Euro Quizzes From The 2nd And 3rd Trimesters

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Euro Quizzes From The 2nd And 3rd Trimesters - Quiz


These are all of the questions and answers from all the quizzes we've had in the 2nd and 3rd Trimesters.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Great thinkers of the Enlightenment were inspired by which of the following people?

    • A.

      Descartes

    • B.

      Newton

    • C.

      Pope Paul III

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and b only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and b only
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a and b only" because Descartes and Newton were influential figures during the Enlightenment period. Descartes, with his philosophy of rationalism, emphasized the importance of reason and skepticism. Newton's scientific discoveries and laws of motion laid the foundation for the Enlightenment's focus on empirical observation and the belief in a rational and orderly universe. Pope Paul III, on the other hand, was not a thinker of the Enlightenment and his ideas were not aligned with the movement's principles.

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  • 2. 

    The recognized leader of the French Enlightenment was:

    • A.

      Victor Hugo

    • B.

      Paul Cezanne

    • C.

      Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire)

    • D.

      Jean Paul Sartre

    Correct Answer
    C. Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
    Explanation
    Francois Marie Arouet, better known as Voltaire, is recognized as the leader of the French Enlightenment. He was a prominent philosopher, writer, and advocate for freedom of speech and religious tolerance. Voltaire's works, such as "Candide" and "Letters Concerning the English Nation," challenged traditional beliefs and criticized the abuses of power in society. He championed reason, science, and individual liberty, making significant contributions to the Enlightenment movement in France and beyond. His ideas and writings had a profound impact on the intellectual and cultural development of Europe during the 18th century.

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  • 3. 

    What did the philosophes think of traditional Christianity?

    • A.

      That it promoted superstition and persecution

    • B.

      That it helped people find the way into heaven

    • C.

      That the Bible was the only source of truth

    • D.

      That the Reformation had made all the necessary changes to the church

    Correct Answer
    A. That it promoted superstition and persecution
    Explanation
    The philosophes believed that traditional Christianity promoted superstition and persecution. They criticized the church for its dogmas, rituals, and the power it held over people's lives. They argued for reason, tolerance, and individual freedom, and saw traditional Christianity as an obstacle to progress and enlightenment. They advocated for a more rational and secular society, where religious beliefs would not dictate people's lives and where religious persecution would not occur. They believed in the importance of separating church and state and promoting religious tolerance.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following did John Locke see as natural right(s) that a government should respect?

    • A.

      Life

    • B.

      Liberty

    • C.

      Property

    • D.

      All of the Above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the Above
    Explanation
    John Locke believed that individuals have the natural rights to life, liberty, and property. He argued that these rights are inherent and should be protected by the government. Locke believed that governments are established to secure these rights and that individuals have the right to rebel against a government that fails to do so. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the Above" as all three rights were seen by John Locke as natural rights that a government should respect.

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  • 5. 

    What did Thomas Hobbes learn from the English Civil War?

    • A.

      That all monarchies should be destroyed

    • B.

      That absolutism was the best and most logical form of government

    • C.

      That an elected democracy would have been the best form of government for England

    • D.

      He died before it ever happened

    Correct Answer
    B. That absolutism was the best and most logical form of government
    Explanation
    Thomas Hobbes learned from the English Civil War that absolutism was the best and most logical form of government. This conclusion can be drawn from his famous work, "Leviathan," where he argued that a strong central authority, such as an absolute monarchy, was necessary to maintain social order and prevent the chaos and violence witnessed during the civil war. Hobbes believed that individuals were driven by self-interest and that only a powerful sovereign could effectively control and govern society. Therefore, his experiences during the English Civil War led him to advocate for absolutism as the most suitable form of government.

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  • 6. 

    The title of Rousseau's best known work was:

    • A.

      A Discourse on Method

    • B.

      The Communist Manifesto

    • C.

      The Social Contract

    • D.

      Existential Deism

    Correct Answer
    C. The Social Contract
    Explanation
    Rousseau's best known work is titled "The Social Contract." This book explores the concept of the social contract, which is the idea that individuals form a society and agree to be governed by a common set of rules and laws. Rousseau discusses the nature of government and the rights and duties of citizens within a society. The book had a significant influence on political philosophy and the development of democratic ideals.

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  • 7. 

    What did the philosophes see as humanity's most depraved offense against reason?

    • A.

      Monarchy

    • B.

      The Encyclopedia

    • C.

      Marriage

    • D.

      Religious persecution

    Correct Answer
    D. Religious persecution
    Explanation
    The philosophes believed that religious persecution was humanity's most depraved offense against reason. They saw it as a violation of individual freedom and the right to think and believe as one chooses. Religious persecution stifles intellectual and philosophical progress, as it suppresses dissenting views and promotes dogmatic thinking. The philosophes advocated for religious tolerance and the separation of church and state, recognizing that a society that respects individual rights and freedom of thought is essential for the advancement of reason and knowledge.

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  • 8. 

    What economic system was supported by Adam Smith?

    • A.

      Communism

    • B.

      Feudalism

    • C.

      Laissez-faire

    • D.

      Mercantilism

    Correct Answer
    C. Laissez-faire
    Explanation
    Adam Smith, a prominent economist and philosopher, supported the economic system of laissez-faire. Laissez-faire, a French term meaning "let it be," refers to a system where the government has minimal interference in the economy. Smith believed that individuals pursuing their self-interests in a free market would lead to economic prosperity and overall societal benefit. He argued for free trade, limited government regulation, and the importance of competition in driving innovation and efficiency. Laissez-faire economics became a foundational principle of classical liberalism and influenced the development of capitalist economies.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following did most philosophes object to?

    • A.

      Writing in the vernacular

    • B.

      Torture

    • C.

      Freedom of the press

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Torture
    Explanation
    Most philosophes objected to torture. They believed in the importance of reason, logic, and human rights. Torture was seen as a cruel and inhumane practice that went against these principles. Philosophes advocated for the use of reason and rationality in society, and they believed that torture was a barbaric and ineffective way of obtaining information or punishing individuals. They argued for the importance of treating all individuals with dignity and respect, and torture was seen as a violation of these principles.

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  • 10. 

    What is pictured below? (refer to p239 in your book)

    • A.

      The entrance to the walled cit of York

    • B.

      The entrance to the castle of Charles II

    • C.

      Newgate Prison

    • D.

      The immigration processing center in London

    Correct Answer
    C. Newgate Prison
  • 11. 

    Which of the following were noted as one of the major conflicst in the 18th century?

    • A.

      The war between Russia and China for control of Mongolia

    • B.

      The war between Britain and France for control of territory in the New World

    • C.

      The war between Italy and the Ottoman Empire for control of North Africa

    • D.

      The war between Spain and France for control of Serbia

    Correct Answer
    B. The war between Britain and France for control of territory in the New World
    Explanation
    In the 18th century, one of the major conflicts was the war between Britain and France for control of territory in the New World. This conflict was known as the Seven Years' War, or the French and Indian War in North America. It was fought between 1756 and 1763 and involved various European powers, including Britain and France. The war was primarily fought over territorial disputes and control of valuable colonies in North America, particularly in the region of present-day Canada and the United States. The conflict had significant implications for the balance of power in Europe and the colonization of the New World.

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  • 12. 

    Why did Britain raise taxes in the US colonies in the years just before the American Revolution?

    • A.

      To pay for tea

    • B.

      To pay for expeditions to the western parts of the United States

    • C.

      To pay for the troops to guard territory won in the French and Indian War

    • D.

      To pay for the creation of a democratic government in the US

    Correct Answer
    C. To pay for the troops to guard territory won in the French and Indian War
    Explanation
    Britain raised taxes in the US colonies in the years just before the American Revolution to pay for the troops to guard territory won in the French and Indian War. The war had been costly for Britain, and they needed to find a way to cover the expenses. By imposing taxes on the colonies, Britain aimed to generate revenue to maintain a military presence in the newly acquired territories and protect their interests. This decision, however, sparked resentment among the colonists, leading to increased tensions and ultimately contributing to the outbreak of the American Revolution.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following were given as reasons why the American colonists were ready to revolt in 1775?

    • A.

      They already had established elected assemblies and wanted more independence

    • B.

      They were familiar with the ideas of the philosophes regarding natural rights

    • C.

      The Puritans had developed a tradition of resistane because they had challenged political and religous authorities before

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The American colonists were ready to revolt in 1775 for multiple reasons. Firstly, they already had established elected assemblies and desired more independence, indicating a desire for self-governance. Secondly, they were familiar with the ideas of the philosophes, who emphasized natural rights and the idea that individuals have inherent freedoms that should be protected. Lastly, the Puritans had a history of resistance, having previously challenged political and religious authorities. The combination of these factors led to the readiness of the American colonists to revolt in 1775.

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  • 14. 

    To create reforms, Enlightened Despots needed which of the following?

    • A.

      Efficient government administration and ample funds

    • B.

      Elected monarchs who supporeded people's natural rights

    • C.

      An increase in the number of serfs

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Efficient government administration and ample funds
    Explanation
    Enlightened Despots needed efficient government administration and ample funds to create reforms. Efficient government administration would allow them to implement their policies effectively and efficiently. Ample funds would provide the necessary resources to support and finance these reforms. Elected monarchs who supported people's natural rights and an increase in the number of serfs may not necessarily be essential for creating reforms, as enlightened despots were absolute rulers who implemented reforms for the betterment of their states, rather than relying on democratic processes or increasing the number of serfs.

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  • 15. 

    How did Enlightened Despots make the economic of their country stronger?

    • A.

      They printed more money

    • B.

      They borrowed gold and silver from their allies

    • C.

      They reduced taxes on goods

    • D.

      They took the money of the aristocracy and gave it to the commoners

    Correct Answer
    C. They reduced taxes on goods
    Explanation
    Enlightened Despots made the economic of their country stronger by reducing taxes on goods. This measure would have likely stimulated trade and consumption, leading to an increase in economic activity. By reducing taxes, the despots encouraged the growth of industries and commerce, attracting more investment and generating higher revenues for the state. This approach aimed to create a favorable business environment and promote economic development, ultimately strengthening the overall economy of their country.

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  • 16. 

    According to your book, which modern idea(s) came out of the Enlightenment?

    • A.

      The need to separate church and state

    • B.

      The need to abolish torture

    • C.

      The need to abolish slavery

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The Enlightenment was a period in history characterized by a focus on reason, science, and individual rights. During this time, there was a push to separate church and state, as religious institutions were seen as having too much power and influence over government. The Enlightenment also brought about a recognition of the need to abolish torture, as it was seen as inhumane and unjust. Additionally, Enlightenment thinkers argued for the abolition of slavery, as they believed in the inherent rights and equality of all individuals. Therefore, all of the given ideas - the need to separate church and state, abolish torture, and abolish slavery - came out of the Enlightenment.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following was included in the philosophes' view of human nature nd the purpose of life?

    • A.

      That men and women were born in sin

    • B.

      That suffering and misery were divinely ordained

    • C.

      That social inequality was instituted by God

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The philosophes' view of human nature and the purpose of life did not include the belief that men and women were born in sin, that suffering and misery were divinely ordained, or that social inequality was instituted by God. They believed in the power of reason, progress, and the potential for human improvement. They advocated for equality, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

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  • 18. 

    Which ideas have some critics of the philosophes noted as problems in the way they viewed the world?

    • A.

      Belief in their ideas could justify some people's use of terror or mass murder witha clear conscience because it is done to achieve some greater good

    • B.

      They disregarded the impact of the past on the present and they tried to apply reason to all people throughout the globe, regardless of their cultures or history

    • C.

      Their belief that citizens should have a voice in their own government could lead to problems when the uneducated masses are running poitical systems

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and b only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and b only
    Explanation
    The critics of the philosophes have noted two main problems in the way they viewed the world. Firstly, their belief in their ideas could justify some people's use of terror or mass murder with a clear conscience because it is done to achieve some greater good. Secondly, they disregarded the impact of the past on the present and tried to apply reason to all people throughout the globe, regardless of their cultures or history. Therefore, the correct answer is "a and b only".

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following does Catherine the Great believe can be achieved through absolutism in Russia?

    • A.

      Liberty of the people

    • B.

      Safety and fearlessness of the people

    • C.

      Equality of the people

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Catherine the Great believed that all of the following - liberty, safety, fearlessness, and equality - could be achieved through absolutism in Russia. Absolutism refers to a form of government where the ruler holds complete power and authority. Catherine believed that by having absolute power, she could ensure the liberty of the people by making decisions that would benefit them, provide safety and fearlessness by maintaining law and order, and promote equality by implementing policies that would reduce social disparities.

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  • 20. 

    What are Catherine's views on torture?

    • A.

      That it should be used only on foreigners, not on Russians

    • B.

      That it doesn't uncover the truth; it only determines who is weak and who is strong

    • C.

      That it is the most effective way of determining guilt or innocence

    • D.

      That, in order to be perceived as a modern state, Russia will follow whatever guidelines are created about torture in international agreements

    Correct Answer
    B. That it doesn't uncover the truth; it only determines who is weak and who is strong
    Explanation
    Catherine's views on torture are that it doesn't uncover the truth; it only determines who is weak and who is strong. This suggests that she believes torture is not a reliable method for determining guilt or innocence, but rather a means of exerting power and dominance over individuals. She may also imply that torture is ineffective in obtaining accurate information and may lead to false confessions or misleading evidence. Additionally, Catherine's views indicate a critical perspective on the use of torture as a tool of justice or interrogation.

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  • 21. 

    Which group made up the First Estate?

    • A.

      Nobility

    • B.

      Clergy

    • C.

      Commoners

    • D.

      Royalty

    Correct Answer
    B. Clergy
    Explanation
    The First Estate was composed of the clergy. This group consisted of religious leaders such as priests, bishops, and monks. They held significant power and influence in society, often owning vast amounts of land and wealth. The clergy played a crucial role in the religious and spiritual guidance of the people, and they were exempt from many taxes and obligations that the commoners had to bear.

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  • 22. 

    What was the basis for the social structure in the Old Regime?

    • A.

      Equality among citizens

    • B.

      Laissez faire- free trade and self determination

    • C.

      Privileges and inequality

    • D.

      Racism and nationalism

    Correct Answer
    C. Privileges and inequality
    Explanation
    The social structure in the Old Regime was based on privileges and inequality. This means that society was divided into different classes or estates, with each having different rights and privileges. The nobility and clergy enjoyed special privileges and held a higher social status, while the common people had limited rights and were subject to the authority of the upper classes. This system promoted inequality and reinforced social hierarchies, with little consideration for equality among citizens.

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  • 23. 

    Which group of nobles had the most prestige?

    • A.

      Nobles of the Robe

    • B.

      Nobles of the Round Table

    • C.

      Nobles of the Sword

    • D.

      All nobles were of equal social status

    Correct Answer
    C. Nobles of the Sword
    Explanation
    The group of nobles that had the most prestige were the Nobles of the Sword. This is because historically, the Nobles of the Sword were the highest-ranking nobles in medieval society. They were typically the military aristocracy, holding positions of power and influence in the military and often having close ties to the monarchy. Their status and prestige were derived from their military prowess and their ability to protect and serve the kingdom.

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  • 24. 

    What Estate did the Bourgeoisie belong to?

    • A.

      First

    • B.

      Second

    • C.

      Third

    • D.

      Fourth

    Correct Answer
    C. Third
    Explanation
    The bourgeoisie belonged to the Third Estate. The Third Estate was made up of the commoners, including the middle class, merchants, and professionals. They were the largest social class and held the majority of the population. The bourgeoisie were the wealthier members of the Third Estate who were involved in trade, commerce, and industry. They played a significant role in the French Revolution and were instrumental in the overthrow of the monarchy.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is true of French peasants inthe 18th century?

    • A.

      They were better off than peasants in Austria, Prussia, Poland, or Russia

    • B.

      They still had obligations to the lords, such as giving him part of their produce

    • C.

      Most lived in poverty

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    In the 18th century, French peasants were not better off than peasants in Austria, Prussia, Poland, or Russia. They still had obligations to the lords, such as giving him part of their produce, and most of them lived in poverty. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following were included inthe Urban Laboring Class?

    • A.

      Factory workers

    • B.

      Doctors

    • C.

      Farmers

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Factory workers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is factory workers. This is because factory workers were part of the urban laboring class, which refers to the group of people who worked in factories in urban areas. Doctors and farmers, on the other hand, may have worked in urban areas, but they do not specifically fall under the category of the urban laboring class.

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  • 27. 

    What word was used to describe the government administration in France in the 18th Century?

    • A.

      Inefficient

    • B.

      Organized

    • C.

      Wealthy

    • D.

      Chaotic

    Correct Answer
    A. Inefficient
    Explanation
    During the 18th Century in France, the word "inefficient" accurately describes the government administration. This suggests that the government was not effective or productive in its functioning. It implies that there were issues with the system, such as bureaucracy, corruption, or lack of organization, which hindered the government's ability to efficiently carry out its duties and responsibilities.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following were described in your book as (an) inspiration(s) for the French Revolution?

    • A.

      The American Revolution

    • B.

      The Enlightenment

    • C.

      The Russian Revolution

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and b only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and b only
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a and b only". The American Revolution and the Enlightenment were described in the book as inspirations for the French Revolution. The American Revolution demonstrated that a successful revolution was possible, inspiring the French to seek their own revolution. The Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason, individual rights, and social equality, provided the intellectual foundation for the French Revolution. The Russian Revolution, however, occurred much later and was not mentioned as an inspiration for the French Revolution in the book.

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  • 29. 

    In the last section of the reading, it was written that some historians had challenged the following idea (believed it to be incorrect):

    • A.

      That the French Revolution was a turning point in European History

    • B.

      That King Louis XVI had some responsibility for the revolution

    • C.

      That the Bourgeoisie started the revolution because they weren't able to have the same prvileges as the nobility

    • D.

      That the peasants supported the revolution

    Correct Answer
    C. That the Bourgeoisie started the revolution because they weren't able to have the same prvileges as the nobility
    Explanation
    Some historians have challenged the idea that the Bourgeoisie started the revolution because they weren't able to have the same privileges as the nobility. These historians argue that the revolution was not solely driven by the Bourgeoisie's desire for equal privileges, but rather by a combination of various factors such as social, economic, and political grievances. They believe that the revolution was a result of a complex interplay of different social classes and their dissatisfaction with the monarchy and the Old Regime. Therefore, they question the notion that the Bourgeoisie played the central role in initiating the revolution.

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  • 30. 

    The political cartoon below is making a statement about which of the following? (refer to p.253 in your book)

    • A.

      The Catholic Church

    • B.

      Class and privilege

    • C.

      Americans

    • D.

      Transportation

    Correct Answer
    B. Class and privilege
    Explanation
    The political cartoon is making a statement about class and privilege. The cartoon likely depicts a scene that highlights the stark differences between the upper class and the lower class. This can be inferred from the imagery and symbols used in the cartoon, such as the depiction of wealthy individuals in luxurious attire and the presence of poverty-stricken individuals. The cartoon is likely critiquing the unequal distribution of wealth and the privileges enjoyed by the upper class, emphasizing the social and economic divide within society.

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  • 31. 

    When the Estates General met in May, 1789, who did the commoners (the 3rd Estate) see as the chief obstacle to reform?

    • A.

      The Queen

    • B.

      The Military

    • C.

      The Aristocracy

    • D.

      The Clergy

    Correct Answer
    C. The Aristocracy
    Explanation
    During the meeting of the Estates General in May 1789, the commoners (the 3rd Estate) viewed the aristocracy as the main hindrance to reform. The aristocracy represented the privileged class in society, holding significant power and wealth. They were resistant to change and often enjoyed special privileges and exemptions from taxes. The commoners, who made up the majority of the population and were burdened with heavy taxes and social inequality, saw the aristocracy as the primary obstacle preventing them from achieving much-needed reforms and social justice.

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  • 32. 

    What was/were the consequences of the Storming of the Bastille?

    • A.

      Some court nobles decided to flee the country

    • B.

      The Kind strengthened his army and sent more troops to stop the uprisings in the City of Paris

    • C.

      The National Assembly was dissolved and its members were shot

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Some court nobles decided to flee the country
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Some court nobles decided to flee the country." This is because the Storming of the Bastille was a significant event during the French Revolution, where a mob of revolutionaries stormed the Bastille prison in Paris. This event marked the beginning of the Revolution and sent shockwaves throughout France. As a result, some court nobles, who were associated with the monarchy and feared for their safety, chose to flee the country to escape the growing unrest and violence.

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  • 33. 

    What reforms were made in the summer of 1789 by the National Assembly?

    • A.

      The abolition of special privileges of the nobility and the clergy

    • B.

      A statement of people's rights was written down

    • C.

      A constitution was started for France

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    In the summer of 1789, the National Assembly in France implemented several reforms. First, they abolished the special privileges that the nobility and the clergy enjoyed, aiming to create a more equal society. Additionally, the Assembly drafted a statement of people's rights, which outlined the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens. Lastly, they initiated the process of creating a constitution for France, which would establish the framework for the country's governance. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 34. 

    What were the Ocotber Days?

    • A.

      A period of calm following the initial uprisings in the summer of 1789

    • B.

      An uprising by Parisians who marched to Versailles to demand help and reforms from the King

    • C.

      A period of great celebration and parties because people believed the Revolution was over

    • D.

      A failed attempt by th eking to use the army to take over the National Assembly

    Correct Answer
    B. An uprising by Parisians who marched to Versailles to demand help and reforms from the King
    Explanation
    The correct answer is an uprising by Parisians who marched to Versailles to demand help and reforms from the King. This explanation states that the Ocotber Days were a period of uprising where Parisians marched to Versailles to demand assistance and reforms from the King.

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  • 35. 

    What changes did the National Assembly make regarding the Catholic Church in France?

    • A.

      It ended taxes (tithes) that people had to pay to the Church

    • B.

      It mae the clergy government officials; elected by the people and paid by the state

    • C.

      It created a Civil Constitution of the Clergy

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The National Assembly made several changes regarding the Catholic Church in France. Firstly, they ended the taxes (tithes) that people had to pay to the Church. Secondly, they transformed the clergy into government officials who were elected by the people and paid by the state. Lastly, they created a Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Therefore, all of the given options are correct and accurately describe the changes made by the National Assembly regarding the Catholic Church in France.

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  • 36. 

    Who were the Sans Culottes?

    • A.

      The Bourgeoisie (owners of industry)

    • B.

      Disgruntled members of the Aristocracy

    • C.

      Small shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners

    • D.

      Members of the Royal Guard

    Correct Answer
    C. Small shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners
    Explanation
    The Sans Culottes were a group of small shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners during the French Revolution. They were known for their radical political beliefs and their support for the overthrow of the monarchy. The term "Sans Culottes" literally means "without knee breeches," which referred to their rejection of the aristocratic fashion of wearing knee-length pants. They played a significant role in the revolutionary movement and were often involved in protests and demonstrations against the ruling class.

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  • 37. 

    A turning point in the French Revolution in 1792 was the start of war with which country?

    • A.

      Spain

    • B.

      Poland

    • C.

      Austria

    • D.

      Sweden

    Correct Answer
    C. Austria
    Explanation
    In 1792, a major turning point in the French Revolution was the start of war with Austria. This conflict, known as the War of the First Coalition, marked the beginning of a series of wars against various European powers. The war with Austria was significant because it not only posed a threat to the French Revolution but also led to the radicalization of the revolutionaries and the establishment of the First French Republic. The conflict with Austria ultimately resulted in the French army's successful invasion of Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) and further fueled the revolutionary fervor in France.

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  • 38. 

    What were the Jacobins credited with accomplishing during the radical phase of the Revolution?

    • A.

      They created a large, modern, army of patriotic, well-equipped men led by officers who were chosen for their skills.

    • B.

      They helped promote nationalism by demanding complete devotion to France through speeches, newspapers, and schools

    • C.

      They ended the killing and re-introduced peace to the nation

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and b only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and b only
    Explanation
    During the radical phase of the Revolution, the Jacobins were credited with accomplishing two main things. Firstly, they created a large, modern army composed of patriotic, well-equipped men. The officers leading this army were chosen based on their skills. Secondly, they played a significant role in promoting nationalism by demanding complete devotion to France through speeches, newspapers, and schools. Therefore, the correct answer is "a and b only."

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  • 39. 

    What was the Republic of Virtue?

    • A.

      An ideal society set up by the Jacobins that promoted equality and good citizenship

    • B.

      It was a colony created by the French in North america where people could live acording to revolutionary and enlightened ideals

    • C.

      It was the title of Marie Antoinette's memoir

    • D.

      T was the title of the speech given by Louis XVI before he was beheaded

    Correct Answer
    A. An ideal society set up by the Jacobins that promoted equality and good citizenship
    Explanation
    The Republic of Virtue was an ideal society set up by the Jacobins that aimed to promote equality and good citizenship. This concept was a central part of the French Revolution, with the Jacobins advocating for a society where all individuals would have equal rights and responsibilities. The Republic of Virtue aimed to create a society based on principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity, where citizens would actively participate in the political and social life of the nation. This vision reflected the radical ideals of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror.

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  • 40. 

    What was the fate of Robespierre?

    • A.

      He became the first elected President of the French Republic in 1795

    • B.

      He fled to England at the end of the Radical phase of the revolution

    • C.

      He was guillotined in 1794

    • D.

      He became Napoleon's Chief Minister in 1799

    Correct Answer
    C. He was guillotined in 1794
    Explanation
    Robespierre's fate was that he was guillotined in 1794. This means that he was executed by the guillotine, a device used for beheading during the French Revolution. This was a common method of execution during that time, and Robespierre himself was a key figure in the Reign of Terror, a period of intense violence and executions. As a result of his radical policies and actions, he ultimately met the same fate as many others during that tumultuous period.

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  • 41. 

    What kind of government did napoleon admire as a way of "ensureing political stability and strengthening the state"?

    • A.

      Democracy

    • B.

      Constitutional Monarchy

    • C.

      Socialism

    • D.

      Enlightened Despotism

    Correct Answer
    D. Enlightened Despotism
    Explanation
    Napoleon admired Enlightened Despotism as a way of ensuring political stability and strengthening the state. Enlightened Despotism refers to a form of government where an absolute monarch exercises their power in accordance with Enlightenment principles, such as promoting education, religious tolerance, and legal reforms. Napoleon believed that a strong central authority with enlightened policies would lead to stability and progress for the nation.

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  • 42. 

    What gains from the French Revolution did Napoleon preserve?

    • A.

      Equality under the law

    • B.

      Careers open to men of talent

    • C.

      The promotion of secular education

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Napoleon preserved all of the gains from the French Revolution, including equality under the law, careers open to men of talent, and the promotion of secular education. This means that he continued to uphold the principles of the Revolution, ensuring that all citizens were treated equally, individuals were able to pursue careers based on their abilities, and education was not influenced by religious beliefs.

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  • 43. 

    How did Napoleon promote popular support for his policies and shape public opinion?

    • A.

      He ended freedom of the press

    • B.

      He issued provlamations on a weekly basis to share his opinions with the public

    • C.

      He encouraged open debate of issues by allowing freedom of the press

    • D.

      He was one of the first rulers to use poster art for propaganda

    Correct Answer
    A. He ended freedom of the press
  • 44. 

    Where was Napoleon born?

    • A.

      Rome

    • B.

      Corsica

    • C.

      Paris

    • D.

      London

    Correct Answer
    B. Corsica
    Explanation
    Napoleon was born in Corsica. Corsica is an island located in the Mediterranean Sea, and it is where Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1769. He was born into a noble family, and his birthplace played a significant role in shaping his life and career. Corsica was under French control at the time of his birth, but it had previously been ruled by the Republic of Genoa. Napoleon's birth in Corsica ultimately led him to become one of the most influential figures in French and European history.

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  • 45. 

    What rights were included in the Code Napoleon?

    • A.

      The right to choose your profession

    • B.

      Equal rights for women in the area of property and divorce

    • C.

      The right to reclaim your previously held title if you were a noble

    • D.

      Equal treatment of workers and employers under the law

    Correct Answer
    A. The right to choose your profession
    Explanation
    The Code Napoleon included the right to choose your profession. This means that individuals were allowed to freely choose the occupation or career path they wished to pursue, without any restrictions or interference from the government or other authorities. This provision aimed to promote individual freedom and autonomy in economic matters, allowing people to pursue their interests and talents in their chosen profession.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is true regarding Napoleon's treatment of the countries outside of France that he conquered by 1810?

    • A.

      He extended most of the revolutionary reforms to them such as equal taxation and freedom of religion

    • B.

      He made a policy of keeping their laws as they were before he came to keep things more stable

    • C.

      He helped them to set up their own, independent legislatures and write constitutions

    • D.

      He treated them as colonies and enslaved many of the people

    Correct Answer
    A. He extended most of the revolutionary reforms to them such as equal taxation and freedom of religion
    Explanation
    Napoleon extended most of the revolutionary reforms to the countries he conquered, such as equal taxation and freedom of religion. This suggests that he aimed to bring about social and political changes in these countries, rather than treating them as colonies or enslaving their people. By implementing these reforms, Napoleon sought to create a more unified and equal empire, which would potentially increase his control and influence over the conquered territories.

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  • 47. 

    According to your book, the "Spanish Ulcer" did which of the following?

    • A.

      It drained Napoleon's treasury

    • B.

      It allowed the British to have a place from which it could invade France

    • C.

      It inspired other European countries to resist the French Emperor

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The "Spanish Ulcer" refers to the Peninsular War, which was fought between France and Spain from 1807 to 1814. This war drained Napoleon's treasury as he had to allocate significant resources to maintain his army in Spain. Additionally, the war provided the British with a base in Portugal from which they could launch their invasion of France. Finally, the resistance put up by the Spanish and Portuguese during the war inspired other European countries to resist Napoleon's rule. Therefore, all of the given options are correct.

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  • 48. 

    Why did Napoleon feel that he needed to invade Russia in 1812?

    • A.

      Relations were deteriorating because of Russia's refusal to abide by the Continental System and its insistence on trading with Britain

    • B.

      Because Napoleon was looking to control Asia as well as Europe, and Russia was seen as the gateway

    • C.

      Because Czar Alexander II died, and Napoleon wanted to foll the poer vacuum left behind

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Relations were deteriorating because of Russia's refusal to abide by the Continental System and its insistence on trading with Britain
    Explanation
    Napoleon felt the need to invade Russia in 1812 because relations between France and Russia were deteriorating. This was primarily due to Russia's refusal to abide by the Continental System, which was a policy implemented by Napoleon to isolate Britain economically. Russia insisted on trading with Britain, which went against Napoleon's plans. This disagreement and Russia's defiance of the Continental System led Napoleon to view Russia as a threat and ultimately decide to invade.

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  • 49. 

    When did Napoleon's Empire begin to crumble?

    • A.

      When Napoleon was crowned Emperor

    • B.

      When the Grand Army was destroyed

    • C.

      When Napoleon fell victim to a coup d'etat in 1810

    • D.

      When he divorced Josephine

    Correct Answer
    B. When the Grand Army was destroyed
    Explanation
    The correct answer is when the Grand Army was destroyed. This event marked a significant turning point in Napoleon's Empire as it led to a series of military defeats and setbacks for him. The Grand Army was a formidable force that had played a crucial role in Napoleon's previous victories, and its destruction weakened his control and influence over his empire. This ultimately contributed to the decline and eventual collapse of his empire.

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  • 50. 

    What was/were the potentially destructive force(s) unleashed by the French Revolution on Modern Europe?

    • A.

      Modern nationalism

    • B.

      A revolutionary mentality that sought to restor individuals to their natural goodness

    • C.

      Terror as a government policy

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and b only

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The French Revolution unleashed multiple potentially destructive forces on Modern Europe. Firstly, it led to the rise of modern nationalism, which emphasized the idea of a unified nation with a common language, culture, and history. This concept of nationalism often led to conflicts and rivalries among nations. Secondly, the revolutionary mentality of the French Revolution aimed to restore individuals to their natural goodness, but it also resulted in radical and violent actions. Lastly, the French Revolution implemented terror as a government policy, using violence and fear to suppress opposition. Therefore, all of the above options were potentially destructive forces unleashed by the French Revolution on Modern Europe.

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