CDC Z3D153 Vol 3 UREs

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CDC Z3D153 Vol 3 UREs - Quiz

RF Transmission Systems CDCs


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not one of the three distinct elements that work together to make satellite communication (SATCOM) possible?

    • A.

      Space segment

    • B.

      Control segment

    • C.

      Payload segment

    • D.

      Terminal segment

    Correct Answer
    C. Payload segment
    Explanation
    The payload segment is not one of the three distinct elements that work together to make satellite communication (SATCOM) possible. The three elements that make SATCOM possible are the space segment, control segment, and terminal segment. The space segment consists of the satellites in space that transmit and receive signals. The control segment includes the ground-based control stations that monitor and control the satellites. The terminal segment includes the devices used by end-users to send and receive signals to and from the satellites. The payload segment refers to the part of the satellite that carries the actual data or information being transmitted.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is not a function of the SATCOM control segment?

    • A.

      Spacecraft control

    • B.

      Network control

    • C.

      Payload control

    • D.

      Ground control

    Correct Answer
    D. Ground control
    Explanation
    The SATCOM control segment is responsible for managing and controlling the satellite communication system. It includes various functions such as spacecraft control, network control, and payload control. However, ground control is not a function of the SATCOM control segment. Ground control refers to the operations and management of the ground-based equipment and facilities used to communicate with the satellite, but it is not directly involved in controlling the satellite communication system itself.

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  • 3. 

    Which term describes the longest distance across an elliptical orbit?

    • A.

      Minor axis

    • B.

      Major axis

    • C.

      Apogee

    • D.

      Perigee

    Correct Answer
    B. Major axis
    Explanation
    The major axis is the term that describes the longest distance across an elliptical orbit. In an ellipse, the major axis is the line that passes through the center of the ellipse and is the longest distance between any two points on the ellipse. This axis is important in determining the size and shape of the orbit. The minor axis, on the other hand, is the shortest distance across the ellipse. Apogee and perigee refer to the points in an orbit where an object is farthest and closest to the body it is orbiting, respectively, and are not directly related to the longest distance across the orbit.

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  • 4. 

    What is the inclination angle of a polar orbit?

    • A.

      0o

    • B.

      45o

    • C.

      90o

    • D.

      1800

    Correct Answer
    C. 90o
    Explanation
    The inclination angle of a polar orbit is 90o. A polar orbit is one in which a satellite passes over or near the polar regions of the Earth on each orbit. In this type of orbit, the satellite's path is inclined at 90o to the equator, allowing it to pass over the North and South poles. This allows for global coverage and is commonly used for Earth observation and mapping satellites.

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  • 5. 

    Which are the two types of communications satellites?

    • A.

      Delay and passive

    • B.

      Active and passive

    • C.

      Delay and real-time

    • D.

      Active and real-time

    Correct Answer
    B. Active and passive
    Explanation
    Active and passive are the two types of communication satellites. Active satellites are equipped with transponders that receive signals from the ground, amplify them, and then retransmit them back to Earth. These satellites actively participate in the communication process. On the other hand, passive satellites do not amplify or modify the signals they receive. They simply reflect or bounce the signals back to Earth. Therefore, active and passive are the correct types of communication satellites.

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  • 6. 

    Which satellites reflects signals transmitted towards it?

    • A.

      Delay

    • B.

      Active

    • C.

      Passive

    • D.

      Real-time

    Correct Answer
    C. Passive
    Explanation
    Passive satellites reflect signals transmitted towards them. Unlike active satellites which generate and transmit their own signals, passive satellites simply reflect or bounce back the signals they receive. This allows them to serve as communication relays or to gather information without actively participating in the transmission process.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following satellite look angle methods is provided by SATCOM planners?

    • A.

      Programmed ground control

    • B.

      Satellite access authorization

    • C.

      Computer based application

    • D.

      Satellite slide rule

    Correct Answer
    B. Satellite access authorization
    Explanation
    Satellite access authorization is a method provided by SATCOM planners. This method involves granting permission and authorization for satellite access to specific users or organizations. It ensures that only authorized users can access and utilize the satellite resources. This process helps in managing and controlling the satellite communication network effectively and securely.

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  • 8. 

    Which satellite access technique is being used when all channels are pooled and used by any station according to its instantaneous traffic load?

    • A.

      Code division multiple access (CDMA)

    • B.

      Time division multiple access (TDMA)

    • C.

      Demand assigned multiple access (DAMA)

    • D.

      Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)

    Correct Answer
    C. Demand assigned multiple access (DAMA)
    Explanation
    Demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) is the satellite access technique being used when all channels are pooled and used by any station according to its instantaneous traffic load. This means that instead of allocating a fixed number of channels to each station, DAMA allows stations to dynamically access and use channels based on their current traffic demands. This ensures efficient utilization of satellite resources and allows for flexibility in accommodating varying traffic loads.

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  • 9. 

    Conflicts regarding Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) ground mobile forces (GMF) satellite resources that cannot be settled by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) and the regional satellite communications support center (RSSC) are resolved by the 

    • A.

      Joint staff

    • B.

      Combatant commander (COCOM)

    • C.

      Consolidated space operations center (CSOC)

    • D.

      Defense information systems agency operations control complex (DOCC)

    Correct Answer
    A. Joint staff
    Explanation
    Conflicts regarding Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) ground mobile forces (GMF) satellite resources that cannot be settled by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) and the regional satellite communications support center (RSSC) are resolved by the Joint Staff. The Joint Staff is responsible for providing military advice and support to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the combatant commanders. They oversee the coordination and integration of military operations, including the allocation and management of resources such as satellite communications. Therefore, it is logical that conflicts regarding DSCS GMF satellite resources would be resolved by the Joint Staff.

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  • 10. 

    One of the functions of the Telecommunications certification office is to 

    • A.

      Assign a circuit number to the telecommunications service request

    • B.

      Maintain case files on all major command (MAJCOM) circuits

    • C.

      Ensure the user agency is prepared to pay for the service

    • D.

      Review the circuit priority against mission needs

    Correct Answer
    C. Ensure the user agency is prepared to pay for the service
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to ensure the user agency is prepared to pay for the service. This function of the Telecommunications certification office involves verifying that the user agency has the necessary funds or budget allocated to cover the cost of the requested telecommunications service. This step is important to ensure that the user agency can fulfill its financial obligations before the service is provided.

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  • 11. 

    Telecommunications service orders are issued by the

    • A.

      Department of Defense (DOD)

    • B.

      User's technical control facility

    • C.

      National Communications System (NCS)

    • D.

      Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)

    Correct Answer
    D. Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). DISA is responsible for issuing telecommunications service orders. The Department of Defense (DOD) is a possible choice, but it is not specifically mentioned as the issuer of service orders. The user's technical control facility is responsible for managing and controlling the user's telecommunications systems, but not for issuing service orders. The National Communications System (NCS) is responsible for coordinating and planning national security and emergency preparedness communications, but not for issuing service orders. Therefore, DISA is the most appropriate answer.

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  • 12. 

    Astronomical time is based on

    • A.

      Atomic clock oscillations

    • B.

      Apparent constellation movement

    • C.

      The moon's rotation about the Earth

    • D.

      The apparent motion of the sun in the sky

    Correct Answer
    D. The apparent motion of the sun in the sky
    Explanation
    Astronomical time is based on the apparent motion of the sun in the sky. This is because the sun's position in the sky changes throughout the day, allowing us to measure time based on its movement. This is different from atomic clock oscillations, which are used for precise and accurate timekeeping but not for astronomical time. Similarly, the moon's rotation about the Earth and the apparent constellation movement are not used as the basis for astronomical time.

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  • 13. 

    What time scale gives us a universally agreed to standard time scale with the stability and accuracy of atomic time and synchronous operation with the Earth's motion about the sun we can depend on?

    • A.

      Atomic time

    • B.

      Mean solar time

    • C.

      Astronomical time

    • D.

      Coordinated universal time

    Correct Answer
    D. Coordinated universal time
    Explanation
    Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a time scale that provides a universally agreed standard time across different regions. It is based on atomic time, which is highly stable and accurate. UTC also takes into account the Earth's motion around the sun, ensuring synchronous operation. This makes UTC a reliable and dependable time scale that can be used globally.

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  • 14. 

    What two factors cause a quartz oscillator's frequency to drift?

    • A.

      Humidity and aging

    • B.

      Temperature and aging

    • C.

      Humidity and operating frequency

    • D.

      Temperature and operating frequency

    Correct Answer
    B. Temperature and aging
    Explanation
    A quartz oscillator's frequency can drift due to temperature and aging. Temperature changes can affect the stability of the quartz crystal, causing its frequency to shift. Aging refers to the gradual change in the characteristics of the crystal over time, which can also lead to frequency drift. Humidity and operating frequency may have some impact on the oscillator's performance, but they are not the primary factors causing frequency drift.

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  • 15. 

    The operation of the atomic clock is based on the phenomenon that 

    • A.

      Crystals resonant when an electric charge is applied

    • B.

      Atoms release energy at a particular resonant frequency

    • C.

      Atoms are sensitive to temperature and directional effects

    • D.

      When atoms are split they produce predictable nuclear reactions

    Correct Answer
    B. Atoms release energy at a particular resonant frequency
    Explanation
    Atoms release energy at a particular resonant frequency. This is the basis for the operation of an atomic clock. Atomic clocks use the vibrations of atoms to measure time. When an atom is excited, it releases energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. This energy is released at a specific frequency, which is unique to each type of atom. By measuring this resonant frequency, atomic clocks can accurately measure time.

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  • 16. 

    To determine the number of hours coordinated universal time (UTC) differs from your local time, you must determine the number of time zones between your location and the location of zero

    • A.

      Median

    • B.

      Latitude

    • C.

      Parallel

    • D.

      Meridian

    Correct Answer
    D. Meridian
    Explanation
    To determine the number of hours coordinated universal time (UTC) differs from your local time, you must determine the number of time zones between your location and the location of zero. A meridian is an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and is used as a reference point for measuring longitude. Each meridian represents a different time zone, so by counting the number of meridians between your location and the zero meridian (which passes through Greenwich, London), you can determine the time difference between UTC and your local time.

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  • 17. 

    Coordinated universal time (UTC) is based on what kind of clock system?

    • A.

      12-hour

    • B.

      24-hour

    • C.

      Astronomical

    • D.

      Amplitude modulation and pulse modulation

    Correct Answer
    B. 24-hour
    Explanation
    Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is based on a 24-hour clock system. This means that time is divided into 24 equal hours, starting from midnight (00:00) and ending at the next midnight (24:00). This system is used worldwide to standardize timekeeping and ensure consistency across different time zones. It allows for easier coordination and synchronization of events, schedules, and communication between different regions of the world.

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  • 18. 

    A number of organizations can maintain accurate time-of-day clocks by referencing a standard time interval of one

    • A.

      Second

    • B.

      Minute

    • C.

      Hour

    • D.

      Day

    Correct Answer
    A. Second
    Explanation
    Organizations can maintain accurate time-of-day clocks by referencing a standard time interval of one second. A second is a consistent and precise unit of time that can be easily measured and synchronized across different clocks. By using the second as a reference, organizations can ensure that their clocks are synchronized and accurate, which is important for various purposes such as scheduling, coordination, and data recording.

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  • 19. 

    The agency responsible for coordinated universal time (UTC) is the

    • A.

      United States Naval Observatory (USNO)

    • B.

      International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM)

    • C.

      Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory (PMEL)

    • D.

      National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    Correct Answer
    B. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM)
    Explanation
    The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) is responsible for coordinating universal time (UTC). BIPM is an international organization that ensures the uniformity of measurements and timekeeping worldwide. They maintain the International Atomic Time (TAI) and coordinate with various national timekeeping laboratories to distribute Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) signals. The United States Naval Observatory (USNO), Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory (PMEL), and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are also involved in timekeeping and standards, but the BIPM is the agency responsible for coordinating UTC.

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  • 20. 

    What is multiplexing?

    • A.

      Transmitting one signal over multiple transmission paths

    • B.

      Transmitting one signal multiple times over a single transmission path

    • C.

      Combining multiple information channels onto a common transmission medium

    • D.

      Combining multiple signals for transmission over separate, individual transmission paths

    Correct Answer
    C. Combining multiple information channels onto a common transmission medium
    Explanation
    Multiplexing refers to the process of combining multiple information channels onto a common transmission medium. This allows for efficient use of the available bandwidth by transmitting multiple signals simultaneously. It is a technique commonly used in telecommunications and computer networks to increase the capacity and efficiency of data transmission.

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  • 21. 

    What specifically does wavelength division multiplexing assign each incoming optical signal?

    • A.

      Pseudorandom code

    • B.

      Frequency of light

    • C.

      Radio frequency

    • D.

      Time slot

    Correct Answer
    B. Frequency of light
    Explanation
    Wavelength division multiplexing assigns each incoming optical signal a specific frequency of light. This allows multiple signals to be transmitted simultaneously over a single optical fiber by assigning different wavelengths to each signal. By using different frequencies of light, the signals can be separated and demultiplexed at the receiving end.

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  • 22. 

    Which multiplexing division technique samples each low speed channel in sequence to interleave bits or characters and then transmit them at high speed?

    • A.

      Wavelength

    • B.

      Frequency

    • C.

      Code

    • D.

      Time

    Correct Answer
    D. Time
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Time". Time division multiplexing (TDM) is a multiplexing division technique that samples each low-speed channel in sequence, interleaves the bits or characters, and then transmits them at high speed. TDM is commonly used in telecommunications to allow multiple signals to share a single transmission medium.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following relies on the transmitter to send multiple copies of the same message to the distant end using a predetermined algorithm?

    • A.

      Controlled diphase

    • B.

      Non-return to zero

    • C.

      Forward error correction

    • D.

      Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)

    Correct Answer
    C. Forward error correction
    Explanation
    Forward error correction is a technique that relies on the transmitter to send multiple copies of the same message to the distant end using a predetermined algorithm. This algorithm allows the receiver to detect and correct errors in the received data by comparing the multiple copies of the message. By sending redundant information, forward error correction improves the reliability and accuracy of the communication system, ensuring that the message is received correctly even if there are errors in the transmission.

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  • 24. 

    Which SATCOM system module is used to produce the final transmit frequency?

    • A.

      Up converter

    • B.

      Modulator

    • C.

      Amplifier

    • D.

      Antenna

    Correct Answer
    A. Up converter
    Explanation
    The up converter module is used to produce the final transmit frequency in a SATCOM system. This module takes the baseband signal and converts it to a higher frequency suitable for transmission. It increases the frequency of the signal to the desired transmit frequency, which is then sent to the antenna for transmission. The up converter plays a crucial role in the system by ensuring that the signal is at the correct frequency for effective communication.

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  • 25. 

    Which type of power amplifier uses semiconductor transistors designed for microwave and higher frequency RF operation?

    • A.

      Klystron

    • B.

      Solid state

    • C.

      Traveling wave tube amplifier

    • D.

      Metal oxide field-effect transistor (MOSFET)

    Correct Answer
    B. Solid state
    Explanation
    Solid state power amplifiers use semiconductor transistors designed for microwave and higher frequency RF operation. These transistors are capable of providing high power output at these frequencies, making them suitable for applications in microwave communication systems, radar systems, and satellite communication. Solid state power amplifiers offer advantages such as compact size, high efficiency, and reliability compared to other types of power amplifiers like klystrons and traveling wave tube amplifiers. Therefore, solid state is the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 26. 

    Which module is the first step of the receive signal path?

    • A.

      Low noise amplifier

    • B.

      Down converter

    • C.

      Up converter

    • D.

      Demodulator

    Correct Answer
    A. Low noise amplifier
    Explanation
    The low noise amplifier is the first step in the receive signal path because it amplifies the weak incoming signal from the antenna to a level that can be processed by the subsequent stages of the receiver. This is necessary to overcome the noise introduced by the receiver itself and any losses in the transmission line. By amplifying the signal at the very beginning, the low noise amplifier helps improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio and ensures that the subsequent stages can accurately process the signal.

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  • 27. 

    Which module strips away the intelligence from the intermediate frequency?

    • A.

      Low noise amplifier

    • B.

      Down converter

    • C.

      Up converter

    • D.

      Demodulator

    Correct Answer
    D. Demodulator
    Explanation
    The demodulator module is responsible for extracting the intelligence from the intermediate frequency. It converts the modulated signal back into its original form by removing the carrier signal and extracting the information embedded in it. This process allows the receiver to retrieve the original data or message that was transmitted.

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  • 28. 

    When establishing a communication link with a satellite, the required sequence of events is

    • A.

      Frequency acquisition, space acquisition, antenna pointing, and satellite tracking

    • B.

      Satellite acquisition, satellite tracking, power correction, and antenna pointing

    • C.

      Orbit prediction, antenna pointing, satellite acquisition, and satellite tracking

    • D.

      Orbit prediction, space acquisition, and frequency acquisition

    Correct Answer
    C. Orbit prediction, antenna pointing, satellite acquisition, and satellite tracking
    Explanation
    When establishing a communication link with a satellite, the first step is to predict the orbit of the satellite. This allows the ground station to know where the satellite will be at any given time. The next step is to point the antenna towards the predicted location of the satellite. Once the antenna is pointed correctly, the ground station can acquire the satellite's signal. Finally, the ground station can track the satellite's movement and make any necessary adjustments to maintain the communication link.

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  • 29. 

    Which tracking method requires no input from a satellite?

    • A.

      Programmed track

    • B.

      Automatic track

    • C.

      Pseudoconscan

    • D.

      Step track

    Correct Answer
    A. Programmed track
    Explanation
    The programmed track method does not require any input from a satellite. This method involves pre-programming the desired track into a system, which then follows the programmed path without the need for satellite assistance. This can be useful in situations where satellite signals may be unavailable or unreliable.

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  • 30. 

    What signal originating from the satellite do we use to acquire and track the satellite?

    • A.

      Beacon

    • B.

      Telemetry

    • C.

      Ephemeris

    • D.

      Communication

    Correct Answer
    A. Beacon
    Explanation
    We use the beacon signal originating from the satellite to acquire and track the satellite. The beacon signal is a continuous wave signal that is transmitted by the satellite and can be received by ground stations. It is used for various purposes, including determining the satellite's position and tracking its movement. By acquiring and tracking the beacon signal, we can establish communication with the satellite and gather important data about its status and location.

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  • 31. 

    Which type of diversity do you have when the same frequency radiates simultaneously in two different planes?

    • A.

      Polarization

    • B.

      Crossband

    • C.

      Frequency

    • D.

      Space

    Correct Answer
    A. Polarization
    Explanation
    When the same frequency radiates simultaneously in two different planes, it is referred to as polarization diversity. Polarization diversity is a technique used in wireless communication systems to improve signal quality and reduce the effects of interference. By transmitting the same signal in two different polarizations, the system can mitigate the impact of fading and multipath propagation, resulting in a more reliable and robust communication link.

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  • 32. 

    Which type of diversity requires two antennas, two receivers, and two transmitters?

    • A.

      Polarization

    • B.

      Crossband

    • C.

      Frequency

    • D.

      Space

    Correct Answer
    A. Polarization
    Explanation
    Polarization diversity requires two antennas, two receivers, and two transmitters. Polarization refers to the orientation of the electromagnetic waves in a signal. By using two antennas with different polarizations, the system can receive and transmit signals more effectively, especially in situations where the signal may be affected by interference or obstacles. This allows for improved signal quality and reliability.

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  • 33. 

    What is the tropo/satellite support radio frequency range?

    • A.

      4.4 to 5.25 GHz

    • B.

      7.25 to 8.4 GHz

    • C.

      14.4 to 15.25 GHz

    • D.

      17.25 to 18.4 GHz

    Correct Answer
    C. 14.4 to 15.25 GHz
    Explanation
    The tropo/satellite support radio frequency range is 14.4 to 15.25 GHz. This range is specifically allocated for tropospheric scatter and satellite communications. Tropospheric scatter communication involves the scattering of radio waves off the Earth's troposphere to establish long-range communication links. Satellite communications, on the other hand, utilize satellites in space to transmit and receive signals over this frequency range.

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  • 34. 

    What are the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) command and control nodes?

    • A.

      Environmental Satellite Operations Center at Schriever AFB, CO and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Operations Control Center at Suitland, MD

    • B.

      Environmental Satellite Operations Center at Schriever AFB, CO and Multi Purpose Satellite Operations Center, Offutt AFB, NB

    • C.

      Air Force Weather Agency, Offutt AFB, NB and NOAA Satellite Operations Control Center at Suitland, MD

    • D.

      Air Force Weather Agency, Offutt AFB, NB and Multi Purpose Satellite Operations Center, Offutt AFB, NB

    Correct Answer
    A. Environmental Satellite Operations Center at Schriever AFB, CO and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Operations Control Center at Suitland, MD
    Explanation
    The Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) command and control nodes are the Environmental Satellite Operations Center at Schriever AFB, CO and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Operations Control Center at Suitland, MD. These two centers are responsible for monitoring and controlling the Air Force's satellite operations and ensuring the proper functioning of the satellites. They play a crucial role in collecting and analyzing data from the satellites and coordinating with other agencies for weather forecasting and environmental monitoring purposes.

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  • 35. 

    The MARK IVB antennas can be located up to how many feet away from the processing area?

    • A.

      1000

    • B.

      1500

    • C.

      2500

    • D.

      3000

    Correct Answer
    B. 1500
    Explanation
    The MARK IVB antennas can be located up to 1500 feet away from the processing area.

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  • 36. 

    Which mission is the highest priority of the Defense Support Program (DSP)?

    • A.

      Theater warning

    • B.

      US retaliatory strike

    • C.

      North american warning

    • D.

      Worldwide space launches

    Correct Answer
    C. North american warning
    Explanation
    The highest priority mission of the Defense Support Program (DSP) is the North American warning. This means that the DSP is primarily focused on providing early warning and detection of any potential threats or attacks directed towards North America. This mission is crucial for ensuring the safety and security of the continent and its inhabitants.

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  • 37. 

    Which set of equipment represents the satellite readout station equipment group?

    • A.

      Radio frequency set and modulation system controller

    • B.

      Modulation interface equipment and transmit/receive set

    • C.

      Modulation interface equipment and modulation system controller

    • D.

      Radio frequency set, transmit/receive set, and digital equipment set

    Correct Answer
    D. Radio frequency set, transmit/receive set, and digital equipment set
    Explanation
    The satellite readout station equipment group consists of three types of equipment: radio frequency set, transmit/receive set, and digital equipment set. These three sets of equipment are necessary for the satellite readout station to function properly. The radio frequency set is responsible for receiving and transmitting signals in the appropriate frequency range. The transmit/receive set allows for the transmission and reception of data between the satellite and the station. The digital equipment set is used for processing and storing the received data. Therefore, the correct answer is radio frequency set, transmit/receive set, and digital equipment set.

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  • 38. 

    What is the number of Global Positioning System (GPS) orbital planes?

    • A.

      4

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      7

    Correct Answer
    C. 6
    Explanation
    The number of Global Positioning System (GPS) orbital planes is 6. The GPS is a satellite navigation system that uses a constellation of satellites to provide location and time information. These satellites are arranged in six orbital planes, with each plane containing multiple satellites. This configuration ensures that there are always enough satellites in view from any point on Earth for accurate positioning.

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  • 39. 

    Which military strategic and tactical relay (MILSTAR) capability is very different from previous military satellite communications (MILSATCOM) and commercial satellite communications systems?

    • A.

      Crosslinking

    • B.

      Crossbanding

    • C.

      Multi-service

    • D.

      Secure networking

    Correct Answer
    A. Crosslinking
    Explanation
    Crosslinking refers to the capability of a satellite to communicate directly with other satellites in its network, bypassing the need for ground-based stations. This is different from previous military satellite communications and commercial satellite communications systems, which rely on ground-based stations to relay messages between satellites. Crosslinking allows for more efficient and secure communication between satellites, enhancing the military strategic and tactical relay (MILSTAR) capability.

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  • 40. 

    The military strategic and tactical relay (MILSTAR) satellite sends downlink communications transmissions at

    • A.

      Ultrahigh frequency (UHF) and super-high frequency (SHF)

    • B.

      Extremely-high frequency (EHF) only

    • C.

      UHF and EHF

    • D.

      UHF only

    Correct Answer
    A. Ultrahigh frequency (UHF) and super-high frequency (SHF)
    Explanation
    The MILSTAR satellite sends downlink communications transmissions at Ultrahigh frequency (UHF) and super-high frequency (SHF). This means that it is capable of transmitting signals at both UHF and SHF frequencies. UHF frequencies are typically used for long-range communications and are able to penetrate obstacles such as buildings and foliage. SHF frequencies, on the other hand, are used for shorter-range communications and are less affected by atmospheric interference. By utilizing both UHF and SHF frequencies, the MILSTAR satellite can ensure reliable and efficient communication in a variety of situations and environments.

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  • 41. 

    Which element of the military strategic and tactical relay (MILSTAR) mission allocates communication resources?

    • A.

      Development

    • B.

      Planning

    • C.

      Support

    • D.

      Control

    Correct Answer
    B. Planning
    Explanation
    The element of the MILSTAR mission that allocates communication resources is "Planning." Planning involves the process of determining the communication needs and requirements of the mission, and then allocating the necessary resources to meet those needs. This includes identifying the appropriate communication channels, frequencies, and bandwidths, as well as coordinating with other elements of the mission to ensure efficient and effective communication. By having a well-planned allocation of communication resources, the MILSTAR mission can ensure reliable and secure communication throughout its operations.

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  • 42. 

    Which military strategic and tactical relay (MILSTAR) antenna provides high gain, selective coverage of any ground station visible on the Earth's surface within its own footprint?

    • A.

      Spot beam

    • B.

      Agile beam

    • C.

      Gimbaled dish

    • D.

      Earth coverage

    Correct Answer
    A. Spot beam
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Spot beam. A spot beam antenna provides high gain and selective coverage of any ground station visible within its own footprint on the Earth's surface. This means that it can focus its signal on a specific area or target, providing enhanced communication capabilities for military strategic and tactical purposes. Spot beam antennas are often used in satellite communications systems to ensure reliable and efficient transmission of data.

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  • 43. 

    Which satellite system provides Global Broadcast Services (GBS)?

    • A.

      Commercial L-band

    • B.

      Defense Meteorological

    • C.

      Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)

    • D.

      Ultrahigh frequency (UHF) follow-on

    Correct Answer
    D. Ultrahigh frequency (UHF) follow-on
    Explanation
    The Ultrahigh frequency (UHF) follow-on satellite system provides Global Broadcast Services (GBS).

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  • 44. 

    How many ultrahigh frequency (UHF) channels are available for each UHF follow-on?

    • A.

      19

    • B.

      29

    • C.

      39

    • D.

      49

    Correct Answer
    C. 39
    Explanation
    Each UHF follow-on has a total of 39 ultrahigh frequency (UHF) channels available.

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  • 45. 

    When considering the factor of service area for commercial satellite services, which description about Ku-band service is true

    • A.

      Not worldwide, located primarily over land masses and highly populated areas

    • B.

      Not worldwide, located primarily over ocean areas and lowly populated areas

    • C.

      Worldwide between roughly 65 degrees North and 65 degrees South latitudes

    • D.

      Worldwide, located primarily over land masses and highly populated areas

    Correct Answer
    A. Not worldwide, located primarily over land masses and highly populated areas
    Explanation
    Ku-band service for commercial satellite services is not worldwide and is primarily located over land masses and highly populated areas. This means that the coverage of Ku-band service is limited and focuses on areas where there is a higher demand for satellite services, such as urban areas and densely populated regions. It is not designed to cover remote or sparsely populated areas, or areas primarily consisting of ocean regions.

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  • 46. 

    What services are not included in INMARSAT mobile satellite services (MSS)?

    • A.

      Iridium

    • B.

      Swift broadband

    • C.

      Fleet broadband (maritime)

    • D.

      Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN)

    Correct Answer
    A. Iridium
    Explanation
    Iridium is not included in INMARSAT mobile satellite services (MSS).

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  • 47. 

    Which commercial satellite communication system can offer true pole-to-pole global coverage?

    • A.

      International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT)

    • B.

      European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT)

    • C.

      International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT)

    • D.

      Iridium

    Correct Answer
    D. Iridium
    Explanation
    Iridium is the correct answer because it is the only commercial satellite communication system that can offer true pole-to-pole global coverage. Unlike other systems, Iridium uses a constellation of 66 satellites in low Earth orbit, allowing it to provide coverage even in the most remote and polar regions of the world. This makes it an ideal choice for industries such as maritime, aviation, and remote exploration where reliable global communication is essential.

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  • 48. 

    Where is the INMARSAT headquarters located?

    • A.

      Fucino, Italy

    • B.

      Beijing, China

    • C.

      London, England

    • D.

      Lake Cowichan, Western Canada

    Correct Answer
    C. London, England
    Explanation
    The correct answer is London, England. INMARSAT is a British satellite telecommunications company, and its headquarters are located in London.

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  • 49. 

    Which type of communications is not normally provided through commercial wideband services?

    • A.

      Deployable video teleconferencing

    • B.

      Very small aperture terminal networks

    • C.

      Handheld satellite phone communications

    • D.

      International high-speed internet connectivity

    Correct Answer
    C. Handheld satellite phone communications
    Explanation
    Handheld satellite phone communications are not normally provided through commercial wideband services. While commercial wideband services may offer various types of communication services such as deployable video teleconferencing, very small aperture terminal networks, and international high-speed internet connectivity, they typically do not include handheld satellite phone communications.

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  • 50. 

    Which satellite company is specifically designed to interface with all current X-band terminals?

    • A.

      XTAR

    • B.

      INMARSAT

    • C.

      INTELSAT

    • D.

      EUTELSAT

    Correct Answer
    A. XTAR
    Explanation
    XTAR is the correct answer because it is a satellite company that is specifically designed to interface with all current X-band terminals. X-band is a frequency range used for satellite communication, and XTAR specializes in providing satellite services and solutions for government and commercial customers using this frequency band. They have a network of satellites positioned strategically to provide global coverage and ensure seamless connectivity with X-band terminals.

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