# Environmental Science, Management, And Policy

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This quiz was given as part of A&WMA's live course, "GENESMP-100: Environmental Practices Review Specialty Course: Environmental Science, Management and Policy" in June, 2008.

• 1.

### A coal fired combustion facility reports the following annual emissions for greenhouse gases: Carbon Dioxide - 500 t/y(m)Nitrous Oxide - 500 kg/yNatrual Gas - 5 t/y(m)Sulfur Hexafluoride - 50 g/yGreenhouse Warming Potentials (GWP) are: 21 for CH4, 300 for N2O, and 23,900 for SF6The CO2eq emissions are:

• A.

7560 t/y

• B.

766 t/y

• C.

756 t/y

• D.

256 t/y

C. 756 t/y
Explanation
The CO2eq emissions are calculated by converting the emissions of each greenhouse gas into their equivalent amount of carbon dioxide based on their Global Warming Potential (GWP). The GWP of carbon dioxide is 1, so its emissions remain the same. The GWP of nitrous oxide is 300, so its emissions of 500 kg/y are equivalent to 150 t/y of carbon dioxide. The GWP of sulfur hexafluoride is 23,900, so its emissions of 50 g/y are equivalent to 11.95 t/y of carbon dioxide. Adding up these equivalent emissions gives a total of 756 t/y of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions.

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• 2.

### Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a methodology to evaluate:

• A.

Ecological impacts to the environment from industrial activities

• B.

Costs to operate a facility over its useful life

• C.

Environmental impacts of products from design through disposal

• D.

Health risks from a product to a person over their lifetime

C. Environmental impacts of products from design through disposal
Explanation
Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a methodology used to assess the environmental impacts of products from their design stage all the way through their disposal. This means that LCA evaluates the various stages of a product's life, including raw material extraction, manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal. By considering the environmental impacts at each stage, LCA allows for a comprehensive understanding of the overall environmental footprint of a product. This information can then be used to make informed decisions and implement strategies to minimize the environmental impacts throughout the product's life cycle.

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• 3.

### Which of the following is the most preferred method of reducing landfill disposal of waste?

• A.

Composting

• B.

Materials recovery

• C.

Source separation

• D.

Source reduction

D. Source reduction
Explanation
Source reduction is the most preferred method of reducing landfill disposal of waste because it focuses on reducing the amount of waste generated in the first place. By implementing practices such as reducing packaging, promoting reusable products, and encouraging responsible consumption, source reduction aims to minimize the overall volume of waste that needs to be disposed of. This approach is considered more effective and sustainable than other methods like composting, materials recovery, or source separation, as it addresses the root cause of waste generation rather than just managing it after the fact.

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• 4.

### Which of the following is a primary "greenhouse" gas because it absorbs the largest amount of long wave infrared radiation in the earth's atmosphere?

• A.

Carbon monoxide

• B.

Ozone

• C.

Water vapor

• D.

Methane

C. Water vapor
Explanation
Water vapor is considered a primary greenhouse gas because it absorbs the largest amount of long wave infrared radiation in the earth's atmosphere. It plays a significant role in the natural greenhouse effect, trapping heat and contributing to the warming of the planet. While other gases like carbon monoxide, ozone, and methane also have greenhouse effects, water vapor is the most abundant and has the greatest impact on the Earth's energy balance.

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• 5.

### Cost Benefit Analysis of environmental decision making may be flawed since it does not take into consideration

• A.

Equality and fairness

• B.

Economic efficiency

• C.

Identifying all non-trivial effects

• D.

Discounting future costs and benefits

A. Equality and fairness
Explanation
Cost Benefit Analysis is a method used to evaluate the economic feasibility of environmental decisions. It involves comparing the costs and benefits associated with different options. However, it may be flawed because it does not consider equality and fairness. This means that it does not take into account the distributional impacts of the decision on different groups of people, and may prioritize economic efficiency over social justice. Therefore, it fails to address the concerns of equity and fairness in decision-making processes.

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• 6.

### Water quality standards are most often based on:

• A.

Existing or emerging technology

• B.

Empirical predictive modeling

• C.

Natural attenuation

• D.

Alternative beneficial uses of water resources

D. Alternative beneficial uses of water resources
Explanation
Water quality standards are most often based on alternative beneficial uses of water resources. This means that the standards are determined by considering how the water will be used and ensuring that it is safe and suitable for those purposes. For example, if the water is intended for drinking, the standards would focus on ensuring that it is free from harmful contaminants. If the water is intended for recreational activities, the standards would consider factors such as bacteria levels and clarity. By basing the standards on the intended use of the water, it ensures that it is protected and suitable for its intended purposes.

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• 7.

### In toxicology, the amount of a toxic agent which reaches a target organ is:

• A.

• B.

Ingested dose

• C.

Effective dose

• D.

Intake dose

D. Intake dose
Explanation
The correct answer is "intake dose." In toxicology, the intake dose refers to the amount of a toxic agent that is taken into the body through ingestion or other means. It represents the actual amount of the toxic agent that reaches the target organ or organs where it can exert its toxic effects. The administered dose refers to the total amount of the toxic agent that is given or administered, but it may not all be absorbed or reach the target organ. The ingested dose refers specifically to the amount of the toxic agent that is taken in through ingestion. The effective dose refers to the amount of a substance needed to produce a desired effect, and is not specific to toxicology.

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• 8.

### Wetlands differ from lakes in that:

• A.

Wetlands contain plants, lakes do not

• B.

Wetlands have a distinctively higher rate of microbial decomposition than lakes

• C.

Wetlands are "salt water" rather than "freshwater"

• D.

Wetlands are thermally stratified

B. Wetlands have a distinctively higher rate of microbial decomposition than lakes
Explanation
Wetlands have a distinctively higher rate of microbial decomposition than lakes. This means that the process of breaking down organic matter by microorganisms occurs at a faster rate in wetlands compared to lakes. This is because wetlands have more organic material, such as dead plants and animals, which provides a rich food source for microbial activity. The high rate of microbial decomposition in wetlands also contributes to nutrient cycling and the overall productivity of these ecosystems. In contrast, lakes may have lower levels of organic material and therefore a lower rate of microbial decomposition.

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• 9.

### The main difference between point sources and fugitive emissions is:

• A.

Point sources are toxic, fugitive emissions are not

• B.

Point sources are always stacks, fugitive emissions are from mobile sources

• C.

Point sources are manmade, fugitive emissions are natural

• D.

Point sources are any identifiable single source of pollution, fugitive emissions are released to the air other than those from stacks or vents

D. Point sources are any identifiable single source of pollution, fugitive emissions are released to the air other than those from stacks or vents
Explanation
Point sources are any identifiable single source of pollution, while fugitive emissions are released to the air other than those from stacks or vents. This means that point sources can be both manmade and natural, and they can release toxic substances. Fugitive emissions, on the other hand, are not necessarily toxic and can come from mobile sources as well. The main distinction is that point sources are specific and identifiable, while fugitive emissions are more diffuse and not easily traced back to a single source.

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• 10.

### Which of the following is not considered a source of indoor air contaminants?

• A.

Mold, mildew, bacteria, etc.

• B.

Building materials and furnishings

• C.

Appliances

• D.

Personal care products

C. Appliances
Explanation
Appliances are not considered a source of indoor air contaminants because they do not release harmful substances into the air. Unlike mold, mildew, bacteria, and personal care products, appliances such as refrigerators, washing machines, and dishwashers do not emit pollutants that can negatively affect indoor air quality. However, it is important to note that faulty or poorly maintained appliances can potentially release gases or particles that can be harmful, so regular maintenance and proper ventilation are still necessary.

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• 11.

### The common exposure routes for environmental toxins are:

• A.

Inhalation, oral, dermal

• B.

Inhalation, oral, injection

• C.

Inhalation, oral, open wound

• D.

Inhalation, dermal, injection

A. Inhalation, oral, dermal
Explanation
The common exposure routes for environmental toxins are inhalation, oral, and dermal. This means that toxins can enter the body through breathing in contaminated air, ingesting contaminated food or water, or coming into direct contact with the skin. These three routes are the most common ways in which environmental toxins can enter and affect the body.

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• 12.

### Toxics may interact in an organism in which of the following ways

• A.

• B.

• C.

• D.

Synergistic, negative, antagonism

Explanation
Toxics can interact in an organism in several ways. Additive interactions occur when the combined effect of two or more toxins is equal to the sum of their individual effects. Synergistic interactions happen when the combined effect of toxins is greater than the sum of their individual effects. Potentiation occurs when one toxic substance enhances the effect of another toxin. Antagonism occurs when the effect of one toxic substance is reduced or counteracted by another toxin. Therefore, the correct answer is additive, synergistic, potentiation, antagonism.

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• 13.

### Adhesion to an extremely thin layer of molecules to the surfaces of solid bodies and liquids with which they contact is known as:

• A.

Absorption

• B.

Contact

• C.

• D.

Scrubbing

Explanation
Adsorption is the correct answer because it refers to the adhesion of a thin layer of molecules to the surfaces of solid bodies and liquids. This process occurs when molecules from a gas or liquid adhere to a solid surface, forming a thin film. Adsorption is different from absorption, which involves the penetration of a substance into the bulk of another substance. Contact and scrubbing do not accurately describe the process of adhesion to a thin layer of molecules.

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• 14.

### The three-way catalysts used in automobiles are an example of:

• A.

Scrubbing

• B.

Catalytic reduction and oxidation

• C.

Catalytic reduction

• D.

Thermal decomposition

B. Catalytic reduction and oxidation
Explanation
The three-way catalysts used in automobiles are an example of catalytic reduction and oxidation because they facilitate both reduction and oxidation reactions simultaneously. These catalysts are designed to convert harmful pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) into less harmful substances like carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O). Reduction reactions involve the addition of electrons to a molecule, while oxidation reactions involve the removal of electrons. In the case of three-way catalysts, they promote both types of reactions to effectively reduce the emission of pollutants from automobile exhaust gases.

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• 15.

### Which of the following chemical is not effectively treated using Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE)?

• A.

TCE

• B.

Ethylbenzene

• C.

Perchloroethylene

• D.

Vinyl chloride

B. Ethylbenzene
Explanation
Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) is a remediation technique used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated soil. It involves extracting the vapors from the soil through vacuum and treating them before release. Among the given chemicals, ethylbenzene is not effectively treated using SVE. This is because ethylbenzene has a lower vapor pressure compared to the other chemicals listed, which makes it less likely to volatilize and be effectively extracted using SVE.

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• 16.

### Effective Environmental Management Systems are based on:

• A.

Laws and regulations

• B.

The Quality Circle (Plan, Do, Check, Act)

• C.

The Quality Circle (Plan, Act, Do, Check)

• D.

Local customs and cultures

B. The Quality Circle (Plan, Do, Check, Act)
Explanation
Effective Environmental Management Systems are based on the Quality Circle (Plan, Do, Check, Act) approach. This approach involves planning for environmental management, implementing the plans, checking the effectiveness of the implemented measures, and taking necessary actions to improve the system. It is a systematic and continuous cycle that helps organizations to identify and address environmental issues, comply with laws and regulations, and improve their environmental performance. This approach ensures that environmental management is integrated into the organization's operations and decision-making processes, leading to more effective and sustainable environmental practices.

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• 17.

### Life cycle analysis (LCA) is appropriate when focusing on a product to:

• A.

Predict the final cost of the product

• B.

Compare the cost of meeting or not meeting environmental requirements standard

• C.

Identify the environmentally dominant stage in a product's life cycle

• D.

Set production goals

C. Identify the environmentally dominant stage in a product's life cycle
Explanation
Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a method used to assess the environmental impacts of a product throughout its entire life cycle, from raw material extraction to disposal. It helps identify the stage in the product's life cycle where the environmental impacts are most significant or dominant. By identifying the environmentally dominant stage, companies can focus on improving the sustainability and reducing the environmental footprint of that particular stage. This information can guide decision-making and resource allocation towards more environmentally friendly practices and processes.

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• 18.

### Which of the following does not add to an organization's environmental aspects?

• A.

Source reduction

• B.

Resource consumption

• C.

Releases to environment

• D.

Energy generation and / or utilization

A. Source reduction
Explanation
Source reduction refers to the practice of minimizing waste and environmental impact by reducing the amount of materials used or generated in the first place. Unlike resource consumption, releases to the environment, and energy generation and/or utilization, source reduction does not directly contribute to an organization's environmental aspects. Instead, it focuses on preventing waste and pollution at the source, leading to a more sustainable and efficient operation.

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• 19.

### Which of the following is not a type of command-and-control regulatory requirements?

• A.

Performance standards

• B.

Design standards

• C.

• D.

Specific pollution control equipment or technology