Modern Career Counseling started in the 1930s in England between the wars.
Self worth relates more to how one lives rather than where one works.
The career ethic can be described as, "find their fit and don't quit."
The ethical career counselor attempts to steer people to jobs the government has identified as having a shortage of qualified applicants.
The self-fulfillment ethic represents those who seek personal and professional growth.
Developmental theories of career counseling, such as those by Super and Gottfredson, emphasize career behavior over time.
Structured theories of career counseling, such as those by Freitag, emphasize the conceptual basis of career decision-making.
Person-environment theories, such as those by Holland and the Work Adjustment Theory, emphasize the ingredients for choosing an occupation (occupational and self-information).
Student Centrality theories emphasize the primacy of the student and their experiences during their college years.
For most people, choice of careers are randomly chosen and haphazardly pursued and influenced by parents, family, friends, and the government.
Dualism, Multiplicity, Relativism, and Commitment.
Conventional, Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, and Enterprising.
Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance, and Disengagement.
Identity confusion, comparison, tolerance, acceptance, pride, and synthesis.
Foreclosure, Diffusion, Moratorium, and Achievement.
1. Newborn, 2. Infant, 3. Baby, 4. Child, 5. Teenager, 6. Student, 7. Adult, 8. Retiree, 9. Elderly.
1-3. Child, 4-6. Adult, 7 and 8. Senior.
1. Son/daughter, 2. student, 3. Teenager, 4. Citizen, 5. Worker, 6. Spouse or partner, 7. Church-goer, 8. Parent. 9. Elderly. 10. Deceased.
1. Son/daughter, 2. student, 3. Leisurite, 4. Citizen, 5. Worker, 6. Spouse or partner, 7. Homemaker, 8. Parent. 9. Pensioner.
This is a trick question. Super only identified 7 roles.
Congruence - The degree of fit between a person's personality type and their work environment.
Assessment - a formal or informal technique for collecting data about a person.
Differentiation - The concept that a person may resemble multiple personality types or a single type may dominate.
Consistent - When a person has one dominant personality type that dwarfs all others aspects of that person's personality.
Consistency - When a person's dominant personality types are next to each other on Holland's hexagon.
Associative learning experiences can occur when a neutral stimulus is paired with a positive or negative stimulus.
SLTCDM - Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making
CTJDM - Comprehensive Theory of Job Decision Making
Career decision making is influenced by complex economic factors that a dedicated individual can overcome with family ties, support from the government, and persistent effort and reflection.
It is important to provide students with learning experiences that correct faulty assumptions, learn new skills and interests, identify effective strategies for addressing issues related to having multiple roles in life, and learn methods for coping with changing work assignments.
...cannot be planned for. Life is too random.
...is a keystone of Super's Life Span / Life Space construct.
...incorporates chance events into the career development process.
...describes getting lucky, or being in the right place at the right time. Being prepared has nothing to do with it and cannot be anticipated.
...is helped by developing a sense of curiosity, being flexible and optimistic, and willing to take risks.
...is NOT useful in addressing performance attainment or persistence at overcoming obstacles. Other theories are more useful.
...provides a conceptual framework for understanding how people develop career-related interests, make occupational choices, and achieve career success and stability.
...is rooted in the three-factor Parsonian model for making career choices and is an outmoded concept.
...is concerned with the manner in which interests, abilities, and values interrelate.
...views indecision as a desirable quality for motivating students to engage in learning activities.
Students need self knowledge, occupational knowledge, and good decision-making skills to fully participate in the career development process.
1) Pyramid of information-processing, 2) CASVE cycle of career decision-making skills, and 3) The executive processing domain.
That, while all other career development theories are valid in their own way, they are all subordinate to the primacy of CIP.
1) Career decision-making involves the interaction between cognitive and affective processes. 2) The capacity for career problem solving depends on the availability of cognitive operations and knowledge. 3) Career development is ongoing and knowledge structures continually evolve. 4) Enhancing information processing skills is the goal of career counseling.
1) Transition counseling may be one of the most needed skills in career counseling, and 2) In every decision there is the promise of gain and the threat of loss.
We are the main character of our own life.
By synthesizing our lives into a coherent whole we can see where people wronged us so we can learn to forgive them or seek revenge.
People tell themselves stories that highlight some aspects of their lives and downplay others.
By constructing our own narrative we can gain perspective and understand our decisions within the context of our entire life.
We can bring attention to ourselves and how we have succeeded or failed in life.