Audio Production II - Spring 2011

32 Questions | Total Attempts: 18

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Audio Production II - Spring 2011

Final Study Guide Quiz Note: This quiz was created by a student to aid in the preperation for a final exam. The answers to this test are in no form approved by any higher education as correct, but have been highly researched by the creator. Not all subjects are convered, but only the more difficult terms and questions discussed since the midterm.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Energy from the Microphone to the DAW and then back to the speakers is converted through the following process: Microphone -> Preamp (Boost to line level) -> AD Converter (Audio to Digital Signal Processing) -> DAW -> FX (within DAW usually using sends and bus) -> Playback (on Speakers)
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    What is an XLR Cable and what do each of the pins do?
    • A. 

      XLR connectors are normally used for transmitting balanced mic and line level signals. Pin 1 of an XLR connector is always ground/shield. The connectors are designed so that pin 1 makes its connection first when inserted in a jack; this ensures that the ground connection is made first, helping prevent pops and thumps in the audio chain. Either pin 2 or pin 3 may be hot (determined by the gear the connector is plugged into), with the remaining pin being cold. To maintain correct polarity in a signal path, it is important to be aware of which pin is hot or cold on all connections, and wire your cables accordingly.

    • B. 

      XLR connectors are normally used for transmitting balanced mic and line level signals. Pin 1 of an XLR connector is always hot. The connectors are designed so that pin 2 makes its connection first when inserted in a jack; this ensures that the ground connection is made first, helping prevent pops and thumps in the audio chain. Either pin 2 or pin 3 may be ground (determined by the gear the connector is plugged into), with the remaining pin being cold. To maintain correct polarity in a signal path, it is important to be aware of which pin is hot or cold on all connections, and wire your cables accordingly.

    • C. 

      XLR connectors are normally used for transmitting unbalanced mic, line and instrument level signals. Pin 1 of an XLR connector is always hot. The connectors are designed so that pin 2 makes its connection first when inserted in a jack; this ensures that the ground connection is made first, helping prevent pops and thumps in the audio chain. Either pin 2 or pin 3 may be ground (determined by the gear the connector is plugged into), with the remaining pin being cold. To maintain correct polarity in a signal path, it is important to be aware of which pin is hot or cold on all connections, and wire your cables accordingly.

  • 3. 
    Which type of connector is a 1/4" (or 1/8") balanced connector with three sections of the shaft. The sections inclue 2 connectors plus a ground (shild) in one plug.
    • A. 

      TRS - Tip, Ring, and Sleeve

    • B. 

      TT - Tiny Telephone

    • C. 

      TS - Tip and sleeve

    • D. 

      ADAT - Alesis Digital Audio Tape

  • 4. 
    TT - Abbreviation for Tip Sleeve. Tip Sleeve refers to a specific type of phone plug (not phono plug) or 1/4" connector that is set up for a two-conductor ____________ connection. The tip and sleeve are separated by an insulator. The Tip is generally considered the "hot," or where the signal is applied, while the Sleeve is where the ground or shield is connected.
  • 5. 
    A "TT" or Tiny Telephone jack comes in TS and TRS forms?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    Which of these answers describes two forms of balanced connector cables? Please select the best answer to the question:
    • A. 

      TRS, TT-TS,

    • B. 

      TS & TT-TRS

    • C. 

      TRS, TT-TRS

    • D. 

      TS & TT-TS

  • 7. 
    A small inexpensive coaxial connector used for interconnection of many audio devices, especially consumer devices. The coaxial configuration (a center "hot" conductor surrounded by a "ground" connection that is a consistent distance from the hot) also makes them an affordable solution for high frequency transmission of signals like video and digital audio so long as proper insulators are used that will maintain the proper impedance through the connector. S/PDIF formatted digital audio data is often transmitted on coaxial cable terminated with this type of connector. This connection is called a _____________ cable.
  • 8. 
    AES/EBU is the most common alternative to the S/PDIF standard and the most common AES/EBU physical interconnect is AES Type I Balanced - 3 conductor, 110 ohm twisted pair cabling with an XLR connector.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    S/PDIF typically uses either balanced, low impedance coaxial cables or fiber optic cables for transmission. When using coaxial cables for transmission, it is normally best to keep cable lengths to a minimum, and to use the best quality 75 ohm video-type cables available.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    What is a BNC Connector and what is it used for?
    • A. 

      A type of coaxial connector. In audio gear, BNC connectors are normally used to carry synchronizing clock signals between devices. BNCs are bayonet-type connectors, rather than screw on, or straight plugs. They are named for their type (Bayonet), and their inventor, Neill Concelman.

    • B. 

      A type of coaxial connector. In audio gear, BNC connectors are normally used to transfer MIDI protocol between an instrument and the DAW station. BNCs are bayonet-type connectors, rather than screw on, or straight plugs. They are named for their type (Bayonet), and their inventor, Neill Concelman.

    • C. 

      A type of XLR connection. In audio gear, BNC connectors are normally used to carry synchronizing clock signals between devices. BNCs are bayonet-type connectors, rather than screw on, or straight plugs. They are named for their type (Bayonet), and their inventor, Neill Concelman.

  • 11. 
    This type of connector has gone through several generations and is currently a 20-bit digital format. This optical connection is used for transferring digital data 8-tracks at a time and has become a standard of the industry.
    • A. 

      TT

    • B. 

      XLR

    • C. 

      S/PDIF

    • D. 

      ADAT

  • 12. 
    Is this connector blanced or unbalanced?
    • A. 

      Unbalanced

    • B. 

      Balanced

  • 13. 
    Line Level – Literally, the average voltage of an electronic audio signal. While technically any voltage over 25 millivolts RMS is considered line level, in the modern audio world we narrow the scope a bit to the two line level references in use today: Balanced "pro" gear runs at around ______ dBm (1.23 volts), while unbalanced "semi-pro" gear operates at approximately .316 volts (-10 dBV). "Pro" and "semi-pro" may be almost meaningless terms anymore, but the two operating levels must still be dealt with.
  • 14. 
    Mic Level – The level (or voltage) of signal generated by a microphone. Typically around 4 millivolts. Compare this with the two normal line levels (1.23 volts and .316 volts), and it becomes apparent just how much amplification is going on in a microphone preamp, and why it is essential that preamps be of as high quality as possible!
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    There is no standard for instrument level; it is assumed to fall between mic level (on the low end) and line level (on the high end), and it can range from a few millivolts for passive or piezo pickups to several volts on instruments with active pickups and built-in preamps.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    The__________ microphone is a very simple mechanical system, with almost no moving parts compared to other microphone designs. It is also one of the oldest microphone types, dating back to the early 1900's. It is simply a thin stretched conductive diaphragm held close to a metal disk called a backplate. This arrangement basically produces a capacitor, and is given its electric charge by an external voltage source. When sound pressure acts on the diaphragm it vibrates slightly in response to the waveform. This causes the capacitance to vary in a like manner, which causes a variance in its output voltage. This voltage variation is the signal output of the microphone.
  • 17. 
    A ________________ mic is one in which audio signal is generated by the motion of a conductor within a magnetic field. ,A very thin, light, diaphragm moves in response to sound pressure. The diaphragm's motion causes a voice coil which is suspended in a magnetic field to move, generating a small electric current. This type of microphone is robust in construction and can often handle very high SPLs (Sound Pressure Levels). This mic does not require an external power source to operate. Because of the mechanical nature of their operation these mics are commonly less sensitive to transients, and may not reproduce quite the high frequency "detail" other types of mics can produce. This type of mic is commonly used in live applications. In the studio, they are often used to record electric guitar and drums.
  • 18. 
    Many of our recent Piano Miking Suggestions recommended use of _________ microphones. These microphones use a small electret capsule mounted close to a backing plate. The idea is that the mic capsule/plate is mounted to a large flat surface (or boundary). This increases the sensitivity of the mic by 6 dB (due to pressure doubling from reflected soundwaves), and gives it a hemispherical pickup pattern. The practical frequency response of the mic will depend on the size of the flat surface it is mounted to. If the surface is too small, low frequencies will not be reflected resulting in an apparent high frequency (treble) boost.
  • 19. 
    A type of velocity microphone. A velocity microphone responds to the velocity of air molecules passing it rather than the Sound Pressure Level, which is what most other microphones respond to. In many cases this functional difference isn't important, but it can certainly be an issue on a windy day. Very old __________ mics could be destroyed from the air velocity created just by carrying them across a room. A ribbon mic works by loosely suspending a small element (usually a corrugated strip of metal) in a strong magnetic field. This strip is moved by the action of air molecules and when it moves it cuts across the magnetic lines of flux causing a signal to be generated. Naturally this type of mic has a figure 8 pick up pattern. You can think of it like a window blind; it is easily moved by wind blowing at it, but usually doesn't move when wind blows across it from left to right.
  • 20. 
    .The difference in sound quality due to different microphone preamp models has to do with different inpedences produced by different microphones.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    A converter used to transfer signal from a microphone to a digital DAW processes the signal with an __________ to __________ converter. Please type your answer in lower case with a comma and space between the words: Example:  radio, television
  • 22. 
    In a lossy compression scheme, such as MPEG video used in DVD production, the quality of the audio and video may be degraded somewhat. Another distinction is whether or not a special decoding algorithm is required to access or uncompress the file. Usually (but certainly not always) lossless compression schemes require special decoding software to restore the file to its original form, whereas lossy compression schemes are often encoded so they can be accessed without the extra decompression step.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    What is the primary difference between a compressor and a limiter?
    • A. 

      The primary difference is the ratio used in reducing gain. In a limiter, this ratio is set up to be as close to infinity:1 as possible (no matter how much the input signal changes, the output level should remain pretty much constant)

    • B. 

      The primary difference is the ratio used in increase gain. In a limiter, this ratio is set up to be as close to infinity:1 as possible (no matter how much the input signal changes, the output level should increase exponentially)

    • C. 

      The primary difference is the ratio used in reducing gain. In a limiter, this ratio is set up to be as limited as possible (no matter how much the input signal changes, the output level should remain pretty much constant)

  • 24. 
    What is a De-Esser and what is it used for?
    • A. 

      A dynamics processor that establishes a maximum gain setting and prevents signals from getting any louder than that setting.

    • B. 

      – A dynamics device whose function is to remove unwanted audio material below a certain threshold. Some type of "gain cell" is employed (usually a VCA) that can raise or lower the volume of the audio going through the unit. When the signal falls below a certain threshold that is set the gain cell will quickly drop the audio level down to a predetermined level.

    • C. 

      A special type of compressor that is tuned to be sensitive to sibilant sounds, or sounds with high frequencies such as the sound produced by the letter "s." The need for this process arises out of a combination of the presence peak many microphones have in their frequency response to accentuate vocal recording combined with close proximity vocal work and possible added high frequency boost from equalizers and tone controls.

  • 25. 
    The remainder of sound that exists in a room after the source of the sound has stopped is called ______________
    • A. 

      Echo

    • B. 

      Reverb

    • C. 

      Delay

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