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Chapter 5 quiz focusing on equations and the ideal gas law.
Questions and Answers
1.
Which of the is NOT a characteristic of a gas?
A.
Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers
B.
Gases form homogeneous mixtures
C.
Gases are the most compressible state of matter
D.
Gases have lower densities than solids and liquids
E.
All of these are characteristics of gases
Correct Answer E. All of these are characteristics of gases
Explanation All of the given statements are characteristics of gases. Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers, form homogeneous mixtures, are the most compressible state of matter, and have lower densities than solids and liquids. Therefore, the correct answer is that all of these are characteristics of gases.
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2.
Pressure is:
Correct Answer 1 atm 760mmHg 760 torr force/area
Explanation The given options for the definition of pressure are all correct. Pressure can be measured in various units such as 1 atm, 760 mmHg, and 760 torr. These units are all equivalent and represent the pressure exerted by a column of mercury of a certain height. Additionally, pressure can also be defined as force per unit area, indicating that it is the amount of force applied over a given area.
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3.
Boyle's law is :
Correct Answer P1V1=P2V2 Under constant temperature and amount of gas
Explanation Boyle's law states that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional to each other, as long as the temperature and amount of gas remain constant. This means that if the pressure of a gas increases, its volume will decrease, and vice versa, as long as the other factors remain unchanged. The equation P1V1 = P2V2 represents this relationship, where P1 and V1 are the initial pressure and volume, and P2 and V2 are the final pressure and volume, respectively.
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4.
Avogadro's Law is:
Correct Answer V1/n1=V2/n2 Under Constant Temperature and Pressure n=number of moles
Explanation Avogadro's Law states that, under constant temperature and pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas. This can be mathematically represented by the equation V1/n1=V2/n2, where V1 and V2 are the initial and final volumes of the gas, and n1 and n2 are the initial and final number of moles of the gas. This law helps in understanding the relationship between volume and number of moles of a gas, allowing for calculations and predictions in various chemical reactions and processes.
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5.
What is the Ideal Gas Law?
Correct Answer PV=nRT
Explanation The Ideal Gas Law, represented by the equation PV=nRT, is a mathematical relationship between the pressure (P), volume (V), amount of substance (n), and temperature (T) of a gas. It states that the product of the pressure and volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the temperature in Kelvin. This equation is widely used in physics and chemistry to calculate various properties of gases, such as their volume, pressure, or temperature, under different conditions.
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6.
How are variables in the Ideal Gas Law related?
Correct Answer opposite sides of the equation are directly related; same sides of the equation are inversely related
Explanation The variables in the Ideal Gas Law are related in such a way that the opposite sides of the equation are directly related, while the same sides of the equation are inversely related. This means that if one variable on the left side of the equation increases, the variable on the right side of the equation will also increase. Conversely, if one variable on the left side of the equation decreases, the variable on the right side of the equation will also decrease. On the other hand, if two variables are on the same side of the equation, they will have an inverse relationship, meaning that if one variable increases, the other variable will decrease, and vice versa.
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7.
What are the 4 postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases?
Correct Answer 1.Gases are composed of molecules; have mass and negligable volume
2.Gas molecules are constantly in motion; always colliding; collisions are elastic
3.molecules have neither attractive or repulsives forces on eachother
4.any two gases at the same temp have the same average kinetic energt
Explanation The four postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases are as follows:
1. Gases are composed of molecules, which have mass but negligible volume.
2. Gas molecules are constantly in motion, always colliding with each other. These collisions are elastic, meaning there is no loss of kinetic energy.
3. The molecules of a gas have neither attractive nor repulsive forces on each other.
4. Any two gases at the same temperature have the same average kinetic energy.
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8.
When does each postulate of the Kinetic Molecular Theory fail?
Correct Answer 1.when compressed; at high pressure; at low temperature
2.when condensed; raining; reactions between gases
3.when gas has charge;reactions between gases, when condensed
4.plasma
Explanation The correct answer is 1. when compressed; at high pressure; at low temperature. This is because the postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory assume that gases are composed of particles that are in constant motion and have negligible volume and attractive forces between them. However, at high pressures and low temperatures, the volume and attractive forces become significant, causing the postulates to fail. The answer also includes 2. when condensed; raining; reactions between gases, which is incorrect as these conditions do not directly contradict the postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory. The answer 3. when gas has charge; reactions between gases, when condensed is also incorrect as the Kinetic Molecular Theory does not account for the presence of charges. The answer 4. plasma is also incorrect as the Kinetic Molecular Theory does not apply to plasmas.
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9.
________ is the gradual mixing of molecules of one gas with molecules of another gas by virtue of their kinetic properties
A.
Effusion
B.
Defusion
C.
Molecular Speed
D.
Average Kinetic Energy
Correct Answer B. Defusion
Explanation Diffusion is the gradual mixing of molecules of one gas with molecules of another gas by virtue of their kinetic properties. It occurs due to the random motion of gas molecules, where they move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached. This process is responsible for the spreading of odors, the movement of gases in the atmosphere, and the exchange of gases in biological systems.