1.
When all the elements in a population are included in a study, the result is a _____.
Correct Answer
B. Census
Explanation
When all the elements in a population are included in a study, the result is a census. A census is a method of data collection that aims to gather information from every individual or item in a population. It provides a complete and accurate representation of the entire population, allowing for comprehensive analysis and decision-making. Unlike a sample, which only includes a subset of the population, a census ensures that no group or individual is left out, providing a more reliable and inclusive result.
2.
The list of elements in a population from which the sample is actually drawn is known as the _____.
Correct Answer
A. Sampling frame
Explanation
The list of elements in a population from which the sample is actually drawn is known as the sampling frame. This is the complete list of individuals or items that make up the population and serves as the basis for selecting a representative sample. The sampling frame ensures that every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample, thus increasing the validity and generalizability of the findings.
3.
Hilton Hotels wishes to conduct a study on the determinants of brand loyalty among Hilton Hotel customers. The Hilton organization estimates that 10% of its 2, 600,000 Hilton Honors club members are loyal to the Hilton brand wherever they travel. However, the remaining members may choose other hotel brands at times. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members.
In the Hilton example, the individual club members represent the _____.
Correct Answer
D. Population element
Explanation
In the Hilton example, the individual club members represent the population element. The population element refers to the individual units or elements that make up the entire population being studied. In this case, the population element refers to each individual Hilton Honors club member, whether they are loyal to the Hilton brand or not. The study aims to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members, which includes all the individual club members who are not currently loyal to the Hilton brand.
4.
Hilton Hotels wishes to conduct a study on the determinants of brand loyalty among Hilton Hotel customers. The Hilton organization estimates that 10% of its 2, 600,000 Hilton Honors club members are loyal to the Hilton brand wherever they travel. However, the remaining members may choose other hotel brands at times. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members.
In the Hilton example, the Hilton Honors membership list represents the _____.
Correct Answer
B. Sampling frame
Explanation
The Hilton Honors membership list represents the sampling frame because it includes all the members of the Hilton Honors club, which is the group from which the sample will be selected for the study on brand loyalty.
5.
Hilton Hotels wishes to conduct a study on the determinants of brand loyalty among Hilton Hotel customers. The Hilton organization estimates that 10% of its 2, 600,000 Hilton Honors club members are loyal to the Hilton brand wherever they travel. However, the remaining members may choose other hotel brands at times. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members.
In the Hilton example, the population for the study is _____.
Correct Answer
C. Hilton Honors club members
Explanation
The population for the study in the Hilton example is Hilton Honors club members. This is because the study aims to understand how to increase loyalty among the club members, indicating that the target population consists of these specific individuals.
6.
Hilton Hotels wishes to conduct a study on the determinants of brand loyalty among Hilton Hotel customers. The Hilton organization estimates that 10% of its 2, 600,000 Hilton Honors club members are loyal to the Hilton brand wherever they travel. However, the remaining members may choose other hotel brands at times. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members.
The Hilton organization is considering a survey about factors affecting brand loyalty that will be sent to all of its Hilton Honors club members. This is an example of a _____.
Correct Answer
D. Census
Explanation
The Hilton organization is considering conducting a survey about factors affecting brand loyalty that will be sent to all of its Hilton Honors club members. A census is a study that collects data from the entire population of interest, in this case, all Hilton Honors club members. Therefore, the given answer "census" is the correct explanation.
7.
Hilton Hotels wishes to conduct a study on the determinants of brand loyalty among Hilton Hotel customers. The Hilton organization estimates that 10% of its 2, 600,000 Hilton Honors club members are loyal to the Hilton brand wherever they travel. However, the remaining members may choose other hotel brands at times. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members.In the Hilton example, the sampling frame is made up of the _____.
Correct Answer
A. List of Hilton Honors club members
Explanation
The sampling frame in the Hilton example is made up of the list of Hilton Honors club members. This means that the study will be conducted among the members of the Hilton Honors club, which is the target population for the research on brand loyalty. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the 90% of club members who are not brand loyal, so it is important to have a sampling frame that includes all club members.
8.
Hilton Hotels wishes to conduct a study on the determinants of brand loyalty among Hilton Hotel customers. The Hilton organization estimates that 10% of its 2, 600,000 Hilton Honors club members are loyal to the Hilton brand wherever they travel. However, the remaining members may choose other hotel brands at times. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members.Hilton plans to send surveys to 10,000 Hilton Honors club members. This group of people is known as the _____.
Correct Answer
D. Sample
Explanation
The group of 10,000 Hilton Honors club members to whom Hilton plans to send surveys is known as a sample. A sample is a subset of the population that is selected for research or study purposes. In this case, Hilton is selecting a smaller group of club members to survey in order to gather information about the determinants of brand loyalty among Hilton Hotel customers. By studying this sample, Hilton hopes to gain insights that can be applied to the larger population of club members and increase loyalty among the other 90%.
9.
Which of the following terms refers to the variation in measures due to some known or unknown influence that causes the scores to skew in one direction or another?
Correct Answer
C. Systematic variance
Explanation
Systematic variance refers to the variation in measures that occurs due to some known or unknown influence that causes the scores to skew in one direction or another. This means that there is a consistent and predictable factor that is affecting the measurements and causing them to deviate from the true value. It is different from random error, which refers to the variation that occurs due to chance factors and is not consistent or predictable.
10.
Assuming that the sampling frame is appropriate, systematic variance can be minimized in a study by _____.
Correct Answer
B. Increasing the sample size
Explanation
Increasing the sample size can minimize systematic variance in a study. Systematic variance refers to the variability in the data that is caused by factors other than random sampling error. By increasing the sample size, there is a higher likelihood of capturing a representative sample of the population, which helps to reduce the impact of any systematic factors that may be present. With a larger sample size, the estimates obtained from the study are likely to be more accurate and reliable, as they are less influenced by systematic variations in the data.
11.
Sampling error refers to _____.
Correct Answer
A. Differences between the sample statistics and the population's parameters caused by random fluctuations inherent in the sampling process
Explanation
Sampling error refers to differences between the sample statistics and the population's parameters caused by random fluctuations inherent in the sampling process. This means that when we take a sample from a population, the statistics we calculate from the sample may not perfectly represent the parameters of the entire population due to random variability. Sampling error is a natural part of the sampling process and can be minimized by using appropriate sampling techniques and increasing the sample size. It is important to consider sampling error when making inferences about a population based on a sample.
12.
With what does one measure the degree of precision of a sample estimate?
Correct Answer
D. Standard error of the estimate
Explanation
The degree of precision of a sample estimate is measured with the standard error of the estimate. The standard error of the estimate represents the average amount by which the estimated values may differ from the true values. It provides a measure of the accuracy and reliability of the sample estimate, with a smaller standard error indicating a more precise estimate. The other options mentioned, such as feasibility studies, census comparisons, unstandardized coefficients, and significance indicators, are not directly related to measuring the degree of precision of a sample estimate.
13.
The standard error of the estimate is a type of measure of _____
Correct Answer
E. Standard deviation
Explanation
The standard error of the estimate is a measure of the variability or dispersion of the data points around the regression line. It provides an indication of how close the predicted values are to the actual values. Therefore, the correct answer is "accuracy" as it represents the degree of precision or correctness of the estimated values.
14.
Which word below best describes nonprobability sampling?
Correct Answer
A. Subjective
Explanation
Nonprobability sampling refers to a sampling technique where the selection of individuals is based on subjective criteria rather than random or objective methods. In this type of sampling, the researcher relies on their judgment or personal preferences to choose participants, which can introduce bias into the sample. Therefore, the word "subjective" best describes nonprobability sampling.
15.
Which term below refers to a controlled procedure that assures that each population element is given a known nonzero chance of selection into the sample?
Correct Answer
B. Random selection
Explanation
Random selection refers to a controlled procedure that ensures that each population element has a known nonzero chance of being selected into the sample. This means that every element in the population has an equal opportunity to be chosen, without any bias or predetermined selection criteria. Random selection is a fundamental principle in sampling, as it helps to minimize the potential for sampling errors and ensures that the sample is representative of the population.
16.
Estimates of precision are possible with _____ samples.
Correct Answer
B. Probability
Explanation
Estimates of precision are possible with probability samples because probability sampling ensures that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample. This allows for the calculation of sampling error and confidence intervals, which are measures of precision. Nonprobability samples do not provide the same level of precision because they do not guarantee equal representation of the population. Judgment and quota sampling also do not provide the same level of precision as probability sampling.
17.
Which term below refers to a controlled, randomized procedure that assures that each population element is given a known, nonzero chance of selection into a study's sample?
Correct Answer
C. Probability sampling
Explanation
Probability sampling refers to a controlled, randomized procedure that ensures each population element has a known, nonzero chance of being selected into a study's sample. This method allows for the generalization of findings from the sample to the larger population, as it provides a fair and unbiased representation of the population. It involves techniques such as simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling, which aim to minimize selection bias and increase the reliability and validity of the study's results.
18.
_____ are summary descriptors of variables of interest in the population.
Correct Answer
B. Population parameters
Explanation
Population parameters are summary descriptors of variables of interest in the population. They provide information about the entire population rather than just a sample. Population parameters are typically unknown and are estimated using sample statistics. These parameters include measures such as the population mean, population variance, and population proportion. By understanding population parameters, researchers can make inferences and draw conclusions about the population based on the sample data.
19.
Which term below refers to the descriptors of variables computed from sample data used to estimate those same variables in the population?
Correct Answer
A. Sample statistics
Explanation
Sample statistics refers to the descriptors of variables computed from sample data used to estimate those same variables in the population. These statistics provide information about the characteristics of the sample and are used to make inferences about the population. They include measures such as the mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficients.
20.
When the variables of interest are measured on nominal or ordinal scales, what should be used to estimate population proportion?
Correct Answer
D. Sample proportion of incidence (p) * 1-(p)
Explanation
When the variables of interest are measured on nominal or ordinal scales, the appropriate measure to estimate population proportion is the sample proportion of incidence (p) multiplied by 1-(p). This is because the sample proportion of incidence provides an estimate of the proportion of the population that possesses a certain characteristic, and multiplying it by 1-(p) helps to account for the uncertainty in the estimation process. This calculation helps to provide a more accurate estimate of the population proportion when dealing with nominal or ordinal data.
21.
When the variables of interest are measured on nominal or ordinal scales, what should be used to estimate population variance?
Correct Answer
D. Sample proportion of incidence (p) * 1-(p)
Explanation
When the variables of interest are measured on nominal or ordinal scales, the appropriate measure to estimate population variance is the sample proportion of incidence (p) multiplied by 1 minus p. This formula is used because it takes into account the probability of each category occurring and provides an estimate of the variance based on the observed proportions. It is particularly useful when dealing with categorical data where the variables do not have a numerical relationship. The standard error, standard deviation, and sample statistic are not suitable for estimating population variance in this case.
22.
The most frequent proportion measure is the _____.
Correct Answer
E. Percentage
Explanation
The most frequent proportion measure is the percentage. This measure is commonly used to express a part or proportion of a whole as a percentage, which represents the relative amount or frequency of something in relation to the total. It is often used in statistics, surveys, and data analysis to provide a clear and easily understandable representation of the data.
23.
Hilton Hotels wishes to conduct a study on the determinants of brand loyalty among Hilton Hotel customers. The Hilton organization estimates that 10% of its 2, 600,000 Hilton Honors club members are loyal to the Hilton brand wherever they travel. However, the remaining members may choose other hotel brands at times. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members. In a follow-up survey to the Hilton study on brand loyalty, the organization plans to focus solely on estimating the attributes of the 10% of Hilton Honors members who are thought to be brand loyal. In this example, 10% is the _____.
Correct Answer
D. Population proportion of incidence
Explanation
In this example, the 10% represents the population proportion of incidence. It refers to the proportion of Hilton Honors club members who are loyal to the Hilton brand wherever they travel. The organization wants to understand how to increase loyalty among the other 90% of club members, indicating that they are specifically interested in the proportion of brand loyal members within the population. Therefore, the 10% is the population proportion of incidence.