AHS 307 - IV Fluid Administration In Small Animals

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Covers material from the IV fluid lecture, and sections of chapter 19.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What organ primarily corrects for errors in our fluid calculations?

    • A.

      Kidneys

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Pancreas

    • D.

      Adrenal glands

    Correct Answer
    A. Kidneys
    Explanation
    The kidneys primarily correct for errors in our fluid calculations. The kidneys are responsible for maintaining the balance of water and electrolytes in the body by filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. They regulate the concentration of fluids and electrolytes by reabsorbing or excreting them as needed. This helps to maintain the proper fluid balance and prevent dehydration or overhydration. The liver, pancreas, and adrenal glands have other important functions in the body, but they are not primarily involved in correcting fluid calculations.

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  • 2. 

    Which is more commonly seen in small animal medicine?

    • A.

      Hypervolemia

    • B.

      Hypovolemia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypovolemia
    Explanation
    Hypovolemia is more commonly seen in small animal medicine. This condition refers to a decrease in blood volume, which can occur due to various factors such as bleeding, dehydration, or fluid loss. In small animal medicine, hypovolemia is often encountered in cases of trauma, gastrointestinal diseases, or kidney problems. It can lead to symptoms like weakness, lethargy, decreased blood pressure, and poor tissue perfusion. Prompt identification and treatment of hypovolemia are crucial to restore fluid balance and prevent further complications.

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  • 3. 

    The main goal of fluid therapy is to correct abnormalities in the volume, electrolyte and acid base status of the animal.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fluid therapy is a common medical intervention used to restore and maintain the balance of fluids, electrolytes, and acid-base levels in the body. It is often administered to animals that are dehydrated, suffering from electrolyte imbalances, or experiencing acid-base disturbances. By providing the necessary fluids and electrolytes, fluid therapy helps correct these abnormalities and promotes overall health and well-being. Therefore, the statement that the main goal of fluid therapy is to correct abnormalities in the volume, electrolyte, and acid-base status of the animal is true.

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  • 4. 

    At which percentage of dehydration do we FIRST observe dry mucous membranes?

    • A.

      3%

    • B.

      5%

    • C.

      7%

    • D.

      10%

    • E.

      12%

    Correct Answer
    B. 5%
    Explanation
    Dry mucous membranes are a common symptom of dehydration. As the body loses water, the mucous membranes in the mouth and nose become dry and sticky. At a dehydration level of 5%, we first observe dry mucous membranes. This means that when the body has lost 5% of its total water content, the mucous membranes start to show signs of dryness. It is important to note that dehydration can have varying symptoms and severity depending on the individual and other factors, but dry mucous membranes are typically observed at this level of dehydration.

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  • 5. 

    At which percentage of dehydration might we notice that the femoral pulse is has decreased?

    • A.

      3%

    • B.

      5%

    • C.

      7%

    • D.

      10%

    • E.

      12%

    Correct Answer
    D. 10%
    Explanation
    At a 10% dehydration level, we might notice a decrease in the femoral pulse. Dehydration can lead to a decrease in blood volume and blood pressure, causing a weaker and slower pulse. This can be an indication that the body is not receiving enough fluid and is becoming dehydrated. It is important to stay hydrated to maintain proper blood circulation and overall health.

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  • 6. 

    At which percentage of dehydration might the animal begin to show signs of shock?

    • A.

      3%

    • B.

      5%

    • C.

      7%

    • D.

      10%

    • E.

      12%

    Correct Answer
    E. 12%
    Explanation
    At a dehydration level of 12%, the animal may begin to show signs of shock. This is because dehydration causes a decrease in blood volume, leading to reduced oxygen and nutrient supply to the body's tissues. As a result, the animal's vital organs may not receive enough blood flow, leading to a state of shock. This can manifest as symptoms such as rapid breathing, weak pulse, pale gums, and lethargy. Therefore, a dehydration level of 12% is critical and can have severe consequences for the animal's health.

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  • 7. 

    The three parameters that you should always check on an examination of the mucous membranes are color, CRT, and degree of hydration.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because when examining the mucous membranes, it is important to assess their color, capillary refill time (CRT), and degree of hydration. The color of the mucous membranes can indicate the presence of underlying health conditions or abnormalities. CRT is a measure of peripheral perfusion and can provide information about the patient's circulatory status. The degree of hydration is crucial in assessing the patient's fluid balance and overall health. Therefore, checking these three parameters during a mucous membrane examination is essential for a comprehensive assessment of the patient's health.

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  • 8. 

    According to the lecture, vomiting is likely to cause losses in...

    • A.

      Acid

    • B.

      Cl-

    • C.

      K+

    • D.

      HCO3

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Acid
    B. Cl-
    Explanation
    According to the lecture, vomiting is likely to cause losses in acid and Cl-. When a person vomits, they expel stomach acid, leading to a decrease in acid levels in the body. Additionally, the stomach contains chloride ions (Cl-), and vomiting can result in the loss of these ions. Other electrolytes like potassium (K+) and bicarbonate (HCO3) may not be affected as significantly by vomiting.

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  • 9. 

    According to the lecture, diarrhea is likely to cause loses in...

    • A.

      Acid

    • B.

      Cl-

    • C.

      K+

    • D.

      HCO3

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Cl-
    C. K+
    D. HCO3
    Explanation
    Diarrhea can cause losses in chloride (Cl-), potassium (K+), and bicarbonate (HCO3) ions. Diarrhea is characterized by frequent and loose bowel movements, which can lead to excessive loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. Chloride, potassium, and bicarbonate are important electrolytes that help maintain the balance of fluids and pH levels in the body. When diarrhea occurs, these electrolytes are not properly absorbed by the intestines, resulting in their loss. This can disrupt the body's electrolyte balance and lead to dehydration and metabolic imbalances.

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  • 10. 

    Blood loss/fluid lose results in stimulation of....

    • A.

      Barorecptors

    • B.

      Parasympathetic system

    • C.

      Sympathetic system

    • D.

      Renin-angiotensin system

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Barorecptors
    C. Sympathetic system
    D. Renin-angiotensin system
    Explanation
    Blood loss or fluid loss leads to a decrease in blood volume, which causes a decrease in blood pressure. This decrease in blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors, which are specialized sensory receptors located in the walls of certain blood vessels. The activation of baroreceptors triggers a reflex response that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic system then causes vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, and increased contractility of the heart, all of which work to increase blood pressure and restore blood flow. Additionally, blood loss also activates the renin-angiotensin system, which plays a role in regulating blood pressure through the release of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor.

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  • 11. 

    A PCV of >45% indicates some degree of dehydration.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    50% or greater indicates some degree of dehydration. Without knowing the animal's historical PCV, this method is not very accurate.

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  • 12. 

    Which total plasma protein reading indicates dehydration?

    • A.

      7.9 g/dl

    • B.

      7.4 g/dl

    • C.

      6.0 g/dl

    • D.

      6.9 g/dl

    Correct Answer
    A. 7.9 g/dl
    Explanation
    A total plasma protein reading of 7.9 g/dl indicates dehydration. Dehydration can cause an increase in the concentration of proteins in the blood, leading to a higher total plasma protein reading. A reading of 7.9 g/dl suggests that there is a higher concentration of proteins in the plasma, which is a sign of dehydration.

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  • 13. 

    Select which statement about USG is true.

    • A.

      USG will increase with decreases in renal perfusion secondary to hypovolemia.

    • B.

      USG will decrease with decreases in renal perfusion secondary to hypovolemia.

    • C.

      USG readings under 1.040 indicate dehydration.

    • D.

      USG readings under 1.020 indicate dehydration.

    Correct Answer
    A. USG will increase with decreases in renal perfusion secondary to hypovolemia.
    Explanation
    USG stands for urine specific gravity, which is a measure of the concentration of solutes in the urine. When renal perfusion decreases due to hypovolemia (low blood volume), the kidneys try to conserve water and concentrate the urine, leading to an increase in USG. This helps to retain water in the body and prevent further fluid loss. Therefore, the statement "USG will increase with decreases in renal perfusion secondary to hypovolemia" is true.

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  • 14. 

    IV fluids are indicated in dogs and cats that are 7% or greater clinically dehydrated.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    IV fluids are indicated in dogs and cats that are 7% or greater clinically dehydrated. This means that if a dog or cat is experiencing dehydration at a level of 7% or higher, it is recommended to administer IV fluids to rehydrate them. IV fluids are a common method used by veterinarians to quickly and effectively restore hydration levels in animals that are dehydrated. Therefore, the statement "IV fluids are indicated in dogs and cats that are 7% or greater clinically dehydrated" is true.

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  • 15. 

    The intravascular fluid compartment includes plasma and red blood cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    RBCs are included in the intracellular compartment.

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  • 16. 

    Select which statement is true.

    • A.

      Plasma and interstitial fluids are rich in Na+.

    • B.

      K+ is the primary ion found in plasma.

    • C.

      Na+ is the primary ion found intracellularly.

    • D.

      The intravascular and intracellular spaces communicate freely.

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasma and interstitial fluids are rich in Na+.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Plasma and interstitial fluids are rich in Na+." This statement is true because sodium (Na+) is the primary ion found in extracellular fluids, including plasma and interstitial fluids. Sodium plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction.

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  • 17. 

    Select all that are true about crystalloid fluids.

    • A.

      Opaque

    • B.

      Clear

    • C.

      Most commonly used

    • D.

      Act like albumin

    • E.

      Stay in vascular system longer

    • F.

      Sodium-based, or glucose solutions

    • G.

      Transient in vascular system

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Clear
    C. Most commonly used
    F. Sodium-based, or glucose solutions
    G. Transient in vascular system
    Explanation
    Crystalloid fluids are clear, meaning they are transparent and not opaque. They are also the most commonly used type of fluids in medical settings. Crystalloid fluids can be sodium-based or glucose solutions, providing electrolytes and nutrients to the body. These fluids are transient in the vascular system, meaning they do not stay in the bloodstream for an extended period of time. They are rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body. Crystalloid fluids do not act like albumin, which is a type of colloid fluid.

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  • 18. 

    Which is more likely to cause overhydration?

    • A.

      Colloids

    • B.

      Crystalloids

    Correct Answer
    A. Colloids
    Explanation
    Colloids are more likely to cause overhydration compared to crystalloids. Colloids are large molecules or particles that do not easily pass through cell membranes and tend to stay within the blood vessels, increasing the osmotic pressure. This can lead to fluid retention and overload, causing overhydration. On the other hand, crystalloids are small molecules that can easily pass through cell membranes and distribute throughout the body, resulting in less risk of overhydration.

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  • 19. 

    Normal saline contains lactate as the primary buffer.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Normal saline, also known as 0.9% sodium chloride solution, does not contain lactate as the primary buffer. It is a sterile solution of sodium chloride in water, and it is used for various medical purposes such as hydration and dilution of medications. Lactated Ringer's solution, on the other hand, contains lactate as a buffer along with other electrolytes. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 20. 

    Normosol is similar to LRS, except with a higher concentration of buffers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Contains acetate and gluconate.

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  • 21. 

    Select all crystalloid solutions that are isotonic.

    • A.

      0.9% NaCl

    • B.

      LRS

    • C.

      Normosol

    • D.

      3% Normal Saline

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. 0.9% NaCl
    B. LRS
    C. Normosol
    Explanation
    The crystalloid solutions that are isotonic are those that have the same osmotic pressure as the body's fluids. 0.9% NaCl (normal saline), LRS (lactated Ringer's solution), and Normosol are all isotonic solutions commonly used in medical settings. 3% Normal Saline, on the other hand, is a hypertonic solution and is not isotonic.

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  • 22. 

    D5W is a hypotonic solution.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    D5W stands for 5% Dextrose in Water, which is a type of intravenous fluid used in medical settings. It contains 5% dextrose (a type of sugar) dissolved in water. D5W is considered a hypotonic solution because it has a lower concentration of solutes (sugar) compared to the body's cells. When it is administered into the bloodstream, it causes water to move into the cells, resulting in cell swelling and potentially causing the cells to burst. Therefore, the statement "D5W is a hypotonic solution" is true.

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  • 23. 

    A colloid used to increase plasma oncotic pressure.

    • A.

      Dextran

    • B.

      Hetastarch

    • C.

      Oxyglobin

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed (Dextran, Hetastarch, Oxyglobin) are colloids that are used to increase plasma oncotic pressure. Colloids are substances that remain suspended in a solution and do not dissolve. They are often used in medical settings to help restore or maintain proper fluid balance in the body. Increasing plasma oncotic pressure helps to retain fluid within the blood vessels and prevent it from leaking into the surrounding tissues. Therefore, all of the options listed can be used to achieve this effect.

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  • 24. 

    A colloid that also deliver oxygen.

    • A.

      Dextran

    • B.

      Hetastarch

    • C.

      Oxyglobin

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxyglobin
    Explanation
    Oxyglobin is a colloid that is also capable of delivering oxygen. Dextran and Hetastarch are also colloid solutions, but they do not have the ability to deliver oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is Oxyglobin.

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  • 25. 

    Select the answer the BEST applies to the question: Maintains plasma volume

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Chloride

    • D.

      Bicarbonate

    Correct Answer
    A. Sodium
    Explanation
    Sodium helps to maintain plasma volume by regulating the balance of water in the body. It plays a crucial role in fluid balance as it helps to retain water in the blood vessels, preventing dehydration and maintaining the volume of plasma. Sodium also works in conjunction with other electrolytes, such as potassium and chloride, to maintain proper fluid balance and ensure the normal functioning of cells and organs.

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  • 26. 

    Select the answer the BEST applies to the question: Regulates intracellular water balance

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Chloride

    • D.

      Bicarbonate

    Correct Answer
    B. Potassium
    Explanation
    Potassium plays a crucial role in regulating intracellular water balance. It helps maintain the proper balance of fluids inside cells, ensuring that they remain hydrated and function optimally. Potassium ions actively transport water across cell membranes, regulating the osmotic pressure and preventing excessive water loss or retention. This helps maintain cell volume and prevents dehydration or swelling. Therefore, among the given options, potassium is the best answer for regulating intracellular water balance.

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  • 27. 

    Select the answer the BEST applies to the question: Extracellular ion that functions to regulate electrolyte balance

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Chloride

    • D.

      Bicarbonate

    Correct Answer
    C. Chloride
    Explanation
    Chloride is an extracellular ion that plays a crucial role in regulating electrolyte balance. It is an essential component of the body's fluids, including blood and interstitial fluid. Chloride helps to maintain the body's pH balance, aids in the transport of other ions across cell membranes, and is involved in the production of stomach acid. Imbalances in chloride levels can lead to various health issues, such as dehydration, acid-base disturbances, and muscle cramps. Therefore, chloride is the best answer for the given question.

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  • 28. 

    Select the answer the BEST applies to the question: Blood buffer that regulates pH.

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Chloride

    • D.

      Bicarbonate

    Correct Answer
    D. Bicarbonate
    Explanation
    Bicarbonate is the blood buffer that regulates pH. It helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body by accepting or donating hydrogen ions (H+) as needed. Bicarbonate acts as a base, neutralizing excess acid and preventing a decrease in pH. It is an important component of the bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system, which helps stabilize the pH of the blood and other body fluids. Sodium, potassium, and chloride are electrolytes that play various roles in the body but are not specifically involved in regulating pH.

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  • 29. 

    What are the three phases of fluid therapy?

    • A.

      Emergency, replacement, maintenance

    • B.

      Support, replenish, stabilize

    • C.

      Replacement, support, critical care

    Correct Answer
    A. Emergency, replacement, maintenance
    Explanation
    The correct answer is emergency, replacement, maintenance. Fluid therapy is a medical treatment that involves providing fluids to patients to maintain their fluid balance. The three phases of fluid therapy are emergency, replacement, and maintenance. In the emergency phase, fluids are given rapidly to address acute fluid deficits and stabilize the patient. In the replacement phase, fluids are given to correct ongoing fluid losses and maintain hydration. In the maintenance phase, fluids are given to meet the patient's daily fluid requirements and prevent dehydration.

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  • 30. 

    In emergency fluid therapy, the main goal is to support blood volume and blood pressure, not rehydration.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The main goal of emergency fluid therapy is to support blood volume and blood pressure, not rehydration. Rehydration focuses on replenishing fluids in the body, while emergency fluid therapy aims to stabilize the patient's condition by restoring blood volume and maintaining blood pressure. This distinction is important because in emergency situations, such as severe bleeding or shock, the priority is to ensure adequate blood flow to vital organs rather than focusing solely on rehydration.

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  • 31. 

    The purpose of intraoperative fluid therapy is to support tissue perfusion and blood pressure.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Intraoperative fluid therapy is an essential component of surgical care as it helps maintain tissue perfusion and blood pressure. During surgery, patients may experience blood loss and fluid shifts, which can lead to hypotension and inadequate tissue perfusion. By administering fluids intravenously, healthcare providers can ensure that the patient's blood pressure is maintained within a normal range and that tissues receive adequate oxygen and nutrients. This helps prevent complications and supports optimal surgical outcomes. Therefore, the statement that the purpose of intraoperative fluid therapy is to support tissue perfusion and blood pressure is true.

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  • 32. 

    You are administering fluids and notice a serious nasal discharge coming from the patient. The cause is most likely...

    • A.

      Dehydration, you should increase the rate of fluid administration

    • B.

      Overhydration, you should stop fluid administration

    • C.

      Due to pulmonary edema

    Correct Answer
    B. Overhydration, you should stop fluid administration
    Explanation
    The presence of a serious nasal discharge is most likely indicative of overhydration rather than dehydration or pulmonary edema. Overhydration occurs when there is an excessive intake or retention of fluids, leading to an imbalance in the body's fluid levels. Stopping fluid administration would be the appropriate response in this case as it would help prevent further fluid overload and potential complications associated with overhydration.

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  • 33. 

    Which fluid therapeutic would you use for a cat with urethral obstruction and struvite crystals?

    • A.

      0.9% NaCl

    • B.

      LRS with 5% dextrose

    • C.

      Normosol + KCl

    Correct Answer
    A. 0.9% NaCl
    Explanation
    NaCl will produce an acid urine that will help dissolve the struvite crystals.
    Should not give potassium to a blocked cat because hyperkalemia is a common cause of death in these cases.

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  • 34. 

    In a case of pyloric obstruction, what electrolyte losses would you expect? (And just for the practice, think about what type of fluid you would administer :P )

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Chloride

    • D.

      Bicarbonate

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sodium
    B. Potassium
    C. Chloride
    Explanation
    Bicarbonate would actually increase.
    0.9% NaCl with added K. NaCl produces hydrogen ions to neutralize the excess HCO3.

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  • 35. 

    Which fluids would be contraindicated in a case of head trauma and brain swelling.

    • A.

      Dextran

    • B.

      Oxyglobin

    • C.

      Hetastarch

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dextran
    B. Oxyglobin
    C. Hetastarch
    Explanation
    The fluids Dextran, Oxyglobin, and Hetastarch would be contraindicated in a case of head trauma and brain swelling. These fluids can increase blood viscosity and cause further damage to the already swollen brain. It is important to avoid these fluids in such cases to prevent worsening of the condition and promote proper healing.

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