Community, ecosystem, individual, population
Ecosystem, community, population, individual
Population, ecosystem, individual, community
Individual, population, community, ecosystem
Individual, community, population, ecosystem
Nutrient availability, soil pH
Light intensity, seasonality
Descending air masses tend to be cool and dry.
Trade winds have a little moisture.
Water is heavier than air and is not carried far over land.
Ascending air tends to be moist.
These locations get the most intense solar radiation of any location on Earth
Warm, less dense water layered at the top
Cold, more dense water layered at the bottom
A distinct thermocline between less dense warm water and cold, dense water
The density of water changes as seasonal temperatures change
Currents generated by nektonic animals
Autumn and spring.
Autumn and winter.
Spring and summer.
Summer and winter.
Summer and autumn.
Global air circulation
Global wind patterns
Changes in Earth's distance from the sun
The tilt of Earth's axis
Summers and winters in the United States would likely become warmer and colder, respectively.
Winters and summers in Australia would likely become less distinct seasons.
Seasonal variation at the equator might decrease.
Both northern and southern hemispheres would experience summer and winter at the same time.
Both poles would experience massive ice melts.
There is more ice at the poles.
Sunlight strikes the poles at an lower angle.
The poles are farther from the sun.
The poles have a thicker atmosphere.
The poles are permanently tilted away from the sun.
Rising, warm, moist air masses cool and release precipitation as they rise and then at high altitude, cool and sink back to the surface as dry air masses after moving north or south of the tropics.
Air masses that are dried and heated over continental areas that rise, cool aloft, and descend over oceanic areas followed by a return flow of moist air from ocean to land delivering high amounts of precipitation to coastal areas.
Polar, cool, moist high pressure air masses from the poles that move along the surface, releasing precipitation along the way to the equator where they are heated and dried.
The revolution of the Earth around the sun.
Mountain ranges that deflect air masses containing variable amounts of moisture.
An oligotrophic lake
An eutrophic lake
A relatively shallow lake
A nutrient-rich lake
A lake with consistently warm temperatures
Wind and ocean water current patterns
Proximity to large bodies of water
Day length of rainfall
Tundra and boreal forest
Chaparral and savanna
Desert and savanna
Tropical forest and temperate deciduous forest
Grassland and tundra
Oligotrophic lakes are more subject to oxygen depletion.
Rates of photosynthesis are lower in eutrophic lakes.
Eutrophic lake water contains lower concentrations of nutrients.
Eutrophic lakes are richer in nutrients.
Sediments in oligotrophic lakes contain larger amounts of decomposable organic matter.
I and II only
II and III only
I, II, and III
Producers and decomposers.
Producers, primary consumers, and decomposers.
Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers.
Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, top carnivores, and decomposers.
All of the brook trout in a river drainage system.
The plants, animals, and decomposers that inhabit an alpine meadow.
A pond and all of the plant and animal species that live in it.
The intricate interactions of the various plant and animal species on a savanna during a drought.
Interactions between all of the organisms and their physical environment in a tropical rain forest.
They recycle chemical elements directly back to primary consumers.
They synthesize organic molecules that are used by primary producers.
They convert organic materials from all trophic levels to inorganic compounds usable by primary producers.
They secrete enzymes that convert the organic molecules of detritus into CO2 and H2O.
Some species are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic.
Secondary consumers and top carnivores require less energy than producers.
At each step, energy is lost from the system as a result of keeping the organisms alive.
As matter passes through ecosystems, some of it is lost to the environment.
Biomagnification of toxic materials limits the secondary consumers and top carnivores.
Top carnivores and secondary consumers have a more general diet than primary producers.
Many primary and higher-order consumers are opportunistic feeders.
Decomposers compete with higher-order consumers for nutrients and energy.
Nutrient cycles involve both abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems.
Nutrient cycling rates tend to be limited by decomposition.
Energy transfer between tropic levels is in almost all cases less than 20% efficient.
Depletion of atmospheric ozone