauzată de infecții bacteriene sau iritații ale vezicii. Aceasta se manifestă prin simptome precum durere și arsură la urinare, urină tulbure sau cu sânge, nevoia frecventă de a urina și senzația de golire incompletă a vezicii. Nefrita se referă la inflamația rinichilor, glomerulonefrita este inflamația glomerulilor renal și insuficiența renală se referă la incapacitatea rinichilor de a-și îndeplini funcțiile normale.

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  • 13. 

    Nefrita este dată de inflamaţia glomerulilor renali, de aceea se mai numeşte glomerulonefrita.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because nephritis is indeed caused by inflammation of the renal glomeruli, which is why it is also known as glomerulonephritis.

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  • 14. 

    Rinichii reglează volumul plasmei sanguine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Rinichii reglează volumul plasmei sanguine, which translates to "The kidneys regulate the volume of blood plasma." This statement is true because the kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body. They filter waste products and excess water from the blood, helping to regulate blood volume and blood pressure. The kidneys also play a role in the production of red blood cells and the regulation of electrolyte levels in the body. Therefore, the statement is correct.

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  • 15. 

    Rinchii reglează concentraţia electroliţilor.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is saying that Rinchii regulates the concentration of electrolytes. This means that Rinchii is responsible for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body. Electrolytes are important for various bodily functions, such as maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve signals, and contracting muscles. Therefore, it is important for Rinchii to regulate their concentration to ensure proper bodily function.

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  • 16. 

    Rinichii au funcţia de a menţine homeostazia lichidelor extracelulare .

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because the kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular fluids. They regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in the body, ensuring that the concentration of these substances remains within a narrow range. The kidneys filter waste products and excess substances from the blood, which are then excreted as urine. They also reabsorb essential substances, such as water, glucose, and electrolytes, back into the bloodstream. This process helps to maintain the proper balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, which is necessary for normal cellular function and overall health.

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  • 17. 

    Micţiunea este un act reflex prin care urina este evacuată din vezica urinară.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Micţiunea refers to the act of urination, which is a reflexive action that allows the evacuation of urine from the urinary bladder.

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  • 18. 

    Corpusculul renal este alcătuit din:

    • A.

      Glomerul vascular şi capsula Bowmann

    • B.

      Glomerul si tub contort proximal

    • C.

      Glomerul si tub contort distal

    • D.

      Tub contort proximal si tub contort distal

    Correct Answer
    A. Glomerul vascular şi capsula Bowmann
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "glomerul vascular şi capsula Bowmann." The renal corpuscle is composed of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule. The glomerulus is a network of tiny blood vessels where filtration of blood occurs, and Bowman's capsule surrounds the glomerulus, collecting the filtrate. Together, they form the initial part of the nephron, which is responsible for filtering waste products from the blood in the kidneys.

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  • 19. 

    Tubul urinifer est format din:

    • A.

      Capsul Bowmann, tub contort distal si tub contort proximal

    • B.

      Tub contort proximal, ansa Henle şi tub contort distal

    • C.

      Tub contort proximal si tub colector

    • D.

      Capsula Bowmann si tub colector

    Correct Answer
    B. Tub contort proximal, ansa Henle şi tub contort distal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "tub contort proximal, ansa Henle şi tub contort distal." This is because the tubul urinifer, or the renal tubule, is composed of the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule. These structures are all part of the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney responsible for filtering and reabsorbing substances from the blood to form urine. The proximal convoluted tubule is the first segment of the renal tubule, followed by the loop of Henle, which is divided into the descending and ascending limbs, and finally the distal convoluted tubule.

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  • 20. 

    Urina primară străbate tubul urinifer astfel:

    • A.

      Tubul contort proximal, ansa Henle, tub contort distal

    • B.

      Tub contort distal, ansa Henle, tub contort proximal

    • C.

      Ansa Henle, tub colector

    • D.

      Tub colector, calice mici, calice mari, pelvis renal

    Correct Answer
    A. Tubul contort proximal, ansa Henle, tub contort distal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "tubul contort proximal, ansa Henle, tub contort distal". This sequence describes the path of the primary urine through the nephron. The primary urine first enters the proximal convoluted tubule, then passes through the loop of Henle, and finally goes through the distal convoluted tubule. This sequence allows for the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and other substances, as well as the secretion of waste products, resulting in the formation of the final urine.

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  • 21. 

    Căile urinare intrarenale sunt:

    • A.

      Calice mici, calice mari, pelvis renal (bazinet)

    • B.

      Uretere, vezica urinara, uretra

    • C.

      Pelvis renal, uretere , vezica urinara

    • D.

      Tub contort, tub colector, calice mici

    Correct Answer
    A. Calice mici, calice mari, pelvis renal (bazinet)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "calice mici, calice mari, pelvis renal (bazinet)". These are the structures within the kidney that make up the intrarenal urinary pathways. The calices (calice mici and calice mari) are cup-like structures that collect urine from the renal pyramids, while the pelvis renal (bazinet) is the central collecting region of the kidney where urine from the calices is further collected before it is transported to the ureter.

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  • 22. 

    Căile urinare extrarenale sunt:

    • A.

      Calice mici, calice mari, pelvis renal (bazinet)

    • B.

      Uretere, vezica urinara, uretra

    • C.

      Pelvis renal, uretere , vezica urinara

    • D.

      Tub contort, tub colector, calice mici

    Correct Answer
    B. Uretere, vezica urinara, uretra
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "uretere, vezica urinara, uretra." These are the extrarenal urinary pathways in the human body. The ureters are muscular tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ that stores urine until it is ready to be excreted. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body during urination.

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  • 23. 

    Funcţia rinichilor:

    • A.

      Menţinerea homeostaziei

    • B.

      Micţiune

    • C.

      Hemostază

    • D.

      Imunitate

    Correct Answer
    A. Menţinerea homeostaziei
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "menţinerea homeostaziei." Homeostasis refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the balance of water, electrolytes, and pH levels in the body. They filter waste products from the blood and excrete them in the form of urine, helping to maintain the body's fluid balance. Additionally, the kidneys regulate blood pressure, produce hormones that stimulate red blood cell production, and help activate vitamin D.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 25, 2013
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