Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, but no water
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water.
Sodium, potassium,calcium, chloride, and phosphorus
Nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
Sodium, potassium, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
Forming myelin around nerve fibers
Forming of the skeletal muscle fibers
Plasma membrane structure
Cushioning around soft organs
Chemical structure of hormones
High SFA : low HDL
High LDL : low HDL
High HDL : low LDL
High chylomicron : low LDL
High LDL : low chylomicron
Carbohydrates and fats; proteins
Proteins and carbohydrates; fats
Fats; carbohydrates and proteins
Proteins; fats and carbohydrates
Carbohydrates;fats and proteins
The small intestines
The muscular system
The skeletal system
The lymphatic system
The integumentary system
The cardiovascular system
Serving as cofactors for enzymes
Transport of blood lipids
Blood viscosity and osmolarity
Inorganic elements; organic compounds
Water-soluble elements; lipid-soluble compunds
Incomplete nutrients; complete nutrients
Inessential nutrients; essential nutrients
Patients with muscle atrophy
E (a- tocopherol)
Transports electrons to the mitochondrion.
Is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration
Directly transfers electrons and protons to NAD+ and FAD
Directly receives electrons and protons from NAD+ and FAD
Is the only substrate of aerobic respiration.
2; about the same, varying from one tissue to another
38; about the same, varying from one tissue to another
The citric acid cycle.
Electron transfer from FADH2.
The mitochondrial proton pumps.
The fat-sparing effect.
Beta oxidation of α-ketoglutaric acid
Transamination of urea
Deamination of glutamic acid
Amination of keto acids
Pyruvic acid; acidosis
Triglycerides; new triglycerides
Ketone bodies; acidosis
Convert ammonia to urea.
Produce insulin and glucagon.
Carry out most beta oxidation.
Synthesize glucose from fats and amino acids.
Secretion of digestive enzymes.
Synthesis of plasma proteins
Blood glucose rises
Lipids are stored in adipose tissue.
Glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis.
Protein synthesis is active.
Glucose is stored by glycogenesis.
The initial weight loss is mostly fat.
Water is lost quickly but other weight is harder to lose.
Will power often weakens as the diet progresses.
The body lowers its metabolic rate when it loses weight.
As a diet progresses, the body produces more fat even with the same caloric intake.
Lipolysis is active.
Fatty acids are oxidized for fuel.
Gluconeogenesis is suppressed.
Lipolysis is active.
Blood glucose falls.
Is engaged in normal physical activity but not strenuous exercise.
Is in the absorptive state.
Has just eaten a meal of no more than 2000 kcal.
First rises in the morning.
Eating a big meal
Insulin; glucagon and epinephrine
Growth hormone; glucagon and epinephrine
Growth hormone; cortisol
Growth hormone; insulin
Oxidizes its spare protein before it depletes its fat reserves.
Metabolizes fats and proteins through the same metabolic pathways.
Must have an adequate protein intake in order to absorb and metabolize fats.
Does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first.
Does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first
Extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat.
Denaturation of proteins in the brain tissue.
Excessive heat loss from the body.
A high rate of conduction and convection.
A high humidity that retards evaporative cooling.