Cytology: Acid-base Balance, Respiratory Alkalosis/Acidosis

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Cytology: Acid-base Balance, Respiratory Alkalosis/Acidosis - Quiz

. Slide 1-16


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Normal blood pH.

    • A.

      7.35-7.45

    • B.

      7.00-7.35

    • C.

      6.85-7.00

    • D.

      7.45-7.55

    Correct Answer
    A. 7.35-7.45
    Explanation
    The normal blood pH range is 7.35-7.45. This range indicates a slightly alkaline environment, which is necessary for optimal bodily functions. Maintaining a stable blood pH is crucial for various physiological processes, including enzyme activity and oxygen transport. Any deviation from this range can lead to acidosis or alkalosis, which can disrupt normal cell function and potentially be life-threatening. Therefore, it is important for the blood pH to remain within the narrow range of 7.35-7.45.

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  • 2. 

    The more _____ ions, the more acidic, and the ____ the pH. 

    • A.

      H+, lower

    • B.

      H+, higher

    • C.

      K+, lower

    • D.

      K+, higher

    Correct Answer
    A. H+, lower
    Explanation
    And the less H+ ions, the less acidic, the higher the pH.

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  • 3. 

    Select all the ways pH is controlled.

    • A.

      Kidneys excrete/ retain bicarbonate ions

    • B.

      Respiratory system controls CO2 levels: Lungs regulate concentration of carbonic acid

    • C.

      Chemical buffers: H+ ions attach/detache to bicarbonate, phosphate, hemoglobin, proteins

    • D.

      Hyperventilation

    • E.

      Hypoventilation

    • F.

      The pH police !

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Kidneys excrete/ retain bicarbonate ions
    B. Respiratory system controls CO2 levels: Lungs regulate concentration of carbonic acid
    C. Chemical buffers: H+ ions attach/detache to bicarbonate, phosphate, hemoglobin, proteins
    Explanation
    The pH of the body is controlled through various mechanisms. The kidneys play a role in maintaining pH balance by excreting or retaining bicarbonate ions. The respiratory system also helps regulate pH by controlling CO2 levels. The lungs regulate the concentration of carbonic acid, which affects the pH. Chemical buffers are another way pH is controlled. H+ ions can attach or detach from bicarbonate, phosphate, hemoglobin, and proteins to maintain the pH balance. Hyperventilation and hypoventilation are not direct ways of controlling pH.

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  • 4. 

    What happened when excess HCO3 is retained?

    • A.

      H+ ions decrease, causing pH to increase, leading to metabolic alkalosis

    • B.

      H+ ions increase, causing pH to decrease, leading to metabolic acidosis

    • C.

      H+ ions decrease, causing pH to decrease, leading to metabolic alkalosis

    • D.

      The HCO3 police comes to fix it.

    Correct Answer
    A. H+ ions decrease, causing pH to increase, leading to metabolic alkalosis
    Explanation
    When excess HCO3 is retained, it means that there is an increase in the levels of bicarbonate ions in the body. Bicarbonate ions act as a buffer and help maintain the pH balance in the body. When there is an excess of bicarbonate ions, it causes a decrease in the concentration of H+ ions. Since pH is a measure of the concentration of H+ ions, a decrease in H+ ions leads to an increase in pH. This increase in pH is known as alkalosis. Therefore, when excess HCO3 is retained, it causes H+ ions to decrease, pH to increase, and leads to metabolic alkalosis.

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  • 5. 

    What happens to the pH in a patient who is hypoventilating? 

    • A.

      Increased CO2 will increase H+ ions, thus decreasing pH, leading to respiratory acidosis

    • B.

      Increased CO2 will decrease H+ ions, thus decreasing pH, leading to respiratory alkalosis

    • C.

      Increased CO2 will increase H+ ions, thus increasing pH, leading to respiratory acidosis

    • D.

      The pH becomes cyanotic :(

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased CO2 will increase H+ ions, thus decreasing pH, leading to respiratory acidosis
    Explanation
    When a patient hypoventilates, they are not able to exhale enough carbon dioxide (CO2). This leads to an accumulation of CO2 in the blood, which increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+). An increase in H+ ions results in a decrease in pH, causing respiratory acidosis. Therefore, the correct answer is that increased CO2 will increase H+ ions, thus decreasing pH, leading to respiratory acidosis.

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  • 6. 

    What is the function of a buffer?

    • A.

      It prevents the pH from changing significantly

    • B.

      It cause the pH to change significantly

    • C.

      It balances out the pH without adding any extra acids or bases

    • D.

      It helps you watch youtube videos !

    Correct Answer
    A. It prevents the pH from changing significantly
    Explanation
    A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when small amounts of acid or base are added to it. It consists of a weak acid and its conjugate base (or a weak base and its conjugate acid). When an acid is added to the buffer solution, the weak base component of the buffer reacts with it, preventing a significant decrease in pH. Similarly, when a base is added, the weak acid component reacts with it, preventing a significant increase in pH. Therefore, a buffer helps maintain the pH of a solution within a narrow range by resisting changes in acidity or alkalinity.

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  • 7. 

    _____ = pH decreases in blood and body tissue._____=pH increases in blood and body tissue.

    • A.

      Acidosis, alkalosis

    • B.

      Alkalosis, acidosis

    • C.

      Ketonuria, ketonemia

    • D.

      Hematuria, alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Acidosis, alkalosis
    Explanation
    Acidosis refers to a condition where the pH of the blood and body tissue decreases, indicating an increase in acidity. On the other hand, alkalosis is a condition where the pH of the blood and body tissue increases, indicating a decrease in acidity and an increase in alkalinity. Therefore, the correct answer is "Acidosis, alkalosis" as it correctly matches the given statement.

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  • 8. 

    ABG is a test used to determine pH. What does ABG stand for?

    • A.

      Arterial blood gas

    • B.

      Atrial blood gas

    • C.

      Airway, blood, glucose

    • D.

      Amplifier, Bass, Guitar

    Correct Answer
    A. Arterial blood gas
    Explanation
    ABG stands for arterial blood gas. This test is used to determine the pH levels in the arterial blood, which helps to assess the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the body. By measuring the pH, oxygen levels, carbon dioxide levels, and other parameters, ABG provides valuable information about a person's respiratory and metabolic status. It is commonly used in medical settings to diagnose and monitor conditions such as respiratory failure, lung diseases, and metabolic disorders.

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  • 9. 

    ABG analysis evaluates the adequacy of ..... (Select all that apply)

    • A.

      Ventilation

    • B.

      Oxygenation

    • C.

      Oxygen-carrying capacity of RBC

    • D.

      Acid-Base levels

    • E.

      CO2 levels

    • F.

      Bicarbonate levels

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ventilation
    B. Oxygenation
    C. Oxygen-carrying capacity of RBC
    D. Acid-Base levels
    Explanation
    ABG analysis evaluates the adequacy of ventilation by measuring the levels of CO2 in the blood. It also assesses oxygenation by measuring the levels of oxygen in the blood. Additionally, ABG analysis can determine the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells by measuring the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit. Finally, it evaluates acid-base levels by measuring the pH, bicarbonate levels, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide.

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  • 10. 

    ABGs are indicated to..... (Select all that apply)

    • A.

      Establish diagnosis and severity of respiratory failure

    • B.

      Manage intensive care patients (Resp/cardiac/renal/hepatic /multiorgan failure, DKA, Spesis/burns/poisoning)

    • C.

      Guide therapy in ICU patients (O2 admin, mechanical ventilation, alkali treatment)

    • D.

      Monitor patients during cardiopulmonary surgery

    • E.

      Determine prognosis of critically ill patients

    • F.

      Determine the adequacy of your band's equipment (Is your amplifier working???)

    • G.

      Cure respiratory failure

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Establish diagnosis and severity of respiratory failure
    B. Manage intensive care patients (Resp/cardiac/renal/hepatic /multiorgan failure, DKA, Spesis/burns/poisoning)
    C. Guide therapy in ICU patients (O2 admin, mechanical ventilation, alkali treatment)
    D. Monitor patients during cardiopulmonary surgery
    E. Determine prognosis of critically ill patients
    Explanation
    ABGs, or arterial blood gases, are a diagnostic tool used to assess and manage critically ill patients in the ICU. They are indicated to establish the diagnosis and severity of respiratory failure, as well as manage patients with various organ failures, DKA, sepsis, burns, and poisoning. ABGs also guide therapy in ICU patients, such as oxygen administration, mechanical ventilation, and alkali treatment. They are used to monitor patients during cardiopulmonary surgery and determine the prognosis of critically ill patients. However, ABGs do not cure respiratory failure.

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  • 11. 

    Arterial samples: Normal pCO2 in canines? 

    • A.

      31-45 mmHg

    • B.

      28-36 mmHg

    • C.

      33-50 mmHg

    • D.

      33-45 mmHg

    Correct Answer
    A. 31-45 mmHg
    Explanation
    The normal pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) in canines is typically between 31-45 mmHg. This range represents the normal levels of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood of canines.

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  • 12. 

    Arterial samples: Normal pCO2 in felines? 

    • A.

      28-36 mmHg

    • B.

      31-45 mmHg

    • C.

      33-50 mmHg

    • D.

      33-45 mmHg

    Correct Answer
    A. 28-36 mmHg
    Explanation
    The normal pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) in felines is 28-36 mmHg. This value represents the normal range of carbon dioxide levels in the arterial blood of cats.

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  • 13. 

    Venous samples: Normal pCO2 in canines? 

    • A.

      33-50 mmHg

    • B.

      33-45 mmHg

    • C.

      31-45 mmHg

    • D.

      28-36 mmHg

    Correct Answer
    A. 33-50 mmHg
    Explanation
    The normal pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) in venous samples of canines is expected to be between 33-50 mmHg. This range indicates the normal levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, which is an important parameter for assessing respiratory function. Any values below or above this range may indicate respiratory or metabolic abnormalities.

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  • 14. 

    Venous samples: Normal pCO2 in felines? 

    • A.

      33-45 mmHg

    • B.

      33-50 mmHg

    • C.

      31-45 mmHg

    • D.

      28-36 mmHg

    Correct Answer
    A. 33-45 mmHg
    Explanation
    The normal range for pCO2 in feline venous samples is 33-45 mmHg. This range indicates the normal level of carbon dioxide in the blood of cats. Carbon dioxide is a waste product produced by cells and is carried by the blood to the lungs to be exhaled. The pCO2 level can be used to assess the respiratory function and acid-base balance in cats.

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  • 15. 

    Normal venous and arterial blood bicarbonate concentrations:Canines:Felines: 

    • A.

      18-26 mEq/L 17-23 mEq/L

    • B.

      17-23 mEq/L 18-26 mEq/L

    • C.

      18-20 mEq/L 12-14 mEq/L

    • D.

      Oh leave us alone danie.

    Correct Answer
    A. 18-26 mEq/L 17-23 mEq/L
    Explanation
    FINE !

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  • 16. 

    In respiratory acidosis, CO2 _______ is greater than CO2 ____.

    • A.

      Production, excretion

    • B.

      Excretion, production

    • C.

      Retention, production

    • D.

      Exhalation, inhalation

    Correct Answer
    A. Production, excretion
    Explanation
    In respiratory acidosis, the production of CO2 is greater than its excretion. This means that the body is producing more carbon dioxide than it is able to get rid of, leading to an accumulation of CO2 in the bloodstream. This can occur due to lung diseases or conditions that impair the ability to exhale properly, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. The excess CO2 combines with water in the blood to form carbonic acid, leading to a decrease in blood pH and the development of acidosis.

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  • 17. 

    An increase in CO2 causes a decrease in acids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    More CO2 = more acids. CO2 is acidic. Hinthint: It's also called carbonic ACID.

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  • 18. 

    The treatment of respiratory acidosis invovles....

    • A.

      O2 ventilation to increase tidal volume/remove CO2 & treating underlying disease

    • B.

      O2 ventilation to increase tidal volume/remove CO2

    • C.

      Treating underlying disease

    • D.

      Tracheostomy or intubation

    Correct Answer
    A. O2 ventilation to increase tidal volume/remove CO2 & treating underlying disease
    Explanation
    The correct answer is O2 ventilation to increase tidal volume/remove CO2 & treating underlying disease. Respiratory acidosis occurs when there is an excess of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, leading to an imbalance in the body's pH. O2 ventilation helps to increase the tidal volume, allowing for more efficient removal of CO2 from the lungs. However, it is also important to address the underlying cause of respiratory acidosis, such as treating any lung diseases or conditions that may be contributing to the imbalance. Therefore, both O2 ventilation and treating the underlying disease are necessary in the treatment of respiratory acidosis.

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  • 19. 

    In respiratory alkalosis, CO2 _____ is greater than CO2 ______.

    • A.

      Excretion, production

    • B.

      Inhalation, exhalation

    • C.

      Production, excretion

    • D.

      Inhalation, production

    Correct Answer
    A. Excretion, production
    Explanation
    In respiratory alkalosis, there is an excessive excretion of CO2 compared to its production. This means that the body is getting rid of more CO2 than it is producing, leading to a decrease in the concentration of CO2 in the blood. This can be caused by hyperventilation, where there is an increased rate and depth of breathing, resulting in the elimination of more CO2 through exhalation than the body is producing through metabolic processes.

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  • 20. 

    Hyperventilation decreases PCO2.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hyperventilation refers to rapid and deep breathing, which leads to excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the lungs. As a result, the partial pressure of CO2 in the blood, known as PCO2, decreases. This is because hyperventilation increases the ventilation rate, allowing more CO2 to be removed from the body. Therefore, the statement "Hyperventilation decreases PCO2" is true.

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  • 21. 

    The treatment of respiratory alkalosis involves ______.

    • A.

      Decreasing minute volume on ventilator and treating underlying cause

    • B.

      Decreasing minute volume on ventilator

    • C.

      Treating underlying cause

    • D.

      Paper bag

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreasing minute volume on ventilator and treating underlying cause
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Decreasing minute volume on ventilator and treating underlying cause." Respiratory alkalosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the blood, resulting in an increase in pH. One of the main causes of respiratory alkalosis is hyperventilation, which leads to excessive elimination of carbon dioxide. To treat respiratory alkalosis, it is important to decrease the minute volume on the ventilator, which means reducing the amount of air delivered to the patient's lungs. This helps to decrease the amount of carbon dioxide eliminated. Additionally, treating the underlying cause of hyperventilation is crucial to address the root cause of respiratory alkalosis.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 22, 2016
    Quiz Created by
    Thesortinghat
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