Exam 2 Pharmacolgy Midterm

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Exam 2 Pharmacolgy Midterm - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Progestin are primarily responsible for the contraceptive effect in hormonal preparations

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Progestin is a synthetic form of the hormone progesterone, which plays a crucial role in preventing pregnancy. It works by thickening the cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Additionally, progestin also inhibits ovulation, preventing the release of an egg from the ovaries. These mechanisms combined contribute to the contraceptive effect of hormonal preparations that contain progestin. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 2. 

     What exhibt a negative effect  in the hypothalamic- pitutiary ovarian axism suppressing LH surge necessary for ovulation

    • A.

      Progestin

    • B.

      Estrogen

    • C.

      Androgen

    • D.

      Hrt

    Correct Answer
    A. Progestin
    Explanation
    Progestin exhibits a negative effect in the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis by suppressing the LH surge necessary for ovulation. Progestin is a synthetic form of progesterone, a hormone that is naturally produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progestin works by inhibiting the release of certain hormones from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which ultimately prevents the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). Without the LH surge, ovulation does not occur. Therefore, progestin can negatively impact the ovulation process.

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  • 3. 

     What causes thickeneing of the cervical mucus, making sperm penetration diffcult.

    • A.

      Progestin

    • B.

      Estrogen

    • C.

      Androgens

    • D.

      Ert

    Correct Answer
    A. Progestin
    Explanation
    Progestin causes thickening of the cervical mucus, making sperm penetration difficult. Progestin is a hormone that is naturally produced in the body and is also found in some forms of hormonal contraception. It acts on the cervix by causing the mucus to become thicker and stickier, creating a barrier that makes it harder for sperm to swim through and reach the egg for fertilization. This is one of the mechanisms by which progestin-based contraceptives prevent pregnancy.

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  • 4. 

    What harmone delays causes atrophy of the endometrium preventing implantation?

    • A.

      Progestin

    • B.

      Estrogen

    • C.

      Androgen

    • D.

      Hrt

    Correct Answer
    A. Progestin
    Explanation
    Progestin delays the atrophy of the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. This prevents the implantation of a fertilized egg, thus acting as a contraceptive method. Progestin is a synthetic form of the hormone progesterone, which is naturally produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. It plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining a healthy pregnancy. By delaying the atrophy of the endometrium, progestin disrupts the normal hormonal balance and prevents the implantation of a fertilized egg.

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  • 5. 

    Which harmone that is a part of the harmonal contraceptive that improves efficacy by suppressing  FSH release, and therefore a devlopment of a dominant cycle

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Progestin

    • C.

      Androgen

    • D.

      Hrt

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the hormone that is part of hormonal contraceptives and improves their efficacy by suppressing the release of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). By doing so, estrogen prevents the development of a dominant cycle, which is necessary for ovulation to occur. Without ovulation, fertilization cannot take place, effectively preventing pregnancy. Progestin, another hormone commonly used in hormonal contraceptives, also plays a role in preventing pregnancy, but in this case, estrogen is specifically mentioned as the hormone that suppresses FSH release. Androgen and HRT (hormone replacement therapy) are not directly related to hormonal contraceptives.

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  • 6. 

    What harmone that causes cycle control, decreasing irregular bleeding patterns commonly found in progestin-only methods

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Progestin

    • C.

      Androgen

    • D.

      Ert

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the hormone that causes cycle control and decreases irregular bleeding patterns commonly found in progestin-only methods. Estrogen helps to regulate the menstrual cycle and promotes the growth and development of the uterine lining. It also helps to stabilize the endometrium, reducing the chances of breakthrough bleeding or spotting. Progestin-only methods, such as the mini-pill or progestin-only implants, can sometimes cause irregular bleeding patterns due to the absence of estrogen. Adding estrogen to these methods can help to improve cycle control and reduce irregular bleeding.

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  • 7. 

    Some of the risk factors of oral contraceptions are inherited clotting, strong family history of clotting disorders  over 35 years old, obesity, and smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day. does this increase the risk of DVT while takig oral contraception ?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The risk factors mentioned, such as inherited clotting disorders, strong family history of clotting disorders, being over 35 years old, obesity, and smoking more than 10 cigarettes a day, are known to increase the risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Oral contraceptives have also been associated with an increased risk of DVT. Therefore, when these risk factors are combined with the use of oral contraception, the risk of developing DVT is further increased.

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  • 8. 

    What is the safest option regards of venous thronbosis oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel combined with a low dose of 

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Projestin

    • C.

      Androgen

    • D.

      HRT

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    The safest option regarding venous thrombosis is to choose an oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel combined with a low dose of estrogen. Estrogen has been found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis, but when combined with levonorgestrel, the risk is significantly reduced. This combination is considered safer compared to other options such as progestin, androgen, or hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which may have a higher risk of venous thrombosis.

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  • 9. 

    The adverse effects that can occur with hormonal contraceptive includes cholestatic jaudice, benign hepatic meoplasm, myocardial infaretin, stroke, neralogical migranes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Hormonal contraceptives can indeed have adverse effects such as cholestatic jaundice, benign hepatic meoplasm, myocardial infarction, stroke, and neurological migraines. These side effects can vary in severity and occurrence depending on the individual and the specific contraceptive being used. It is important for individuals to be aware of these potential risks and consult with their healthcare provider for personalized advice and monitoring.

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  • 10. 

    Oral conception pills are dispensed in packages  containing how many pills

    • A.

      28

    • B.

      25

    • C.

      30

    • D.

      10

    Correct Answer
    A. 28
    Explanation
    Oral conception pills are typically dispensed in packages containing 28 pills. This is because a typical menstrual cycle lasts for 28 days, and each pill is taken daily to prevent pregnancy. By providing 28 pills in a package, it ensures that a person has enough pills to cover an entire cycle without missing any doses.

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  • 11. 

    Oral contraceptive pills with the first 21 pills containing active synthetic hormone; the last 7 pills containing ingredients of iron, during which withdrawl bleeding occurs. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Oral contraceptive pills typically come in packs of 28, with the first 21 pills containing active synthetic hormones and the last 7 pills containing iron or placebo pills. During the last 7 days, when the iron or placebo pills are taken, withdrawal bleeding occurs, simulating a menstrual period. Therefore, the statement that oral contraceptive pills with the first 21 pills containing active synthetic hormones and the last 7 pills containing iron is true.

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  • 12. 

    Which oral contraceptive offers extended menstrual cycle which contains active pills for 84 days with 7 days off produces withdrawl bleeding once every 3 months. 

    • A.

      Seasonale

    • B.

      Progestin

    • C.

      Estrogen

    • D.

      Hrt

    Correct Answer
    A. Seasonale
    Explanation
    Seasonale is the correct answer because it is an oral contraceptive that offers an extended menstrual cycle. It contains active pills for 84 days with 7 days off, which means a woman only has withdrawal bleeding once every 3 months. This type of contraceptive is often preferred by women who want to have fewer periods throughout the year.

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  • 13. 

    The newest drug regimen is monophasic COCs having 24 active and 4 non active pills per cycle. The goal is to have a shorter and lighter withdrawl bleeds and to relieve breakthrough spotting. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the newest drug regimen for monophasic COCs includes 24 active pills and 4 non-active pills per cycle. This regimen aims to reduce the duration and intensity of withdrawal bleeds and alleviate breakthrough spotting.

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  • 14. 

    Estrogen like testosterone is an endogenous hormone with multiple actions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Estrogen, like testosterone, is an endogenous hormone, meaning it is produced naturally within the body. Both estrogen and testosterone have multiple actions, meaning they have various effects and functions within the body. Therefore, the statement that estrogen, like testosterone, is an endogenous hormone with multiple actions is true.

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  • 15. 

    The primary role of estrogen is maturation and function of the female reproductive system.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Estrogen plays a crucial role in the maturation and proper functioning of the female reproductive system. It is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, such as breast development and the growth of pubic hair. Estrogen also regulates the menstrual cycle, promotes the growth of the uterine lining, and is involved in the release of eggs from the ovaries. Additionally, estrogen helps maintain the health of the vaginal lining and supports the overall reproductive health of women. Therefore, it is true that the primary role of estrogen is the maturation and function of the female reproductive system.

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  • 16. 

    Estrogen recepter sites are located in the bone, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, GI track.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Estrogen receptor sites are indeed located in various parts of the body, including the bone, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract. Estrogen plays a crucial role in these areas, influencing bone health, cardiovascular function, brain function, and gastrointestinal function. Therefore, it is accurate to say that estrogen receptor sites are present in these locations.

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  • 17. 

    What medication blocks endogenous estrogen-negative feedback at the level of the hypothlamus. It also elevates estrogen and progestrone levels higher than normal?

    • A.

      Clomid

    • B.

      Evista

    • C.

      Tamoxifen

    • D.

      Danazol

    Correct Answer
    A. Clomid
    Explanation
    Clomid is a medication that blocks endogenous estrogen-negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamus. It also elevates estrogen and progesterone levels higher than normal.

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  • 18. 

    What antiestrogen decreases serum insulin-like growth factors and increases SHGB which assists those infertile women with polycystic ovary (PCO) disease?

    • A.

      Clomid

    • B.

      Tamoxifen

    • C.

      Evista

    • D.

      Danazol

    Correct Answer
    A. Clomid
    Explanation
    Clomid is the correct answer because it is an antiestrogen that decreases serum insulin-like growth factors and increases SHGB. These effects are beneficial for infertile women with polycystic ovary (PCO) disease, as they can help regulate hormone levels and improve fertility. Tamoxifen, Evista, and Danazol are not typically used for this purpose and do not have the same effects on insulin-like growth factors and SHGB.

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  • 19. 

    What antiestrogen hormone has direct effects on the endometruim and cervivical mucus-producing glands?

    • A.

      Clomid

    • B.

      Tamoxifen

    • C.

      Evista

    • D.

      Danazol

    Correct Answer
    A. Clomid
    Explanation
    Clomid is the correct answer because it is an antiestrogen hormone that directly affects the endometrium and cervical mucus-producing glands. It is commonly used to stimulate ovulation in women with fertility issues by blocking the effects of estrogen in the body. By doing so, Clomid helps to regulate hormone levels and promote the growth and development of the endometrium, which is essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. Additionally, Clomid can also affect the production and quality of cervical mucus, which plays a crucial role in sperm transport and fertility.

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  • 20. 

    When a nurse practitioner prescribes anti-estrogen medication which medication you have to use great caution in hepatic dysfunction and carries a black box warning for this and for the risk of thromboembolism.  

    • A.

      Danazol

    • B.

      Tamoxifen

    • C.

      Evista

    • D.

      Clomid

    Correct Answer
    A. Danazol
    Explanation
    Danazol is the correct answer because it is an anti-estrogen medication that should be used with caution in patients with hepatic dysfunction. It also carries a black box warning for the risk of thromboembolism. This means that patients with liver problems should be closely monitored while taking Danazol, as it may cause further damage to the liver. Additionally, patients should be aware of the increased risk of blood clots associated with this medication. Tamoxifen, Evista, and Clomid are also anti-estrogen medications, but they do not have the same cautionary warnings as Danazol.

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  • 21. 

    Danazol binds to androgen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors and alters androgen metabolism. it does not inhibit aromatase, the enzyme required for estrogen produced. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Danazol is a medication that binds to androgen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors. By doing so, it alters the metabolism of androgens. However, it does not inhibit aromatase, which is the enzyme responsible for the production of estrogen. Therefore, the statement is true as it accurately describes the mechanism of action of Danazol.

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  • 22. 

    Which anti-estrogen is primarily used as part of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in patients with estrogen receptor postitve tumors?

    • A.

      Tamoxifen

    • B.

      Clomid

    • C.

      Danazol

    • D.

      Evista

    Correct Answer
    A. Tamoxifen
    Explanation
    Tamoxifen is primarily used as part of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in patients with estrogen receptor positive tumors. It works by blocking the effects of estrogen in the breast tissue, preventing the growth and spread of cancer cells. Clomid is a fertility drug and is not used for breast cancer treatment. Danazol is primarily used for the treatment of endometriosis and fibrocystic breast disease. Evista is used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, not breast cancer. Therefore, the correct answer is Tamoxifen.

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  • 23. 

    Tamoxifen is a nonsteroidal agent that is given orally. Peak plasma levels are reached in a few hours with an initial half life of 7 to 14 hours. the liver extensively metabolizes tamoxifen.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Tamoxifen is a nonsteroidal agent that is administered orally, allowing for easy and convenient dosing. It reaches peak plasma levels within a few hours, indicating its rapid absorption and distribution throughout the body. The initial half-life of tamoxifen is relatively short, ranging from 7 to 14 hours, suggesting that it is eliminated from the body relatively quickly. Additionally, the liver plays a significant role in metabolizing tamoxifen, further supporting its oral administration. Therefore, the statement that Tamoxifen is a nonsteroidal agent that is given orally, with peak plasma levels reached in a few hours and extensive liver metabolism, is true.

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  • 24. 

    Raloxifene ( evista) is also a SERM. Indications initially were for osteoporosis prevention in women who cannot or will not take hormone replacement therapy. This drug can be used only in women past menopause who have never had thromboembolic problems.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Raloxifene (evista) is indeed a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It is an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for women who cannot or do not want to take estrogen. However, it is important to note that raloxifene should only be used in women who have never had thromboembolic problems, as it may increase the risk of blood clots. Therefore, the statement "This drug can be used only in women past menopause who have never had thromboembolic problems" is true.

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  • 25. 

    Never give raloxifen to pediatric pateints or pre-menopause women

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Raloxifene is a medication used to treat and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It works by mimicking the effects of estrogen in the body, which can help to increase bone density. However, raloxifene should not be given to pediatric patients or pre-menopausal women because their bodies are still undergoing development and hormonal changes. The medication is specifically designed for use in postmenopausal women, and its safety and effectiveness in other populations have not been established. Therefore, it is important to avoid giving raloxifene to pediatric patients or pre-menopausal women.

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  • 26. 

    As a nurse practioner one of the primary reasons why patient discontinue therapy of Raloxifene (evista) is because of hot flashes and leg cramps.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    One of the primary reasons why patients discontinue therapy of Raloxifene (evista) is due to the occurrence of hot flashes and leg cramps. This suggests that these side effects are common and significant enough to cause patients to stop taking the medication.

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  • 27. 

    Which anti-estrogen medication is indicated that it might be effective for prevention of postmenopause bone loss without the risk for breast or uterine cancer. it may also have a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism?

    • A.

      Evista

    • B.

      Tamoxifen

    • C.

      Danazol

    • D.

      Clomid

    Correct Answer
    A. Evista
    Explanation
    Evista is the correct answer because it is an anti-estrogen medication that is indicated for the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. Unlike Tamoxifen, it does not carry the risk of breast or uterine cancer. Additionally, Evista may have a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism.

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  • 28. 

    Raloxifen (evista) should be discontinued 48 prior to surgery to decrease the risk of thromobisis and embolism

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    72 hours prior to surgery

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  • 29. 

    What hormone effects the closure of long bones after the puberal growth spurt; maintains bone density decreasig rate of bone resorption through antagonizing the effects of parathyriod hormone (PTH) 

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Progestin

    • C.

      Antrogen

    • D.

      Progestrone

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the correct answer because it is the hormone that affects the closure of long bones after the puberal growth spurt. It also helps maintain bone density by decreasing the rate of bone resorption, which is the process of breaking down old bone tissue. Estrogen does this by antagonizing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is responsible for increasing bone resorption.

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  • 30. 

    What hormone maintains normal structure of skin and blood vessels through its actions on the endothelial cellis in the arterial walls, including the induction of nitric oxide to facililtate vasodilation and oxygen uptake by cells.

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Progestin

    • C.

      Progestrone

    • D.

      Astrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the correct answer because it is a hormone that helps maintain the normal structure of skin and blood vessels. It acts on the endothelial cells in the arterial walls, inducing the production of nitric oxide, which facilitates vasodilation. This allows for increased blood flow and oxygen uptake by cells, promoting healthy skin and blood vessel function.

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  • 31. 

    What hormone alters plasma lipids ( increased high-density lipoprotein [HDL], slight reduction in low density lipoprotein [ldl], reduced total cholestrol , increased triglycerides) through its action in the liver.

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Progestin

    • C.

      Progesterone

    • D.

      Astrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the correct answer because it is a hormone that alters plasma lipids in the liver. It increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which is considered "good" cholesterol, and slightly reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is considered "bad" cholesterol. Estrogen also reduces total cholesterol levels and increases triglycerides. These actions of estrogen in the liver contribute to its overall effect on lipid metabolism.

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  • 32. 

    What hormone reduces motility of the bowel through its modulation of sympathtic nervous system control over smooth muscle.

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Astrogen

    • C.

      Progesterone

    • D.

      Progestin

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen reduces motility of the bowel through its modulation of sympathetic nervous system control over smooth muscle. This hormone has an inhibitory effect on the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn reduces the activity of smooth muscle in the bowel, leading to decreased motility.

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  • 33. 

    What hormone alters production and activity of selected proteins resulting in higher levels of thyromine-binding globulin sex,hormone, binding globulin, transferrin, and renin substrate. 

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Astrogen

    • C.

      Progesterone

    • D.

      Progestin

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the correct answer because it is a hormone that can alter the production and activity of selected proteins, including thyromine-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, transferrin, and renin substrate. Estrogen can increase the levels of these proteins, leading to various physiological effects in the body.

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  • 34. 

    What hormone enhances coagulability of blood by increasing the production of fibrinogen

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Astrogen

    • C.

      Progesterone

    • D.

      Progestin

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the hormone that enhances the coagulability of blood by increasing the production of fibrinogen. Fibrinogen is a protein that plays a crucial role in blood clotting. Estrogen stimulates the liver to produce more fibrinogen, which promotes the formation of blood clots. This is why women who take estrogen-containing medications or are on hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk of blood clots.

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  • 35. 

    What hormone factiliates loss of intravascular fluid into extracelluar fluid ( ECF) volume.

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Astrogen

    • C.

      Progesterone

    • D.

      Progestin

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the hormone that facilitates the loss of intravascular fluid into extracellular fluid (ECF) volume. Estrogen has been shown to increase capillary permeability, allowing fluid to move from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissues. This process helps to maintain fluid balance in the body and is important for various physiological functions. Estrogen also plays a role in regulating blood pressure and vascular tone.

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  • 36. 

    What maintains stability of the thermoregulatory center?

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Progestin

    • C.

      Progesterone

    • D.

      Astrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen maintains stability of the thermoregulatory center because it plays a key role in regulating body temperature. It helps to regulate the hypothalamus, which is responsible for controlling body temperature. Estrogen can affect the thermoregulatory center by increasing blood flow to the skin, promoting sweating, and regulating the release of heat from the body. This hormone is particularly important during the menstrual cycle, as fluctuations in estrogen levels can contribute to hot flashes and temperature regulation issues.

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  • 37. 

    This  ------------ harmone  function results in acute activation of the sympathtic nervous system and vasomotor instablility causing hot flushes. 

    Correct Answer
    Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the correct answer because it is a hormone that can result in acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system and vasomotor instability. This can lead to hot flushes, which are sudden feelings of warmth and intense sweating. Estrogen plays a role in regulating body temperature, and changes in estrogen levels can disrupt this balance, leading to hot flushes.

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  • 38. 

    What                          harmone causes thickening of the endometrium and its increasing it difficulty for pregnancy impalntation.

    Correct Answer
    progestin
    Explanation
    Progestin is the hormone that causes thickening of the endometrium and makes it difficult for pregnancy implantation. Progestin is a synthetic form of progesterone, a hormone naturally produced in the body. It prepares the uterus for pregnancy by thickening the lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium. This thickened endometrium provides a suitable environment for the fertilized egg to implant and develop. However, if the endometrium becomes too thick due to excessive progestin levels, it can hinder the implantation of the fertilized egg, making it difficult for pregnancy to occur.

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  • 39. 

    During pregnacy what harmone  maintains thickened endometrium , relaxes myometrial muscles, thickened the myometrium  for labor and responsible for placental development  and prevents lactation until fetus is born

    Correct Answer
    progestin
    Explanation
    Progestin is the correct answer because it is a hormone that plays a crucial role during pregnancy. It maintains the thickened endometrium, relaxes the muscles of the uterus (myometrium), thickens the myometrium in preparation for labor, and is responsible for placental development. Additionally, progestin prevents lactation until the fetus is born.

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  • 40. 

    In the absence of pregnacy , the reduced production of              and                by the corpus luteum results in the shedding of the endometrium to produce menstruation.

    Correct Answer
    estrogen and progestin
    Explanation
    In the absence of pregnancy, the reduced production of estrogen and progestin by the corpus luteum leads to the shedding of the endometrium. Estrogen and progestin are hormones that play a crucial role in the menstrual cycle. Estrogen helps to build up the lining of the uterus, while progestin maintains the thickened endometrium and prepares it for possible implantation of a fertilized egg. However, if fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum decreases its production of estrogen and progestin, causing the endometrium to shed and resulting in menstruation.

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  • 41. 

    Which  hamrone is responsible for alveolobular development of the secretory apparatus  of the breast

    Correct Answer
    progestin
    Explanation
    Progestin is responsible for the alveolobular development of the secretory apparatus of the breast. Progestin is a synthetic form of the hormone progesterone, which is produced naturally in the body. During pregnancy, progesterone levels increase, leading to the growth and development of the alveoli in the breast. These alveoli are responsible for producing and secreting milk. Progestin, when administered exogenously, mimics the effects of progesterone and promotes the development of the secretory apparatus in the breast.

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  • 42. 

    Progestin stimulates lipoprotein  activity  and seems to favor fat deposition

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Progestin is a hormone that has been found to stimulate lipoprotein activity, which refers to the metabolism of lipids (fats) in the body. This hormone also appears to favor fat deposition, meaning that it promotes the storage of fat in the body. Therefore, the statement that progestin stimulates lipoprotein activity and favors fat deposition is true.

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  • 43. 

    Does progestin increases basal insulin levels and insulin response to glucose, it promotes glycogen storage in the liver. It also decreases sodium resorption it increases body temperature and it also decreases Pco2.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that progestin increases basal insulin levels and insulin response to glucose, promotes glycogen storage in the liver, decreases sodium resorption, increases body temperature, and decreases Pco2. This implies that the statement is true.

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  • 44. 

    Estrogen and progestin therapy is recommendation to use the lowest dose for the shortest duration possible, and the limit treatment less than five years.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Estrogen and progestin therapy is recommended to use the lowest dose for the shortest duration possible, and to limit treatment to less than five years. This means that it is advised to use the lowest effective dose of estrogen and progestin for the shortest amount of time necessary, and to avoid long-term use. This recommendation is based on the potential risks and side effects associated with hormone therapy, such as an increased risk of certain health conditions. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 45. 

    What hormone is produced in the ovary and the adrenal gland?  

    • A.

      Androgens

    • B.

      HRT

    • C.

      Progestin

    • D.

      Estrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Androgens
    Explanation
    Androgens are a type of hormone that is produced in both the ovary and the adrenal gland. They are responsible for the development and maintenance of male characteristics, but they are also present in females in smaller amounts. Androgens play a role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and are important for reproductive health in both men and women.

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  • 46. 

    what hormone contributes to growth spurt, growth of pubic hair, and axcillary hair, activate sebaceous glands, and play a role in libido?.

    • A.

      Androgens

    • B.

      Progestin

    • C.

      Estrogen

    • D.

      Ert

    Correct Answer
    A. Androgens
    Explanation
    Androgens are a group of hormones, including testosterone, that contribute to the growth spurt during puberty, as well as the growth of pubic hair and axillary hair. They also activate sebaceous glands, leading to increased oil production and acne. Additionally, androgens play a role in libido or sexual desire.

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  • 47. 

    As a nurse practitioner you are aware that if you administer exogenous androgens during menopause it is usually related to the role they play in skeletal growth and libido.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Exogenous androgens, when administered during menopause, can have an impact on skeletal growth and libido. This means that the statement is true.

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  • 48. 

    As a nurse practitioner your pt ask you what is menopause. You respond to your patient and explain that menopause is period of time in which you have no menstruation for 12 consecutive months when estrogen and progestin are below despite the amount of FSH and LH levels that are increase due to the loss of ovary function

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Menopause is indeed a period of time in a woman's life when she experiences the cessation of menstruation for 12 consecutive months. During menopause, the levels of estrogen and progestin decrease, despite the increase in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. This is caused by the loss of ovarian function.

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  • 49. 

    As a nurse practitioner, we know that vasomotor symptoms are caused by rapid changes in the estrogen level rather than low estrogen level and they usually subside gradually over time postmenopausal. What are the most effective treatments for these symptoms?

    • A.

      ERT/HRT

    • B.

      ERT

    • C.

      HRT

    • D.

      ANDROGEN

    Correct Answer
    A. ERT/HRT
    Explanation
    Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats, are commonly experienced by women during menopause. The most effective treatments for these symptoms are estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). ERT involves taking estrogen alone, while HRT involves taking a combination of estrogen and progesterone. Both treatments help to alleviate vasomotor symptoms by replenishing the estrogen levels in the body. It is important to note that these symptoms usually subside gradually over time after menopause, and ERT/HRT should be used for a short duration and at the lowest effective dose to minimize potential risks.

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  • 50. 

    AS a nurse  practitioner we know that when administer ERT/HRT these patients are at risk for breast cancer, therefore the woman who are increased risk of breast cancer ERT/HRT are contraindicated.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true because as a nurse practitioner, it is known that patients who receive ERT/HRT are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Therefore, it is contraindicated for women who are already at an increased risk of breast cancer to receive ERT/HRT.

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