Academic Advising Nbr. 12 - Career Development

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Academic Advising Quizzes & Trivia

Academic advising in higher education today is a complex process requiring knowledge about the informational, relational, and conceptual components of advising. Advisors use specialized knowledge and skills to help their students achieve their educational goals while encouraging their behavioral and intellectual development. --- This quiz covers career development theories and approaches.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following are true statements?

    • A.

      Modern Career Counseling started in the 1930s in England between the wars.

    • B.

      Self worth relates more to how one lives rather than where one works.

    • C.

      The career ethic can be described as, "find their fit and don't quit."

    • D.

      The ethical career counselor attempts to steer people to jobs the government has identified as having a shortage of qualified applicants.

    • E.

      The self-fulfillment ethic represents those who seek personal and professional growth.

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Self worth relates more to how one lives rather than where one works.
    C. The career ethic can be described as, "find their fit and don't quit."
    E. The self-fulfillment ethic represents those who seek personal and professional growth.
    Explanation
    A. This is incorrect. Modern career counseling began in the early 1900s.
    D. This is incorrect.
    B.C.E. These are correct.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following are true statements?  (choose all that apply)

    • A.

      Developmental theories of career counseling, such as those by Super and Gottfredson, emphasize career behavior over time.

    • B.

      Structured theories of career counseling, such as those by Freitag, emphasize the conceptual basis of career decision-making.

    • C.

      Person-environment theories, such as those by Holland and the Work Adjustment Theory, emphasize the ingredients for choosing an occupation (occupational and self-information).

    • D.

      Student Centrality theories emphasize the primacy of the student and their experiences during their college years.

    • E.

      For most people, choice of careers are randomly chosen and haphazardly pursued and influenced by parents, family, friends, and the government.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Developmental theories of career counseling, such as those by Super and Gottfredson, emphasize career behavior over time.
    C. Person-environment theories, such as those by Holland and the Work Adjustment Theory, emphasize the ingredients for choosing an occupation (occupational and self-information).
    Explanation
    A.C. These are true statements.
    B.D.E. I made these up.

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  • 3. 

    In Donald Super's Life-Span theory he identified a series of developmental tasks related to which of the stages of growth listed below?

    • A.

      Dualism, Multiplicity, Relativism, and Commitment.

    • B.

      Conventional, Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, and Enterprising.

    • C.

      Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance, and Disengagement.

    • D.

      Identity confusion, comparison, tolerance, acceptance, pride, and synthesis.

    • E.

      Foreclosure, Diffusion, Moratorium, and Achievement.

    Correct Answer
    C. Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance, and Disengagement.
    Explanation
    A. This is from William Perry's theory of Cognitive Development.
    B. This is from John Holland's Classification system.
    C. This is the correct answer.
    D. This is from Cass's Model of Homosexual Identity Formation.
    E. This is from Marcia's Identity Development Theory and from Josselson's Theory of Identity Development in Women.

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  • 4. 

    Select the nine roles people play during their lives as identified by Super.

    • A.

      1. Newborn, 2. Infant, 3. Baby, 4. Child, 5. Teenager, 6. Student, 7. Adult, 8. Retiree, 9. Elderly.

    • B.

      1-3. Child, 4-6. Adult, 7 and 8. Senior.

    • C.

      1. Son/daughter, 2. student, 3. Teenager, 4. Citizen, 5. Worker, 6. Spouse or partner, 7. Church-goer, 8. Parent. 9. Elderly. 10. Deceased.

    • D.

      1. Son/daughter, 2. student, 3. Leisurite, 4. Citizen, 5. Worker, 6. Spouse or partner, 7. Homemaker, 8. Parent. 9. Pensioner.

    • E.

      This is a trick question. Super only identified 7 roles.

    Correct Answer
    D. 1. Son/daughter, 2. student, 3. Leisurite, 4. Citizen, 5. Worker, 6. Spouse or partner, 7. Homemaker, 8. Parent. 9. Pensioner.
    Explanation
    D. This is the correct answer.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following terms and definitions apply to Holland's theory of types and person-environment interaction? (choose all that apply)

    • A.

      Congruence - The degree of fit between a person's personality type and their work environment.

    • B.

      Assessment - a formal or informal technique for collecting data about a person.

    • C.

      Differentiation - The concept that a person may resemble multiple personality types or a single type may dominate.

    • D.

      Consistent - When a person has one dominant personality type that dwarfs all others aspects of that person's personality.

    • E.

      Consistency - When a person's dominant personality types are next to each other on Holland's hexagon.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Congruence - The degree of fit between a person's personality type and their work environment.
    C. Differentiation - The concept that a person may resemble multiple personality types or a single type may dominate.
    E. Consistency - When a person's dominant personality types are next to each other on Holland's hexagon.
    Explanation
    A.C.E. These are correct answers.
    B. This is the definition of assessment, but is not related to Holland's theory.
    D. This is just incorrect.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the below terms, phrases, or ideas are related to Krumboltz's Learning Theory of Career Counseling?

    • A.

      Associative learning experiences can occur when a neutral stimulus is paired with a positive or negative stimulus.

    • B.

      SLTCDM - Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making

    • C.

      CTJDM - Comprehensive Theory of Job Decision Making

    • D.

      Career decision making is influenced by complex economic factors that a dedicated individual can overcome with family ties, support from the government, and persistent effort and reflection.

    • E.

      It is important to provide students with learning experiences that correct faulty assumptions, learn new skills and interests, identify effective strategies for addressing issues related to having multiple roles in life, and learn methods for coping with changing work assignments.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Associative learning experiences can occur when a neutral stimulus is paired with a positive or negative stimulus.
    B. SLTCDM - Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making
    E. It is important to provide students with learning experiences that correct faulty assumptions, learn new skills and interests, identify effective strategies for addressing issues related to having multiple roles in life, and learn methods for coping with changing work assignments.
    Explanation
    A.B.E. are correct answers.
    C.D. are incorrect and not part of Krumboltz's Learning theory.

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  • 7. 

    Planned Happenstance...

    • A.

      ...cannot be planned for. Life is too random.

    • B.

      ...is a keystone of Super's Life Span / Life Space construct.

    • C.

      ...incorporates chance events into the career development process.

    • D.

      ...describes getting lucky, or being in the right place at the right time. Being prepared has nothing to do with it and cannot be anticipated.

    • E.

      ...is helped by developing a sense of curiosity, being flexible and optimistic, and willing to take risks.

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. ...incorporates chance events into the career development process.
    E. ...is helped by developing a sense of curiosity, being flexible and optimistic, and willing to take risks.
    Explanation
    A. While this is close to the truth, a person can plan to be available and ready for random events to occur.
    B. It is not.
    C. This is correct.
    D. The first part of this answer is correct, but the last sentence is not correct.
    E. This is correct.

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  • 8. 

    The Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)...

    • A.

      ...is NOT useful in addressing performance attainment or persistence at overcoming obstacles. Other theories are more useful.

    • B.

      ...provides a conceptual framework for understanding how people develop career-related interests, make occupational choices, and achieve career success and stability.

    • C.

      ...is rooted in the three-factor Parsonian model for making career choices and is an outmoded concept.

    • D.

      ...is concerned with the manner in which interests, abilities, and values interrelate.

    • E.

      ...views indecision as a desirable quality for motivating students to engage in learning activities.

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. ...provides a conceptual framework for understanding how people develop career-related interests, make occupational choices, and achieve career success and stability.
    D. ...is concerned with the manner in which interests, abilities, and values interrelate.
    Explanation
    A. The opposite is true. SCCT is useful in addressing these two factors.
    B.D. These are the correct answers.
    C. This is incorrect.
    E. This is part of Krumboltz's Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC).
    (answers are from: Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 2005)

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  • 9. 

    The assumptions underlying the Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) approach to career counseling are...

    • A.

      Students need self knowledge, occupational knowledge, and good decision-making skills to fully participate in the career development process.

    • B.

      1) Pyramid of information-processing, 2) CASVE cycle of career decision-making skills, and 3) The executive processing domain.

    • C.

      That, while all other career development theories are valid in their own way, they are all subordinate to the primacy of CIP.

    • D.

      1) Career decision-making involves the interaction between cognitive and affective processes. 2) The capacity for career problem solving depends on the availability of cognitive operations and knowledge. 3) Career development is ongoing and knowledge structures continually evolve. 4) Enhancing information processing skills is the goal of career counseling.

    • E.

      1) Transition counseling may be one of the most needed skills in career counseling, and 2) In every decision there is the promise of gain and the threat of loss.

    Correct Answer
    D. 1) Career decision-making involves the interaction between cognitive and affective processes. 2) The capacity for career problem solving depends on the availability of cognitive operations and knowledge. 3) Career development is ongoing and knowledge structures continually evolve. 4) Enhancing information processing skills is the goal of career counseling.
    Explanation
    A. These are important, but not part of CIP.
    B. These 3 items are 3 dimensions of CIP, but are not assumptions.
    C. I made up this one.
    D. This is the correct answer (from: Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 2005)
    E. The first statement is from Hansen's Integrative Life Planning model. The second is from Brown's Value-based, Holistic Model of Career and Life-Role Choices and Satisfaction.
    (from: Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 2005)

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  • 10. 

    Which of the below statements pertain to a narrative approach to career counseling? (Select all that apply)

    • A.

      We are the main character of our own life.

    • B.

      By synthesizing our lives into a coherent whole we can see where people wronged us so we can learn to forgive them or seek revenge.

    • C.

      People tell themselves stories that highlight some aspects of their lives and downplay others.

    • D.

      By constructing our own narrative we can gain perspective and understand our decisions within the context of our entire life.

    • E.

      We can bring attention to ourselves and how we have succeeded or failed in life.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. We are the main character of our own life.
    C. People tell themselves stories that highlight some aspects of their lives and downplay others.
    D. By constructing our own narrative we can gain perspective and understand our decisions within the context of our entire life.
    Explanation
    A. C. D. These are correct answers.
    B. Forgiveness is good, but not explicitly part of the narrative approach.
    E. This is not the goal of the narrative approach.

    Rate this question:

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 23, 2008
    Quiz Created by
    Academic_Advisor
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