# Common Fallacies In Reasoning

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| By Picket Fence
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Common Fallacies in Reasoning

• 1.

### A black cat crossed Babbs path yesterday and sure enough she was involved in an automobile accident later that same afternoon.The "Bambino curse" claimed that the Boston Red Sox could never win the world series because they traded Babe Ruth to the Yankees in 1920.  After an 80-yr draught, however, the Red Sox finally won a world series in 2004, thus breaking the curse.

• A.

Faulty Cause

• B.

Sweeping Generalization

• C.

Hasty Generalization

• D.

Faulty Analogy

• E.

Post hoc rego propter hoc

A. Faulty Cause
E. Post hoc rego propter hoc
Explanation
Mistakes correlation or association for causation by assuming that because one thing follows another it was caused by the other.

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• 2.

### Muffin must be rich or have rich parents, because she belongs to ZXQ and ZXQ is the richest sorority on campus.I'd like to hire you, but you''re an ex-felon and statistics show that 80% of ex-felons are recidivists.

• A.

Sweeping Generalization

• B.

Faulty Analogy

• C.

Hasty Generalization

• D.

Begging the Question

• E.

Tautology

A. Sweeping Generalization
Explanation
The given statement assumes that all members of the ZXQ sorority are rich or have rich parents based on the fact that the sorority itself is the richest on campus. This is a sweeping generalization because it makes a broad assumption about a group of people based on limited evidence. The statement does not provide any specific information about Muffin's financial situation or the financial backgrounds of other members in the sorority, making the conclusion invalid.

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• 3.

### Movie stars are really rude.  I asked Matthew McConaughey for his autograph in a restaurant in Westwood the other evening and he told me to "get lost."Pit Bulls are actually gentle, sweet dogs.  My next door neighbor has one and his dog loves to romp and play with all the kids in the neighborhood!

• A.

Faulty Analogy

• B.

Hasty Generalization

• C.

Sweeping Generalization

• D.

Faulty Cause

B. Hasty Generalization
Explanation
Bases an inference on too small a sample or on an unrepresentative sample.

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• 4.

### What's the big deal about the early pioneers killing a few Indians in order to settle the West?  After all, you can't make an omelet without breaking a few eggs.Banning the sale of bongs on the internet to curb drug use makes about as much sense as banning bikini sales to reduce promiscuity.

• A.

Begging the question

• B.

Equivocation

• C.

Faulty Analogy

• D.

Tu Quoque

C. Faulty Analogy
Explanation
Assumes that because two things, events, or situations are alike in sme know respects that they are alike in other unknown respects.

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• 5.

### We can safely conclude that there is intelligent life elsewhere in the galaxy, because thus far no one has been able to prove that there is not.The new from of experimental gene replacement therapy must be working.  Not a single patient has returned to complain!

• A.

Bifurcation

• B.

False Dilemma

• C.

Faulty Sign

• D.

Appeal to Ignorance

D. Appeal to Ignorance
Explanation
Attempts to use an opponents inability to disprove a conclusion as proof of the validity of the conclusion.

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• 6.

### Either you favor a strong national defense or you favor allowing other nations to dictate our foreigh policy.Either you are with the terrorists or you are with the United States.

• A.

False dilemma

• B.

Faulty Sign

• C.

Damming the source

• D.

Bifurcation

D. Bifurcation
Explanation
either black or white all or nothing fallacy assumes that two categories are mutually exclusive and exhaustive that is something iseither a member of one or the other but not both or some third category.

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• 7.

### Either you buy a large car and watch it guzzle away your paycheck or you buy a small car and take a greater risk of being injured or killed int he event of an accident.You can put your money in a savings account, in which case the IRS will tax you on the interest, and inflation will erode the value of your money or you can buy stocks and watch your 401k fall like a sack of hammers.

• A.

Faulty Sign

• B.

Apppeal to Ignorance

• C.

False Dilemma

• D.

Faulty Analogy

C. False Dilemma
Explanation
Implies that one of two outcomes is inevitable and both have negative consequence.

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• 8.

### The cars driving in the opposite direction have their lights on; they must be part of a funeral procession.The boswell's must be home.  The lights are on upstairs.

• A.

Tautology

• B.

Equivocation

• C.

Faulty Sign

• D.

Tu Quoque

C. Faulty Sign
Explanation
Wrongly assumes that one event or phenomenon is a reliable indicator or predictor of another event or phenomenon.

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• 9.

### There is no reason to listen to the arguments of those who oppose school prayer for they are the arguments of atheists!Candidate _________never served in the armed forces and we don't want a coward for our Commander in Chief.

• A.

Damming the source

• B.

Faulty sign

• C.

False dilemma

• D.

Faulty analogy

• E.

None ofthe above

A. Damming the source
Explanation
Attempts to refute an argument by indicting the source of the argument rather than the substance of the argument itself.

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• 10.

### Gee, Mom and Dad, ho can you tell me not to smoke grass when you both smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol?The United States has no business criticizing the human rights policies of 111 World nations not as long as discrimination and segregation continue to exist int he United States.

• A.

Equivocation

• B.

Begging the Question

• C.

Tu Quoque

• D.

Faulty analogy

• E.

All of the above

C. Tu Quoque
Explanation
The given statement is an example of Tu Quoque fallacy. Tu Quoque is a Latin term that means "you too." It is a type of logical fallacy where someone attempts to discredit an argument or criticism by pointing out that the person making the argument is also guilty of the same behavior or action. In this case, the person is trying to dismiss their parents' advice against smoking grass by pointing out their parents' own habits of smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol. This is a fallacy because it doesn't address the validity of the argument against smoking grass, but rather deflects attention by attacking the credibility of the parents.

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• 11.

### Only man is rational.  No woman is a man.  Therefore, no woman is rational.no one who has the slightest acquaintance with science can reasonable doubt that the miracles in the bible actually took place.  Every year we witness countless new miracles int he form recombinant DNA, micro-chips, organ transplants and the like.  (not: the work "miracle" does not have the same meaning in each case)

• A.

Tu Quoque

• B.

Equivocation

• C.

Beggin the Question

• D.

Tautology

B. Equivocation
Explanation
allows a key word or term in an argument to shift its meaning during the course of the argument. The result is that the conclusion of the argument is not concerned with the same thing as the premise(s).

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• 12.

### Abortion is murder, since killing a baby is an act of murder.Have you stopped beating your wife?

• A.

Tautology

• B.

Equivocation

• C.

Tu Quoque

• D.

Begging the question

D. Begging the question
Explanation
Entails making an argument the conclusion of which is based on an unstated or unproven assumption.

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• 13.

### The Bible is the word of God.  We know this because the bible itself tells us so.You are a disagreeable person and, if you disagree with me on this, it will only further prove what a disagreeable person you are.

• A.

Tautology

• B.

Appealing to extremes

• C.

Straw man

• D.

Slippery slope

A. Tautology
Explanation
Defining terms or qualifying an argument in such a way that it would be impossible to disprove the argument. Often, the rationale for the argument is merely a restatement of the conclusion in different words.

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• 14.

### If its good enough for _______its good enough for me.laws against marijuana are plain silly.  Why, thomas jefferson is known to have raised hemp on his own plantation.

• A.

Appeal to Authority

• B.

• C.

Appeal to the Crowd

• D.

Straw man

A. Appeal to Authority
Explanation
Attempts to justify an argument by citing a highly admired or well known figure who supports the conclusion being offered.

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• 15.

### Of course we have to play pomp and circumstance at graduation because thats always been the song that is played.Why do I make wine this way?  Because my father made wine this way and his father made wine this way.

• A.

Appeal to Authority

• B.

Appeal to the Crowd

• C.

• D.

Appeal to Stars

C. Appeal to Tradition
Explanation
Based on the principle of letting sleeping dogs lie. We should continue to do things as they have been done in the past. We shouldnt challenge time honored customs or traditions.

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• 16.

### All I can say is that if living together is immoral then I have plenty of company.Professor Windplenty's test was extremely unfair.  Ask anyone who took it.

• A.

Appeal to the crowd

• B.

• C.

Appeal to authority

• D.

Straw man

A. Appeal to the crowd
Explanation
Refers to popular opinion or majority sentiment in order to provide support for a claim. Often the common man or common sense provides the basis for the claim.

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• 17.

### A mandatory seat belt law could never be enforced.  Youcan't issue citations to dead people.What woman in her right mind could truly desire ttal equality with men?  No woman wants the right to be shot at in times of war, the right to have to pay alimony, or the right to have to develop prostate cancer.

• A.

Slippery slope

• B.

Faulty analogy

• C.

Faulty Cause

• D.

Straw man

D. Straw man
Explanation
Stating a opponents argument in an extreme or exaggerated form or attacking a weaker, irrelevant portionof an opponents argument.

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• 18.

### If the Supreme court allos abortion, next thing you know theyll allow euthanasia and it wont be long before society dispose of all those persons whom it deems unwanted or undesirable.If I let one student interrupt my lecture with a question, then I'll have to let others and before long there won't be any time left for my lecture

• A.

Slippery Slope

• B.

Appealing to extremes

• C.

Hypothesis contrary to fact

• D.

Straw man

A. Slippery Slope
Explanation
Suggests that if one step or action is taken it will invariably lead to similar steps or actions the end results ofwhich are negative or undesirable. A slippery slope alway assumes a chain reaciton ofcause effect events which result in some eventual dire outcome.

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• 19.

### Husband to ex wife:  Well, if you want to be completely fair about dividing everything up, you should get one of my testicles and i should get one of your breasts!Debtor to creditor:  Hey you have already repossessed my car and my television.  Why dont you just draw a quart of blood or carve a poiund of flesh from my hear as well?

• A.

Straw man

• B.

Slippery Slope

• C.

Hypthesis contrary to fact

• D.

Appealing to extremes

D. Appealing to extremes
Explanation
A fallacy very similar to slippery slope, which involves taking an argumentative claim or assertion to its extreme even though the arguer does not advocate the extremem interpretation. The difference between the two fallacies is that appealing t extremes does not necessarily involve a sequence of causal connections.

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• 20.

### If al Gore had won the 2000 presidential election we wouldnt have a global warming problem.If Hitler had not invaded Russia and opened up two military fronts the Nazis would surely have won the war.

• A.

Appealing to extremes

• B.

Hypothesis contrary to fact

• C.

Faulty cause

• D.

Straw Man

B. Hypothesis contrary to fact
Explanation
This fallacy consists of offering a poorly supported claim about what might have happened in the past or future if circumstances or conditions were other than they actually wer or are. The fallacy also involves treating hypothetical situations as if they were fact.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• May 23, 2010
Quiz Created by
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