Chapter 6 History Test

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Chapter 6 History Test


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Approximately where and when did Zoroastrianism begin?

    • A.

      In China during the seventh century B.C.E.

    • B.

      In Greece during the fifth century B.C.E.

    • C.

      In Iran during the early sixth century B.C.E.

    • D.

      In India during the eighth century B.C.E.

    Correct Answer
    C. In Iran during the early sixth century B.C.E.
    Explanation
    Zoroastrianism began in Iran during the early sixth century B.C.E. This is evident from historical records and archaeological evidence that indicate the emergence of Zoroastrianism as a distinct religious tradition in ancient Persia, which is modern-day Iran. The teachings of the prophet Zoroaster, who is considered the founder of Zoroastrianism, spread in this region during this time period, shaping the beliefs and practices of this religion.

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  • 2. 

    The religion founded by Gautama Siddharta focuses on

    • A.

      Escape from desire

    • B.

      Ascetic practices to free the soul from evil

    • C.

      Salvation of the soul through avoidance of sin

    • D.

      Devotion to gods as a means of gaining entry into heaven

    Correct Answer
    A. Escape from desire
    Explanation
    The religion founded by Gautama Siddharta, known as Buddhism, emphasizes the concept of escaping from desire. This means that followers of Buddhism strive to detach themselves from worldly attachments and cravings, as these are believed to be the root cause of suffering. By letting go of desires, individuals can achieve enlightenment and ultimately break free from the cycle of birth and death. This principle is central to Buddhist teachings and practices, making it the correct answer in this context.

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  • 3. 

    Important evidence that the early Jews were primarily a pastoral people may be seen in

    • A.

      The sacrifice of Cain and Abel

    • B.

      The sacrifice of David and Saul

    • C.

      The story of Noah

    • D.

      The story of Adam

    Correct Answer
    A. The sacrifice of Cain and Abel
    Explanation
    The sacrifice of Cain and Abel provides important evidence that the early Jews were primarily a pastoral people. In this story, both Cain and Abel offer sacrifices to God, with Abel offering the firstborn of his flock while Cain offers the fruits of his land. God accepts Abel's sacrifice but rejects Cain's. This suggests that the early Jews had a strong connection to animal husbandry and pastoralism, as Abel's offering of livestock was favored over Cain's offering of crops. This supports the notion that the early Jews were primarily engaged in pastoral activities rather than agriculture.

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  • 4. 

    The Jewish Diaspora to Babylon began in

    • A.

      700 B.C.E.

    • B.

      680 B.C.E.

    • C.

      580 B.C.E.

    • D.

      500 B.C.E.

    Correct Answer
    C. 580 B.C.E.
    Explanation
    The Jewish Diaspora to Babylon began in 580 B.C.E. This is the correct answer because it aligns with historical records and the timeline of events. The Babylonian exile of the Jewish people occurred after the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E. During this time, many Jews were taken captive and forced to live in Babylon. This period marked a significant shift in Jewish history and had a lasting impact on their culture and religious practices.

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  • 5. 

    Jesus was a teacher who came out of the

    • A.

      Zoroastrian tradition

    • B.

      Greek tradition

    • C.

      Roman tradition

    • D.

      Jewish tradition

    Correct Answer
    D. Jewish tradition
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Jewish tradition because Jesus is widely recognized as a Jewish teacher and religious leader. He was born into a Jewish family, raised in a Jewish community, and his teachings were rooted in Jewish scripture and tradition. He preached in synagogues and engaged in debates with Jewish religious leaders. Additionally, the Gospels portray Jesus celebrating Jewish festivals and observing Jewish customs. Therefore, it is clear that Jesus emerged from the Jewish tradition.

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  • 6. 

    According to the creation story told in India, Brahman created the world

    • A.

      From chaos

    • B.

      From the void

    • C.

      From himself

    • D.

      From atoms

    Correct Answer
    C. From himself
    Explanation
    According to the creation story in India, Brahman is considered the ultimate reality or the supreme cosmic power. It is believed that Brahman, being the creator, brought forth the world from himself. This implies that the world is an extension or manifestation of Brahman's own being. This concept highlights the interconnectedness and inseparability of the creator and the creation, emphasizing the divine nature and omnipresence of Brahman.

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  • 7. 

    In the Christian Gospel of John, creation is connected with

    • A.

      The logos

    • B.

      Feeling

    • C.

      A rearrangement of prior matter

    • D.

      Expansion from a tiny force

    Correct Answer
    A. The logos
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the logos." In the Christian Gospel of John, creation is connected with the concept of the logos. The term "logos" refers to the divine Word or Reason through which God created and ordered the universe. According to John's Gospel, the logos is identified with Jesus Christ, who is described as the Word made flesh. This connection between creation and the logos emphasizes the belief that God's creative power and divine plan are revealed through Jesus Christ.

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  • 8. 

    According to the concept of Indian henotheism

    • A.

      There is only one god

    • B.

      There are many gods

    • C.

      There are gods, but they do not care about humans

    • D.

      Many gods collectively represent a divine unity

    Correct Answer
    D. Many gods collectively represent a divine unity
    Explanation
    According to the concept of Indian henotheism, there are many gods who collectively represent a divine unity. This means that while there are multiple gods, they are all seen as different manifestations or aspects of the same divine power. They are worshipped individually, but ultimately recognized as part of a greater whole. This belief allows for the acknowledgement and reverence of multiple deities while still maintaining the idea of a single divine entity.

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  • 9. 

    For what reason did Aristotle rank human souls as more important than those of animals?

    • A.

      Human souls were rational

    • B.

      God created human souls to be superior

    • C.

      He didn't. Aristotle believed that all souls, human and animal, were kindred

    • D.

      He didn't. Aristotle denied that animals had souls

    Correct Answer
    A. Human souls were rational
    Explanation
    Aristotle ranked human souls as more important than those of animals because he believed that human souls were rational. According to Aristotle, rationality was a unique quality possessed by humans that set them apart from animals. He believed that the ability to reason and think critically was what made human souls superior.

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  • 10. 

    Confucius believed that human beings were essentially

    • A.

      Evil

    • B.

      Good

    • C.

      Morally neutral

    • D.

      Sinful

    Correct Answer
    C. Morally neutral
    Explanation
    Confucius believed that human beings were morally neutral. This means that he believed that people were neither inherently good nor evil, but rather had the potential to be either depending on their choices and actions. Confucius emphasized the importance of cultivating virtues and moral character through education and self-improvement in order to become a morally upright individual. He believed that by striving for moral excellence and practicing ethical behavior, individuals could contribute to creating a harmonious society.

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  • 11. 

    According to Plato, political power in a state should be in the hands of

    • A.

      The people

    • B.

      Aristocrats

    • C.

      Kings

    • D.

      Philosophers

    Correct Answer
    D. Philosophers
    Explanation
    Plato believed that political power should be in the hands of philosophers. He argued that philosophers possess the knowledge and wisdom required to make just and rational decisions for the benefit of the state. According to Plato, philosophers have a deep understanding of truth, justice, and the ideal forms, making them the most qualified individuals to govern. He believed that a philosopher-king, who combines wisdom and political power, would create a just and harmonious society. Plato's philosophy emphasized the importance of knowledge and reason in political leadership, hence his preference for philosophers to hold political power.

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  • 12. 

    A Chinese belief system that focuses on following proper ethical practices within a strict hierarchy is called

    • A.

      Daoism

    • B.

      Legalism

    • C.

      Buddhism

    • D.

      Confucianism

    Correct Answer
    D. Confucianism
    Explanation
    Confucianism is a Chinese belief system that emphasizes the importance of following ethical practices and maintaining a strict hierarchical structure within society. It places strong emphasis on filial piety, respect for elders, and adherence to moral values. Confucianism also promotes the idea of a harmonious society achieved through proper conduct and the cultivation of virtues. This belief system greatly influenced Chinese culture and had a significant impact on the political and social structure of ancient China.

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  • 13. 

    The Greek mathematician Pythagoras is famous for his theorem and for the idea

    • A.

      Of zero

    • B.

      That musical harmonies can be expressed mathematically

    • C.

      Of pi

    • D.

      Of a system of notation that enabled the calculation of extremely large numbers

    Correct Answer
    B. That musical harmonies can be expressed mathematically
    Explanation
    Pythagoras is known for his theorem, which states that in a right-angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. However, he is also famous for the idea that musical harmonies can be expressed mathematically. Pythagoras believed that music and mathematics were closely related, and he discovered that the length of a musical string determines the pitch of the sound it produces. This led him to develop the concept of musical intervals and ratios, laying the foundation for the mathematical understanding of music.

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  • 14. 

    Daoist philosophers believed that geometry and mathematics

    • A.

      Were meaningless

    • B.

      Were important in understanding underlying realities

    • C.

      Were dangerous practices that could result in moral collapse

    • D.

      Were difficult but necessary parts of an education

    Correct Answer
    A. Were meaningless
    Explanation
    Daoist philosophers believed that geometry and mathematics were meaningless. This is because Daoism emphasizes the importance of living in harmony with nature and the natural flow of life, rather than focusing on rational analysis and logical reasoning. Daoists believed that the pursuit of knowledge through geometry and mathematics would distract individuals from experiencing the true essence of existence, which is found in simplicity and spontaneity. Therefore, they considered these disciplines as unnecessary and devoid of any real value in understanding the underlying realities of life.

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  • 15. 

    Rationalism is a doctrine that holds that

    • A.

      Reason accompanied by faith in higher powers leads to enlightenment

    • B.

      Knowledge may only be gained through meditation

    • C.

      Unaided reason can elicit truth

    • D.

      An excuse can be made up for any occasion

    Correct Answer
    C. Unaided reason can elicit truth
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "unaided reason can elicit truth." This is because rationalism is a philosophical belief that emphasizes the power of human reason in understanding the world and acquiring knowledge. According to rationalism, individuals can use their own unaided reason to discover and uncover truths about reality, without relying on external sources such as faith or higher powers. This belief suggests that through logical thinking and rationality, one can arrive at objective and universal truths.

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  • 16. 

    Indian philosophers of the Nyaya School claimed that

    • A.

      Reason existed in human beings naturally and not as a result of any divine force

    • B.

      Reason was an extraordinary perception that God conferred on people

    • C.

      Reason was based on the senses, and therefore, was always to be distrusted

    • D.

      Reasons was an ability to comprehend the world in a manner that made God or gods unnecessary

    Correct Answer
    B. Reason was an extraordinary perception that God conferred on people
    Explanation
    The Indian philosophers of the Nyaya School believed that reason was an extraordinary perception that God bestowed upon humans. They did not believe that reason existed naturally in human beings or that it was solely based on the senses. According to them, reason was a divine gift that allowed people to comprehend the world in a way that made the existence of God or gods unnecessary.

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  • 17. 

    Confucian philosophy emphasized

    • A.

      Religious morality to guide human behavior, but little interest in science

    • B.

      Knowledge through science practice, but little interest in religion

    • C.

      Knowledge through science, but also focused on religion

    • D.

      Interest in human affairs, but little in science or religion

    Correct Answer
    D. Interest in human affairs, but little in science or religion
    Explanation
    Confucian philosophy placed a strong emphasis on the importance of human affairs and the moral conduct of individuals. It focused on guiding human behavior and promoting ethical values. However, it showed little interest in both science and religion. Confucianism primarily focused on social and moral aspects of life rather than delving into scientific or religious knowledge.

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  • 18. 

    According to the Greek medical writer Hippocrates, disease could be explained

    • A.

      By some natural causes, but also by acts of the gods

    • B.

      By natural causes alone

    • C.

      As a result of atoms swerving about

    • D.

      As a result of acts of the gods

    Correct Answer
    B. By natural causes alone
    Explanation
    According to the Greek medical writer Hippocrates, disease could be explained by natural causes alone. This means that he believed that diseases were not caused by supernatural or divine forces, but rather by natural factors such as environmental conditions, diet, and lifestyle. Hippocrates rejected the idea that diseases were punishments or interventions from the gods, and instead focused on studying the human body and its interactions with the natural world to understand and treat illnesses.

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  • 19. 

    Xunzi, a Chinese medical specialist, wrote that if a person attempted to cure rheumatism by beating a drum and sacrificing a pig to the gods, then

    • A.

      The rheumatism would be cured

    • B.

      The rheumatism would get better, but the person would not be happy

    • C.

      The drum would be worn out, and the pig would be gone

    • D.

      The rheumatism would not get better because the person should have played a flute and sacrificed a chicken instead

    Correct Answer
    C. The drum would be worn out, and the pig would be gone
    Explanation
    Xunzi, a Chinese medical specialist, believed that attempting to cure rheumatism by beating a drum and sacrificing a pig to the gods would not result in the cure of rheumatism. Instead, the drum would be worn out, and the pig would be gone. This implies that the action of beating the drum and sacrificing the pig would have no effect on the rheumatism, but it would lead to the physical wear and tear of the drum and the loss of the pig.

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  • 20. 

    The Greek philosopher Epicurus believed that

    • A.

      One should lead a life in pursuit of pleasure

    • B.

      There are moral absolutes

    • C.

      The key to happiness was participation in the life of the community

    • D.

      The gods participate in our lives

    Correct Answer
    A. One should lead a life in pursuit of pleasure
    Explanation
    Epicurus believed that one should lead a life in pursuit of pleasure. He argued that pleasure was the ultimate goal in life and that it should be sought after in order to achieve happiness. However, it is important to note that Epicurus' concept of pleasure was not limited to immediate gratification or indulgence in sensual pleasures. Instead, he emphasized the pursuit of long-term, sustainable pleasures, such as friendship, intellectual pursuits, and freedom from fear and pain. Epicurus believed that by living a life focused on these types of pleasures, individuals could achieve a state of tranquility and contentment.

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  • 21. 

    Stoicism had an enormous effect on

    • A.

      Christianity

    • B.

      Skepticism

    • C.

      Platonism

    • D.

      Aristotelianism

    Correct Answer
    A. Christianity
    Explanation
    Stoicism had an enormous effect on Christianity. Stoicism emphasized self-control, inner peace, and acceptance of one's fate, which resonated with the teachings of Jesus and the early Christian community. Stoic ideas influenced Christian thinkers such as Saint Paul and Saint Augustine, shaping their understanding of virtue, ethics, and the relationship between God and humanity. Stoic concepts like the Logos, the divine reason governing the universe, also found parallels in Christian theology. Overall, Stoicism provided a philosophical framework that aligned with many Christian beliefs and values, making it a significant influence on the development of Christianity.

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  • 22. 

    Alexander the Great's Tutor was

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Epicurus

    • C.

      Aristotle

    • D.

      Zeno

    Correct Answer
    C. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Alexander the Great's tutor was Aristotle. Aristotle was a renowned philosopher and scientist, and he played a significant role in shaping Alexander's education and worldview. He taught Alexander a wide range of subjects, including philosophy, politics, and science. Aristotle's teachings had a profound influence on Alexander, who later became one of the greatest military leaders and conquerors in history.

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  • 23. 

    What were the four categories of axial-age sages?

    • A.

      Professional intellectuals, military leaders, prophets, and charismatic leaders

    • B.

      Professional intellectuals, political advisors, prophets, and wealthy aristocrats

    • C.

      Professional intellectuals, wealthy patrons, prophets, and political leaders

    • D.

      Professional intellectuals, political advisors, prophets, and charismatic leaders

    Correct Answer
    D. Professional intellectuals, political advisors, prophets, and charismatic leaders
    Explanation
    During the axial age, there were four categories of sages. The first category was professional intellectuals, who were individuals with specialized knowledge and expertise in various fields. The second category was political advisors, who provided guidance and counsel to rulers and leaders. The third category was prophets, who were religious figures that claimed to have received divine revelations and communicated them to the people. The fourth category was charismatic leaders, who possessed exceptional personal qualities and were able to inspire and influence others through their charisma and charm.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is not something that we share with thinkers of the axial age?

    • A.

      Political thought

    • B.

      Philosophical thought

    • C.

      Economic thought

    • D.

      Religious thought

    Correct Answer
    C. Economic thought
    Explanation
    During the axial age, which occurred between 800 and 200 BCE, there was a significant shift in human thought and culture. Thinkers during this time period shared various ideas and concepts, including political thought, philosophical thought, and religious thought. However, economic thought was not a prominent aspect of their discussions and theories. While economic activities certainly existed during this period, they were not a central focus of intellectual discourse. Therefore, economic thought is not something that we share with thinkers of the axial age.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following relationships between royal patron and sage is incorrect?

    • A.

      Mozi and Chu

    • B.

      Buddha and Kosala

    • C.

      Mahavira and Mosala

    • D.

      Zoroaster and Persia

    Correct Answer
    C. Mahavira and Mosala
    Explanation
    The relationship between Mahavira and Mosala is incorrect because Mahavira was a Jain sage and Mosala is not associated with him. Mosala is not known to have any significant connection with Mahavira in history or mythology.

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  • 26. 

    Buddha, Jesus, and Socrates were all teachers who were also similar because

    • A.

      They came from wealthy backgrounds

    • B.

      They wrote nothing

    • C.

      They taught that enlightenment comes from meditation

    • D.

      They were rationalists

    Correct Answer
    B. They wrote nothing
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "they wrote nothing." This means that Buddha, Jesus, and Socrates did not leave behind any written texts or teachings. While they were all teachers, they did not rely on written records to convey their teachings or philosophies. Instead, their teachings were passed down through oral traditions or recorded by their disciples and followers. This sets them apart from other influential figures in history who left behind written works.

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  • 27. 

    In the fragments of dialogues between sages and rulers that appear int he Vedas,

    • A.

      Rulers sometimes defeat the arguments of the sages

    • B.

      Sages always defeat the arguments of the rulers

    • C.

      Sages simple lecture to the rulers

    • D.

      Rulers merely explain to sages the correct way

    Correct Answer
    A. Rulers sometimes defeat the arguments of the sages
    Explanation
    In the fragments of dialogues between sages and rulers in the Vedas, it is mentioned that rulers sometimes defeat the arguments of the sages. This implies that there are instances where rulers are able to counter the arguments put forth by the sages, suggesting that rulers have the ability to challenge and question the wisdom of the sages. This highlights the dynamic nature of the dialogues and the possibility of differing perspectives and viewpoints being presented.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following lists of philosophers and religious leaders is correctly ordered from the oldest to most recent?

    • A.

      Confucius, Nyaya School, Zoroaster, Epicurus

    • B.

      Pythagoras, Mahavira, Zeno, Jesus

    • C.

      Zoroaster, Confucius, Nyaya School, Han Feizi

    • D.

      Jewish Sages, Plato, Confucius, Epicurus

    Correct Answer
    C. Zoroaster, Confucius, Nyaya School, Han Feizi
  • 29. 

    A good example of a dualist religion is

    • A.

      Christianity

    • B.

      Buddhism

    • C.

      Zoroastrianism

    • D.

      Islam

    Correct Answer
    C. Zoroastrianism
    Explanation
    Zoroastrianism is considered a good example of a dualist religion because it believes in the existence of two opposing forces, namely Ahura Mazda (the god of good) and Angra Mainyu (the god of evil). This dualistic concept is central to Zoroastrianism, as it believes in the constant struggle between these two forces and the importance of choosing good over evil. This dualistic worldview sets Zoroastrianism apart from other religions mentioned in the options, making it the correct answer.

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  • 30. 

    A key reason that geometry and mathematics are important in many philosophical traditions is that

    • A.

      These disciplines also have practical uses for everyday life

    • B.

      These areas of study are essential to the movement of the stars and planets

    • C.

      They help to develop the logical faculties of the human mind

    • D.

      They show that reality can be invisible and untouchable, yet open to reason

    Correct Answer
    D. They show that reality can be invisible and untouchable, yet open to reason
    Explanation
    Geometry and mathematics are important in many philosophical traditions because they demonstrate that reality can be intangible and imperceptible, yet still subject to rational understanding. These disciplines provide a framework for reasoning about abstract concepts and phenomena that cannot be directly observed or touched. By studying geometry and mathematics, philosophers can explore the nature of reality and develop logical reasoning skills to comprehend and analyze complex ideas.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Mar 24, 2010
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