Ear 111 Practice Final

57 Questions | Total Attempts: 84

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
      ­­_________best describes the process of understanding climate change
    • A. 

      Observations interpretation prediction

    • B. 

      Prediction observations interpretation

    • C. 

      Prediction interpretation observations

    • D. 

      Interpretation prediction observations

  • 2. 
    Warmer climate -> more evaporation -> more water vapor -> greenhouse effect; this process is a ___ feedback leading to ___ climate
    • A. 

      Positive and warmer

    • B. 

      Positive and cooler

    • C. 

      Negative and warmer

    • D. 

      Negative and cooler

  • 3. 
    Over 100 Myr time scale, the most important source of atmospheric C02 is _____
    • A. 

      Surface ocean

    • B. 

      Soil

    • C. 

      Vegetation

    • D. 

      Mantle

  • 4. 
    For deriving the temperature of the geologic past, there are four basic steps: i.                Establish modern calibration ii.              Calculate paleo-T iii.             Collect fossil data iv.             Cross checking between proxies What is the correct order for them _______
    • A. 

      Iv, i, ii, iii

    • B. 

      I, iv, ii, iii

    • C. 

      I, iii, ii, iv

    • D. 

      Iv, ii, i ,iii

  • 5. 
    Temperature has been ____ in the last 50 Myr
    • A. 

      Steadily dropping

    • B. 

      Steadily rising

    • C. 

      Constant

    • D. 

      Fluctuating

  • 6. 
    ______is not one of the main orbital cycles that affect glacial cycles.
    • A. 

      Precession

    • B. 

      Tilt

    • C. 

      Eccentricity

    • D. 

      Solstice

  • 7. 
    Based on the 180 record, the transition between 41 kyr cycle and 100 kyr cycle happened roughly at ______ million years ago
    • A. 

      0-.1

    • B. 

      .7-1.2

    • C. 

      1.5-2

    • D. 

      Earlier than 2.5

  • 8. 
    Oxygen minimum zone refers to the water depth where organic matters are ____ and nutrients are _____
    • A. 

      Produced; taken up

    • B. 

      Decomposed; taken up

    • C. 

      Produced; released

    • D. 

      Decomposed; released

  • 9. 
    ____is the correct order of deep water oxygen level from high to low
    • A. 

      Atlantic Indian Pacific

    • B. 

      Indian Pacific Atlantic

    • C. 

      Pacific Atlantic Indian

    • D. 

      Pacific Indian Atlantic

  • 10. 
    During glacial periods, part of atmospheric carbon was stored in____
    • A. 

      Soil

    • B. 

      Ocean

    • C. 

      Riverbeds

    • D. 

      Wetland

  • 11. 
    LGM refers to a period of ____
    • A. 

      Most recent strong glaciation

    • B. 

      Most recent strong deglaciation

    • C. 

      Longest glaciation

    • D. 

      Longest deglaciation

  • 12. 
    LGM was approximately _____ kyr ago
    • A. 

      20

    • B. 

      40

    • C. 

      60

    • D. 

      100

  • 13. 
    Summer insolation during LGM is ____ today’s
    • A. 

      Much higher than

    • B. 

      Much lower than

    • C. 

      Similar to

  • 14. 
    According to CLIMAP reconstruction, global sea surface temperature (SST) during LGM was generally ____ than today’s SST in most ocean basins, except for large areas 
    • A. 

      Higher; Atlantic

    • B. 

      Higher; Indian

    • C. 

      Lower; Arctic

    • D. 

      Lower; Pacific

  • 15. 
    Canada was covered by _____ ice sheet during LGM
    • A. 

      Cordilleran

    • B. 

      Laurentide

    • C. 

      Greenland

    • D. 

      Scandinavian

  • 16. 
    In the figure on the left, darker color shows the temperature and precipitation range for higher spruce population. The figure on right indicates that this core likely recorded _____ conditions from 13 to 10 kyr.
    • A. 

      Warmer and dryer

    • B. 

      Warmer and wetter

    • C. 

      Colder and dryer

    • D. 

      Colder and wetter

  • 17. 
    Figure on the right shows that recent alkenone-based tropical sea surface temperature for LGM are lower than the CLIMAP estimates. It somewhat explains the debate of warm tropics by indicating that______
    • A. 

      CLIMAP data could be wrong

    • B. 

      CLIMAP data might not be sufficient

    • C. 

      Temperature fluctuation is bigger in tropics

  • 18. 
      The history of N. American ice sheet retreat was revealed by radiocarbon dating of _
    • A. 

      Ice

    • B. 

      Lake sediments

    • C. 

      Moraine

    • D. 

      Seawater

  • 19. 
    Sea level curve on the right shows that the speed of glacial melting was highest at ___ years ago among
    • A. 

      3k

    • B. 

      5k

    • C. 

      10k

    • D. 

      16k

  • 20. 
    Summer insolation was highest around 10ka (since LGM) but rapid sea level rise started before that time because ____
    • A. 

      Ice-sheet response can pre-date insolation

    • B. 

      Ice-sheet was bigger before 10ka

    • C. 

      Ocean volume was smaller before 10ka

    • D. 

      Melting was not controlled by insolation

  • 21. 
    Two pulses were found for global-average ice-sheet melting rate based on____
    • A. 

      C14 dated sea level curve

    • B. 

      U-Th dated sea level curve

    • C. 

      13C of Coral

    • D. 

      13C of Forams

  • 22. 
    _____value in foram is a convincing evidence of local meltwater event.
    • A. 

      Heavier 018

    • B. 

      Lighter 018

    • C. 

      Heavier C13

    • D. 

      Lighter C13

  • 23. 
      Paleoceanographer Wally Brocker proposed that meltwater from the N.American ice sheet drained into N. Atlantic and stopped the thermohaline circulation during ____
    • A. 

      Younger Dryas

    • B. 

      Little Ice Age

    • C. 

      Medieval warm period

    • D. 

      LGM

  • 24. 
    The leading hypothesis to explain millennial oscillations in high resolution ice-core records is ____
    • A. 

      Thermal bipolar seesaw

    • B. 

      Insolation oscillation

    • C. 

      Ice-sheet melting oscillation

    • D. 

      Greenhouse gas oscillation

  • 25. 
    ____hypothesis states that long-term drying of Africa turned rain forests into grass lands, influencing early human evolution. The evidence comes from C13 changes that were related to the shift from ____ vegetation.
    • A. 

      Savanna; C3 to C4

    • B. 

      Sahara; C3 to C4

    • C. 

      Savanna; C13 to C14

    • D. 

      Sahara; C13 to C14

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