9th Century B.C.E.
3rd Century B.C.E.
7th Century B.C.E.
4th Century B.C.E.
Feudal vassals of the emperor
The merchant class
Social harmony depended on each person accepting his social position and performing his social task
The interests and welfare of the common people were less significant than the maintenance of the emperor's authority
Order and harmony were the result of good government
Superior men were created by education, not birth
Government should be rigorous and based on strict laws harshly executed
Humans were by nature inclined to goodness and ought to be ruled so that their goodness could develop
Humans should retreat from society and seek oneness with nature
Humans were by nature lazy and evil and ought to be ruled by an authoritarian government
Government should be exercised by superior men found among the educated elite
Government is inconsequential to finding satisfaction in the unity of nature
Warfare is merely an extension of statecraft and required scientific preparation and execution
Government should be based on the authoritarian enforcement of rigorous laws
They restored the strength of the regional states in the hands of feudal lords to diminish the growing power of the shi
The dynastic feudal lords were destroyed but replaced by members of the Han family in order to prevent the growing authority of the shi
Both regional feudal lords and shi were replaced in the Han administration by salaried military commanders from the army
They attempted to undercut the authority of the regional aristocracy and place power in the hands of appointed shi governors.
Temporarily the territory of the Hsiung-nu
The imperial family
The merchant class
The regional landholders
The precinct of palaces reserved for the imperial family in the Han capital
The administrative precinct of the scholar-gentry in the Han capital
The burial site of Confucius
The religious precinct associated with Daoism in the Han capital
Chinese scientific explorations were all devoted to earth sciences, as they ignored astronomy and cosmology
The Chinese were almost exclusively interested in alchemy and magic
Chinese science was more involved with practical applications than general theories
Chinese science was based on the development of speculative general theories that represented what they perceived as natural law
The court eunuchs
The families of imperial wives