Perform forward checking
Decide what order should the values be tried for a variable
Detect inevitable failure early
Decide which variable should be assigned next
– P => – Q
– P V Q
Q => P
H( n) = 2n
H( n) = 0
H( n) = 2
H( n) = n
The goal state
The initial state
The order of node expansion
Whenever a percept is perceived
After all actions are performed
Before the first action is performed
After the first action is performed
Uninformed search can find the optimal solution but informed search doesn't
Uninformed search strategy uses knowledge beyond the definition of the problem itself but informed search strategy doesn't
Informed search can find the optimal solution but uninformed search doesn't
Informed search strategy uses knowledge beyond the definition of the problem itself but uninformed search strategy doesn't
Simulated annealing search
Finding the path cost
Finding a initial state
Finding a goal state
Finding a solution
Data are treated as a two-dimensional table from the users’ point of view. Relationship between records are defined by the value of fields in each record
Relationships between records are expressed by parent-child relationship
Data fields composing a record are stored in the index format by data type. Access to the record is made through the data gathering in these index values.
Relationships between records are expressed by network structure
A, C, D, E
B, D, E
The data structure is represented as a network
The data structure is represented by a hierarchy
SQL is used as its standard database language
The data structure is represented by a table format consisting of rows and columns
One company has one shareholder
There are multiple companies, and each company has multiple shareholders
One company has multiple shareholders
There are multiple companies, and each company has a shareholder
Operation 1 is PROJECTION and operation 2 is SELECTION
The table extracted by operation 1 has four rows
The table extracted by operation 1 has two columns
The table extracted by operation 2 has two columns
Relational data model
Hierarchical data model
Network data model
Create a new table by combining tuples satisfying conditions from tuples in more than two tables
Extract the specific columns from the table
Extract the rows satisfying specific conditions from the table
Create a table by combining inquiry results from one table and the ones of the other table
The completion times for a typical task
The cost of buying a user interface component
User settable preferences
Possibilities for using an object or interface
Is often conducted with low-fidelity designs
Is usually conducted at the end of the development process
Requires a fully functional prototype
Requires having several alternate designs
Easy to use
The system preventive maintenance is performed in order to extend the MTBF
The system operating ratio is improved by extending the MTTR and MTBF
System remote maintenance improves the operating ratio, by improving the MTBF
The more complicated the system configuration is, the longer the MTBF becomes
Rubin’s comparison test
Is not suitable for transmission of information between equipment where transmission speeds and protocols differ.
Enables efficient use of communication circuits (by sharing multiple communication path)
Suitable for transmission of large amounts of consecutive data.
Delays do not occur inside the switched network.
Router a learns the location of terminal b from the MAC address of the destination in the packet and relays the packets to router b only.
Router a relays all packets to both router b and router c.
Router a relays packets to router b only based on the destination IP address in the packet.
Router a relays packets to router b only according to the relay router specified in the packet.
Voice and data are sent by time-divided multiplexing.
Optical fiber cable is laid down to the home to enable various communication services such as telephony, ISDN, and data communications.
It enables high-speed data transmission of differing incoming and outgoing speeds, using the existing telephone line (twisted pair).
Voice and data are separated by a terminal adapter (TA), so they can share the same line.
SMTP is the protocol for the Internet, and POP3 is the protocol for LAN.
SMTP is the protocol used under normal circumstances when reception is possible, and POP3 is the protocol for fetching mail from the mailbox when connected.
The SMTP is a protocol used when one side is client, and POP3 is a protocol used when both sides to transmit are mail servers.
SMTP is a protocol for receiving, and POP3 is a protocol for sending.
In order to ensure e-mail confidentiality, it is necessary to employ preventive measures such as encryption.
When e-mail is transmitted, a one-to-one id established with the remote party based on the remote party’s address. Therefore, confidentiality is ensured.
Text files created with word processing programs and the file are translated into a computer’s internal code, so there is no risk that their contents will be read on the communication path.
In order to ensure e-mail confidentiality, it is necessary to request the provider connecting the sender to register a receiver’s ID.
Packet switching service is not possible with ISDN.
In order to carry out communication by packet switching, both the sender and the receiver must be packet mode terminals. (PT)
By setting multiple logical circuits, concurrent communication with multiple parties can be performed using one physical line.
Compare to circuit switching, the latency within the network is short.
Positive acceptance rate.
Crossover Error Rate (CER).
Reduce all risks regardless of cost
Reduce the risk to a tolerable level.
Transfer any risk to external third parties.
Prosecute any employees that are violating published security policies.
A user having multiple user IDs should set the same password for all the IDs.
All the users involved in the same project should use the same user ID.
When privileges are set for a user ID, they should be minimized.
When a user ID is to be deleted, an adequate time interval should be taken after the termination of its use has been notified.
If a password is not modified within a priviously specified period of time, it will no longer be possible to connect using this password.
If the password is entered wrongly for a number of times determined in advanced, the line will be disconnected.
When there is a request for connection, a callback will be made to a specific telephone number to establish the connection.
To ensure that the user does not forget the password, it is displayed on the terminal at the time of log on.
Apotential incident that could cause harm
The minimization of loss associated with an incident
Acompany resource that could be lost due to an incident
Aweakness in a system that could be exploited
Key A: M's private key Key B: M's public key
Key A: Common public key Key B: N's private key
Key A: Common private key Key B: Common public key
Key A: N's public key Key B: N's private key
Activating the system from an infected floppy disk loads the macro virus into the main meory, and then the virus infects the boot sectors of other floppy disks.
The execution of an infected application loads in the macro virus into the main memory, and in this process, the virus infects program files of other applications.
Since it can be easily determined as to whether a macro function is infected by a virus, infection can be prevented at the time of opening a document file.
A macro virus infects document files opened or newly created after an infected document file is opened.
The minimum value and that adding 1 to the value
The minimum and maximum values, and those adding 1 to each of the values
The maximum value and that adding 1 to the value
The minimum and maximum values
Source program-analyzing function
System analysis and definition function
Automatic program generation function
State transition diagram
The cause-effect graph
The experimental design method
The software is classified into software whose specifications are fixed and do not require modification, and software whose specifications require modification. Then, for the software whose specifications require modification, the process of development, reconsideration and modification is repeated.
A large-scale application is broken down into sub-units, each of which is highly independent. Then, for each sub-unit, the process of design, programming and test is repeated, gradually expanding the development area.
N experimental product is produced in an early phase of system development, enabling the removing of ambiguities and differences in recognition between the user and development organizations.
Work is performed in the order of basic planning, external design, internal design, program design, programming and test. Therefore, with the technique, a perspective of the work as a whole is gained, making the determination of schedules and allocation of resources easier.
So-called "end-user computing," in which users by themselves build systems and have access to or process information for their own applications, is gaining support.
To cut costs or to shorten software development time, applications have been developed based on orders received rather than by use of package software.
In view of profitability, businesses have increased the degree of manufacturing internally without outsourcing systems or operations to external companies.
Widely spreading use of networks reduces the range affected by a system failure, making security management easier.