# Disaster And Failure Final

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Jackiemwheeler
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 133
Questions: 100 | Attempts: 133

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• 1.

### A Truss is a

• A.

A load bearing column that holds a bridge up

• B.

A strongly held anchor a bridge is secured with

• C.

Lattice works used to relieve the deck of tension and compression forces

• D.

Span between piers which caries a live load

C. Lattice works used to relieve the deck of tension and compression forces
Explanation
The correct answer is "lattice works used to relieve the deck of tension and compression forces". This is because a truss is a structural framework made of triangular shapes that are interconnected to form a rigid structure. The triangular shapes in a truss help distribute the forces of tension and compression throughout the structure, making it more stable and able to bear heavy loads.

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• 2.

### To design and build a safe bridge, an engineer must understand all of the following except

• A.

The forces caused by things that interact with the bridge

• B.

How the materials will react to the forces over the life of the bridge

• C.

The force of gravity

• D.

Aesthetically pleasing architecture

D. Aesthetically pleasing architecture
Explanation
To design and build a safe bridge, an engineer must understand the forces caused by things that interact with the bridge, how the materials will react to the forces over the life of the bridge, and the force of gravity. However, the engineer does not need to have knowledge of aesthetically pleasing architecture in order to ensure the safety of the bridge. Aesthetically pleasing architecture is more related to the visual appeal and design of the bridge, which although important, is not directly related to its structural integrity and safety.

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• 3.

### The relative ease of using the materials wood, stone, concrete and steel (From poorest to best) are

• A.

Wood, stone, concrete, steel

• B.

Stone, steel, concrete, wood

• C.

Wood, concrete, steel, stone

• D.

Stone, steel, wood, concrete

B. Stone, steel, concrete, wood
Explanation
The correct answer is stone, steel, concrete, wood. This is because the answer correctly arranges the materials from the poorest to the best in terms of relative ease of use. Stone is the poorest material to work with due to its hardness and difficulty in shaping. Steel is easier to work with compared to stone but still requires specialized tools and techniques. Concrete is easier to handle and shape compared to steel. Wood is the best material to work with as it is relatively easy to shape and manipulate.

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• 4.

### Which bridge is best suited for carrying heave loads such as trains

• A.

Suspension

• B.

Arch

• C.

Cable-stayed

• D.

Cantilever

D. Cantilever
Explanation
A cantilever bridge is best suited for carrying heavy loads such as trains. This type of bridge has a rigid structure with a horizontal beam supported at only one end, allowing it to handle heavy weights without collapsing. The weight of the load is distributed evenly across the bridge, making it ideal for carrying heavy and concentrated loads. Cantilever bridges are commonly used in railway infrastructure due to their strength and ability to support heavy train traffic.

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• 5.

### One o the major problems leading to the Tay Bridge Disaster of 1879 was

• A.

Use of poor steel quality

• B.

Use of pier and beam bridge where a truss bridge was called for

• C.

Lack of inspection during construction as well as after the bridge went into service

• D.

The hiring of an incompetent job foreman

C. Lack of inspection during construction as well as after the bridge went into service
Explanation
The lack of inspection during construction as well as after the bridge went into service was one of the major problems leading to the Tay Bridge Disaster of 1879. This suggests that there was a failure to properly assess the construction process and identify any potential issues or weaknesses in the bridge. Additionally, the lack of inspection after the bridge was completed and put into service indicates a lack of ongoing maintenance and monitoring, which could have helped identify and address any structural problems.

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• 6.

### Which of the following was NOT a major factor in the Quebec bridge construction disaster

• A.

Attempts to cut construction costs

• B.

Lack of on site experience personal

• C.

Use of substandard quality materials

• D.

Failure to test design changes

C. Use of substandard quality materials
Explanation
The use of substandard quality materials was NOT a major factor in the Quebec bridge construction disaster. This suggests that the materials used in the construction were not the main cause of the disaster. Other factors such as attempts to cut construction costs, lack of on-site experience personnel, and failure to test design changes likely played a more significant role in the disaster.

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• 7.

### Torsion forces tend to

• A.

Tear structures apart (like two people pulling your arms in opposite directions)

• B.

Push structures in on themselves (like the crushing effect of a head-on car collision)

• C.

Twist structures apart (like having the top half of your body twisted in one direction and the bottom half twisted in the opposite way)

• D.

Tear structures like ripping pages

C. Twist structures apart (like having the top half of your body twisted in one direction and the bottom half twisted in the opposite way)
Explanation
Torsion forces tend to twist structures apart, similar to having the top half of your body twisted in one direction and the bottom half twisted in the opposite way.

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• 8.

### Static equilibrium refers to forces which

• A.

Equal force pushing in opposite directions that exactly balance each other

• B.

Balance achieved with electromagnetic forces

• C.

Are stronger than gravitational forces

• D.

A. Equal force pushing in opposite directions that exactly balance each other
Explanation
Static equilibrium refers to a state where the forces acting on an object are balanced, meaning that there is no net force or acceleration. In this case, the explanation suggests that static equilibrium is achieved when there are equal forces pushing in opposite directions that exactly balance each other. This means that the forces cancel each other out, resulting in a balanced state.

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• 9.

### Which of the following statements concerning the Silver Bridge Disaster (1967) is NOT true

• A.

It was the worst bridge disaster in US history

• B.

It was sort of, but not exactly, a suspension bridge

• C.

It was aggravated by heavy Christmas Traffic

• D.

The resulting bridge inspection program continues to ensure safe bridge today

D. The resulting bridge inspection program continues to ensure safe bridge today
Explanation
The given statement, "The resulting bridge inspection program continues to ensure safe bridge today," is not true. The Silver Bridge Disaster in 1967 was indeed a suspension bridge and it was aggravated by heavy Christmas traffic. However, the disaster did not result in the implementation of a bridge inspection program that continues to ensure safe bridges today.

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• 10.

### The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster (1940) was due, in part, to

• A.

The use of excessively wide deck spans

• B.

The construction material was too light

• C.

Ice build up around the piers in cold weather

• D.

The difficulty in securing the 2 cantilever arms

B. The construction material was too light
Explanation
The correct answer for this question is that the construction material was too light. This means that the materials used to build the Tacoma Narrows Bridge were not strong or sturdy enough, leading to its collapse.

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• 11.

### A hypothesis is

• A.

Plan

• B.

Fact

• C.

Theory

• D.

Law of nature

C. Theory
Explanation
A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or prediction based on limited evidence or observation. It is a tentative assumption that can be tested and analyzed further to determine its validity. Unlike a fact, which is a proven and verified statement, a hypothesis is subject to investigation and experimentation. It is also different from a plan or a law of nature, as it specifically refers to an educated guess or a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. Therefore, the correct answer is theory.

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• 12.

### Systematic error in a set of measurements is usually the result of....

• A.

Some limitation in the data collection process

• B.

Some uniform problems in the data collection

• C.

Improper measurement techniques

• D.

A problem with the system being observed

B. Some uniform problems in the data collection
Explanation
Systematic error in a set of measurements is usually the result of some uniform problems in the data collection. This means that there are consistent and repeatable issues in the way the data is being collected, which leads to a consistent bias in the measurements. It could be due to faulty equipment, incorrect calibration, or a flaw in the experimental setup that affects all the measurements in a similar way. This type of error can be identified and corrected by addressing the specific problems in the data collection process.

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• 13.

### Which of the following is NOT a category of knowledge gained by studying disasters according to our class notes?

• A.

How we build things

• B.

The quality of our technical education system

• C.

Our understanding of science

• D.

Insight into ourselves

B. The quality of our technical education system
Explanation
The correct answer is "the quality of our technical education system". This is not a category of knowledge gained by studying disasters according to our class notes. The other options, "how we build things", "our understanding of science", and "insight into ourselves", are all mentioned as categories of knowledge gained by studying disasters in our class notes.

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• 14.

### A suspicious coin comes up head 70 times in 100 flips. What is a good estimate for the probability of heads occuring

• A.

30%

• B.

50%

• C.

70%

• D.

Can't decide on the basis of the data provided

C. 70%
Explanation
Based on the data provided, where the coin came up heads 70 times out of 100 flips, a good estimate for the probability of heads occurring would be 70%. This is because the number of heads (70) is close to the total number of flips (100), suggesting that the coin is biased towards landing on heads.

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• 15.

### A scientist is most apt to engage in which of the following activities

• A.

Advancing our understanding of natural phenomena

• B.

Only accepting what can be proven true

• C.

Application of knowledge to solve problems

• D.

Arguing the absolute truth of strongly held beliefs

A. Advancing our understanding of natural pHenomena
Explanation
A scientist is most likely to engage in advancing our understanding of natural phenomena because that is the primary goal of scientific research. Scientists conduct experiments, gather data, and analyze results to gain new knowledge and insights about the natural world. They strive to uncover the underlying principles and mechanisms that govern various phenomena, contributing to the overall body of scientific knowledge. By advancing our understanding, scientists can make significant discoveries, develop new theories, and potentially find practical applications for their findings.

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• 16.

### Random error is usually addressed by

• A.

Using better equipment

• B.

Rounding the least significant measured digits

• C.

Taking fewer measurements

• D.

Taking more measurements

D. Taking more measurements
Explanation
Taking more measurements is the correct answer because random errors are unpredictable and can occur in any measurement. By taking more measurements, the random errors can be averaged out, resulting in a more accurate and precise measurement. This approach helps to minimize the impact of random errors and obtain a more reliable result. Using better equipment may reduce systematic errors but may not necessarily address random errors. Rounding the least significant measured digits may improve precision but does not directly address random errors. Taking fewer measurements may increase the impact of random errors, leading to less accurate results.

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• 17.

### In testing a hypothesis, if discrepancies between the tests and hypothesis occur one may have too...

• A.

Modify the hypothesis to account for the new behavior discovered in testing

• B.

Abandon the hypothesis for being wrong

• C.

Use a different set of test for the hypothesis

• D.

Ignore the data not fitting the hypothesis

A. Modify the hypothesis to account for the new behavior discovered in testing
Explanation
When discrepancies between the tests and hypothesis occur, it indicates that the hypothesis may not fully explain the observed behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the hypothesis to incorporate the new behavior discovered during testing. This allows for a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon being studied.

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• 18.

### For normally distributed values, approximately how many fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean

• A.

68%

• B.

80%

• C.

95%

• D.

99%

A. 68%
Explanation
Approximately 68% of normally distributed values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean. This is because in a normal distribution, about 68% of the data lies within one standard deviation of the mean in both directions. Therefore, the correct answer is 68%.

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• 19.

### All but ONE of the following represent some of the tools used in testing a hypothesis. Which one isn't?

• A.

Perform a simulation of the problem

• B.

Report the problem in scholarly journals in the hope that someone else has solved it

• C.

Use of models or prototypes

• D.

Use of well-accept scientific laws

B. Report the problem in scholarly journals in the hope that someone else has solved it
Explanation
The correct answer is "report the problem in scholarly journals in the hope that someone else has solved it". This option does not represent a tool used in testing a hypothesis. Instead, it suggests seeking a solution from someone else's work, which is not a direct method of hypothesis testing. The other options, such as performing a simulation, using models or prototypes, and relying on well-accepted scientific laws, are all valid tools commonly used in hypothesis testing.

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• 20.

### If there is a 5% chance of some event occurring, then the probability of occurrence is...

• A.

5

• B.

.5

• C.

.05

• D.

.005

C. .05
Explanation
The probability of an event occurring is typically represented as a decimal or fraction between 0 and 1. In this case, the given answer of .05 represents a 5% chance, which is equivalent to 5/100 or 1/20.

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• 21.

### The apollo 13 accident started with

• A.

Capsule tiles loosened during liftoff

• B.

Human error during a guidance maneuver

• C.

Loss of battery power in the lunar module

• D.

The explosion of 1 of 2 oxygen tanks

D. The explosion of 1 of 2 oxygen tanks
Explanation
The correct answer is the explosion of 1 of 2 oxygen tanks. This event led to a series of issues and failures in the Apollo 13 mission. The explosion caused a loss of critical life support systems, including the main power supply and the ability to generate breathable air. It also damaged the spacecraft's propulsion system, making it impossible to continue the mission to the moon. The crew had to rely on backup systems and the lunar module as a lifeboat to safely return to Earth.

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• 22.

### The order (First to last) of the US space programs

• A.

Mercury, gemini, Apollo

• B.

Mercury, Apollo, Gemini

• C.

Gemini, Mercury, Apollo

• D.

Gemini, Apollo, Mercury

A. Mercury, gemini, Apollo
Explanation
The correct order of the US space programs is Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Mercury program was the first human spaceflight program in the United States, followed by the Gemini program, which aimed to develop the skills and techniques necessary for the Apollo program. The Apollo program was responsible for landing the first humans on the moon.

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• 23.

### The shuttle has prove to have?

• A.

A effort of limited engineering success

• B.

Provided great insight into interplanetary flight

• C.

Be costly to than earlier launch vehicles

• D.

A string of disasters similar to those of Apollo

D. A string of disasters similar to those of Apollo
Explanation
The correct answer is "a string of disasters similar to those of Apollo". This means that the shuttle has experienced a series of failures or accidents that are comparable to the failures experienced by the Apollo program.

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• 24.

### Prior to the use of shuttles, American astronauts were recovered using which technique

• A.

Flying a capsule to Edwards AFB

• B.

Parachuting a capsule to an ocean landing

• C.

Parachuting a capsule onto land

• D.

Parachuting a capsule onto an aircraft carrier

B. Parachuting a capsule to an ocean landing
Explanation
Prior to the use of shuttles, American astronauts were recovered by parachuting a capsule to an ocean landing. This technique involved the use of a capsule that would descend through the Earth's atmosphere and land in the ocean with the help of parachutes. This method allowed for a controlled landing and ensured the safety of the astronauts. The capsule would then be retrieved by a recovery team and the astronauts would be brought back to land. This technique was used before the development of shuttles, which provided a different method of returning astronauts to Earth.

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• 25.

### NASA has been criticized in both the Apollo and shuttle disasters for

• A.

Lacking talented engineers and scientists

• B.

Fixing problems after they arise rather than avoiding them in the first place

• C.

Over reliance on outside review panels

• D.

"Sweeping problems under the rug"- that is, ignoring them until it is too late

B. Fixing problems after they arise rather than avoiding them in the first place
Explanation
The correct answer is "fixing problems after they arise rather than avoiding them in the first place". This answer is supported by the statement "NASA has been criticized in both the Apollo and shuttle disasters for over reliance on outside review panels". This suggests that NASA relied on external review panels to identify and address problems instead of proactively addressing them before they became disasters.

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• 26.

### The movie Apollo 13....

• A.

Erroneously shows the crew circling the moon

• B.

Is fairly accurate in depicting actual events

• C.

Fails to show the ground crew incompetence

• D.

Hints of sabotage by Earth day advocates

B. Is fairly accurate in depicting actual events
Explanation
The correct answer is "fairly accurate in depicting actual events." This means that the movie Apollo 13 is mostly true to the real-life events that occurred during the mission. While there may be some minor inaccuracies or artistic liberties taken, overall the movie portrays the events in a fairly accurate manner.

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• 27.

### Which of the following was the worst (ie greatest loss of life) US space program related accident

• A.

The Challenger shuttle disaster

• B.

The Apollo 9 disaster

• C.

The Columbia shuttle disaster

• D.

The Apollo 1 fire

A. The Challenger shuttle disaster
Explanation
The Challenger shuttle disaster was the worst US space program related accident in terms of loss of life. On January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart just 73 seconds after liftoff, resulting in the death of all seven crew members on board. This tragedy shocked the nation and led to a suspension of the Space Shuttle program for almost three years. The loss of the Challenger crew highlighted the risks and complexities involved in space exploration and served as a catalyst for improvements in safety measures within the US space program.

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• 28.

### The major factor contributing to the Apollo 1 disaster was?

• A.

The bulkiness of the space suits then in use

• B.

The lack of available fire fighters

• C.

The use of pure 02 capsule environment

• D.

Overconfidence on the part of astronauts

C. The use of pure 02 capsule environment
Explanation
The major factor contributing to the Apollo 1 disaster was the use of a pure oxygen (O2) capsule environment. This created a highly flammable atmosphere inside the spacecraft. During a pre-launch test, a spark ignited a fire, which quickly spread due to the high concentration of oxygen. The astronauts were unable to escape as the fire rapidly consumed the cabin. This tragedy led to significant changes in the design and safety protocols of future space missions.

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• 29.

### America achieved which of the following space firsts (i.e. ahead of the Soviets)

• A.

Launched first satellite

• B.

Launched first manned satellite

• C.

First to land man on the moon and return

• D.

First to land man on mars and return

C. First to land man on the moon and return
Explanation
America achieved the first to land man on the moon and return, which refers to the Apollo 11 mission in 1969. This historic event marked a significant milestone in space exploration and the United States' victory in the Space Race against the Soviet Union. The mission was led by astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins, with Armstrong becoming the first person to set foot on the lunar surface. The successful return of the astronauts to Earth solidified America's dominance in space exploration during that time.

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• 30.

### The first USA EV (space walk) occurred during which of the following programs?

• A.

Apollo

• B.

Shuttle

• C.

Mercury

• D.

Gemini

D. Gemini
Explanation
The first USA EV (space walk) occurred during the Gemini program. The Gemini program was a NASA spaceflight program that ran from 1961 to 1966. It was designed to develop and test the skills and techniques necessary for the Apollo program, which aimed to land astronauts on the Moon. The first American spacewalk took place during the Gemini IV mission in 1965 when astronaut Ed White exited the spacecraft and floated freely in space for approximately 20 minutes.

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• 31.

### If the burnout velocity of an earth bound object exceeds its escape velocity then the object will...

• A.

Behave like a ballistic missile

• B.

Escape the pull of earth's gravity

• C.

Continue to accelerate forever

• D.

Ignite (burn out) on reentry

B. Escape the pull of earth's gravity
Explanation
If the burnout velocity of an earth bound object exceeds its escape velocity, it means that the object has achieved enough velocity to overcome the gravitational pull of the Earth. As a result, the object will be able to escape the Earth's gravity and continue moving away from it. This implies that the object will not be affected by the gravitational force of the Earth and will not be pulled back towards it. Therefore, the correct answer is "escape the pull of earth's gravity".

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• 32.

### Lunar colonies would be preferable to the ISS because...

• A.

The offer ample room to develop agriculture

• B.

Launches are easier due to reduced gravity

• C.

They provide a long term stable platform

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
Lunar colonies would be preferable to the ISS because they offer ample room to develop agriculture, launches are easier due to reduced gravity, and they provide a long-term stable platform.

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• 33.

### LEO, in the context of unit 10 notes, refers to...

• A.

An astrological sign

• B.

Leaked energy output

• C.

Lost extraterrestrial object

• D.

Low earth orbit

D. Low earth orbit
Explanation
LEO, in the context of unit 10 notes, refers to low earth orbit. This term is commonly used in the field of space exploration and refers to a circular orbit around the Earth at a relatively low altitude. Satellites and spacecraft are often placed in low earth orbit due to its proximity to Earth and its ability to provide better communication and imaging capabilities.

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• 34.

### The space shuttle has proven to be....

• A.

Dangerous

• B.

Difficult to operate

• C.

Too limited in its capacity and range

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
The correct answer is "all of the above" because the statement "The space shuttle has proven to be dangerous" is true, as there have been accidents and fatalities associated with space shuttle missions. Additionally, the statement "The space shuttle has proven to be difficult to operate" is also true, as operating a space shuttle requires extensive training and expertise. Lastly, the statement "The space shuttle has proven to be too limited in its capacity and range" is also true, as the space shuttle had limitations in terms of payload capacity and the distance it could travel.

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• 35.

### According to the class notes, the major problem facing the ISS has been...

• A.

Russia's failure to deliver quality equipment

• B.

Changing policies and requirements

• C.

Its excessively high orbit

• D.

All of the above

B. Changing policies and requirements
Explanation
The major problem facing the ISS has been changing policies and requirements. This implies that the ISS has encountered difficulties due to constantly evolving rules and demands. It suggests that the project has faced challenges in adapting to new policies and meeting changing requirements, which could have caused disruptions or delays in its operations.

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• 36.

### The Challenger disaster has been attributed to...

• A.

Problems with the ceramic heat tiles

• B.

The pure oxygen cabin environment

• C.

Lack of O-ring flexibility in cold weather

• D.

Poorly designed external fuel tanks

C. Lack of O-ring flexibility in cold weather
Explanation
The Challenger disaster, which occurred in 1986, was attributed to the lack of O-ring flexibility in cold weather. The O-rings, which were used to seal the joints of the solid rocket boosters, failed to function properly due to the low temperatures on the day of the launch. This led to the ignition of the external fuel tanks and the subsequent explosion of the shuttle. The incident highlighted the importance of thorough testing and consideration of environmental conditions in the design and operation of space vehicles.

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• 37.

### Which of the following is NOT cited as a problem with the International Space Station (ISS)

• A.

It is overly complex and attempted to much

• B.

It has been understaffed

• C.

Its altitude is too high

• D.

Too little return on its investment cost

C. Its altitude is too high
Explanation
The given answer states that the altitude of the International Space Station (ISS) is not cited as a problem. This means that the altitude being too high is not considered a drawback or issue with the ISS. However, the question does not provide any context or information about the problems with the ISS, so it is difficult to determine why the altitude is not considered a problem.

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• 38.

### The advantage of liquid fuel rocket over a solid state rocket is...

• A.

The weight of the fuel it uses

• B.

It's easier to stop and restart liquid fuel rockets

• C.

The cost of the fuel

• D.

The shelf life (max storage of time) of liquid fuel

B. It's easier to stop and restart liquid fuel rockets
Explanation
Liquid fuel rockets have the advantage of being easier to stop and restart compared to solid state rockets. This is because the fuel in liquid rockets can be controlled and regulated more effectively. In contrast, solid state rockets have a continuous and irreversible combustion process once ignited, making it difficult to stop or restart them. Being able to stop and restart liquid fuel rockets provides greater flexibility and control during space missions, allowing for adjustments in trajectory or the ability to perform multiple maneuvers.

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• 39.

### Problems faced by unmanned space programs include...

• A.

Too expensive to develop and support

• B.

Their inability to gather useful information

• C.

Resistance to the idea by the military and others

• D.

Lack of ground based support facilities

C. Resistance to the idea by the military and others
Explanation
Unmanned space programs face the problem of resistance to the idea by the military and others. This suggests that there are individuals or groups who are opposed to the concept of unmanned space programs, possibly due to various reasons such as concerns about the effectiveness or safety of unmanned missions. This resistance can pose challenges and obstacles for the development and implementation of unmanned space programs.

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• 40.

### Which of the following is NOT considered a current problem with the US space program

• A.

Poorly trained scientists and engineers

• B.

Lack of shuttle flights after 2010

• C.

Changing policies and priorities

• D.

Lack of ground based support facilities

A. Poorly trained scientists and engineers
Explanation
The given answer, "poorly trained scientists and engineers," is not considered a current problem with the US space program. This means that the US space program does not suffer from a lack of skilled and knowledgeable professionals in the field. The other options listed, such as the lack of shuttle flights after 2010, changing policies and priorities, and the lack of ground-based support facilities, are all considered current problems with the US space program.

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• 41.

### Which of the following is NOT listed in the class notes as a factor in the Three Mile island disaster?

• A.

Service and control lines were cross connected

• B.

Control valves left off during maintenance

• C.

Tired and overworked staff

• D.

Reactor water level can't be measured directly

C. Tired and overworked staff
Explanation
The correct answer is "tired and overworked staff". The other three options are factors that are listed in the class notes as contributing to the Three Mile Island disaster. The cross connection of service and control lines, the control valves being left off during maintenance, and the inability to directly measure reactor water level are all mentioned as factors in the disaster. However, there is no mention of tired and overworked staff as a contributing factor in the class notes.

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• 42.

• A.

A chemical reaction

• B.

Nuclear fission or fusion

• C.

To apply mechanical energy, e.g. movement

• D.

To compress or heat a substance

A. A chemical reaction
Explanation
Chemical forces are interactions between atoms or molecules that hold them together or cause them to repel each other. These forces can be accessed through a chemical reaction, where atoms or molecules undergo a rearrangement of their chemical bonds. During a chemical reaction, old bonds are broken and new bonds are formed, releasing or absorbing energy in the process. This energy is a result of the chemical forces at play. Therefore, to gain access to chemical forces, a chemical reaction is required.

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• 43.

### Which of the following was a problem associated with the Chernobyl disaster?

• A.

The use of PWR reactors

• B.

The use of more difficult fusion disasters

• C.

A failure to SCRAM the reactor

• D.

Lack of containment building

D. Lack of containment building
Explanation
The problem associated with the Chernobyl disaster was the lack of a containment building. A containment building is a structure that is designed to contain any potential releases of radioactive materials in the event of a nuclear accident. In the case of Chernobyl, the reactor exploded and released a significant amount of radioactive material into the environment because there was no containment building to prevent the spread of the radiation. This lack of containment greatly contributed to the severity of the disaster and the widespread contamination that followed.

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• 44.

### Water passing through the reactor is kept from boiling and heats a second loop of water that creates the steam for running the turbine

• A.

PWR

• B.

BWR

• C.

HWR

• D.

FBR

A. PWR
Explanation
In a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the water passing through the reactor is kept at a high pressure to prevent it from boiling. This high-pressure water then heats a second loop of water, known as the primary coolant, which is kept separate from the reactor. The primary coolant transfers its heat to a secondary loop of water, which creates steam for running the turbine. This design ensures that the radioactive materials in the reactor core remain contained and isolated from the steam that powers the turbine.

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• 45.

### A __________________ can run on the spent fuels of other reactors.

• A.

PWR

• B.

BWR

• C.

HWR

• D.

FBR

D. FBR
Explanation
An FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) can run on the spent fuels of other reactors. Fast breeder reactors use fast neutrons to convert non-fissile isotopes into fissile isotopes, allowing them to generate more fuel than they consume. This means that they can utilize the spent fuels from other reactors, which contain a significant amount of unused fissile material, and convert it into usable fuel. This makes FBRs an efficient and sustainable option for nuclear energy production.

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• 46.

### Water passing through the reactor is allowed to boil to create the steam fro running the turbine?

• A.

PWR

• B.

BWR

• C.

HWR

• D.

FBR

B. BWR
Explanation
In a boiling water reactor (BWR), water passing through the reactor is allowed to boil, creating steam that is used to run the turbine. This is in contrast to a pressurized water reactor (PWR), where the water remains in a liquid state and transfers heat to a separate secondary loop to produce steam. The high-pressure steam produced in a BWR directly drives the turbine, making it a simpler and more efficient design.

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• 47.

### According to class notes, work is defined to be

• A.

The application of energy

• B.

Potential or stored energy

• C.

Kinetic or moving energy

• D.

Transfer of energy from 1 system to another

D. Transfer of energy from 1 system to another
Explanation
Work is defined as the transfer of energy from one system to another. This means that work occurs when energy is transferred from one object to another, resulting in a change in the energy of the system. It can involve the application of energy, such as when a force is applied to an object, or the conversion of potential or stored energy into kinetic or moving energy. Therefore, the correct answer is "transfer of energy from one system to another."

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• 48.

### Control rods are used in nuclear reactors

• A.

As a source of nuclear fuel

• B.

To stop or slow the reactor's chain-reaction

• C.

To control other elements such as water level

• D.

As a substitute for human controllers due to the dangers involved

B. To stop or slow the reactor's chain-reaction
Explanation
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to stop or slow the reactor's chain-reaction. This is important for maintaining the stability and safety of the reactor. By inserting the control rods into the reactor core, they absorb the excess neutrons and effectively reduce the number of free neutrons available for the chain-reaction to continue. This helps prevent the reactor from overheating or becoming uncontrollable, thus avoiding potential accidents or meltdowns.

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• 49.

### Which of the following is NOT a primary force

• A.

Electromagnetic force

• B.

Static force

• C.

Strong and weak nuclear bonding fore

• D.

Gravitational force

B. Static force
Explanation
The static force is not a primary force. Primary forces refer to the fundamental forces of nature, and the static force does not fall into that category. The electromagnetic force, strong and weak nuclear bonding forces, and gravitational force are all primary forces as they play essential roles in the interactions between particles and objects. The static force, on the other hand, refers to the force that builds up between objects due to an imbalance of electric charges, but it is not considered a primary force.

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• 50.

### Which of the following was NOT a consequence in the aftermath of Three Mile Island?

• A.

Reactor 1 is shut down for 6 years

• B.

Most new reactor orders are cancelled

• C.

Failings of containment structures made apparent

• D.

Public's decline in the faith of nuclear power

C. Failings of containment structures made apparent
Explanation
The aftermath of the Three Mile Island incident did not result in the failings of containment structures being made apparent. The incident itself did expose flaws in the reactor's design and operation, but it did not specifically highlight any deficiencies in the containment structures. The other consequences mentioned, such as reactor 1 being shut down for 6 years, the cancellation of new reactor orders, and the public's decline in faith in nuclear power, are all well-documented outcomes of the Three Mile Island incident.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

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• Current Version
• Mar 20, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Dec 12, 2010
Quiz Created by
Jackiemwheeler

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