Lymphatic System (Exam Mode) By Rnpedia.Com

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Lymphatic System (Exam Mode) By Rnpedia.Com - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not directly associated with the lymphatic pathway? 

    • A.

      Lymphatic trunk

    • B.

      Collecting duct

    • C.

      Subclavian vein

    • D.

      Carotid arteries

    Correct Answer
    D. Carotid arteries
    Explanation
    The lymphatic pathway is a network of vessels and organs that helps to transport lymph fluid throughout the body. Lymphatic trunks and collecting ducts are key components of this pathway, as they collect and transport lymph fluid. The subclavian vein is also directly associated with the lymphatic pathway, as it is where the lymph fluid is returned to the bloodstream. However, the carotid arteries are not directly associated with the lymphatic pathway. The carotid arteries are responsible for supplying blood to the head and neck, but they do not play a role in the transport of lymph fluid.

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  • 2. 

    The thymus is responsible for secreting _____ from epithelial cells. 

    • A.

      Thymosin

    • B.

      Growth hormone

    • C.

      Macrophages

    • D.

      Plasma cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Thymosin
    Explanation
    The thymus is responsible for secreting thymosin from epithelial cells. Thymosin is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of T cells, which are a type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. Thymosin helps regulate the production and differentiation of T cells, ensuring that they develop into functional immune cells capable of recognizing and attacking foreign substances in the body.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following types of cytokines is responsible for the growth and maturation of B cells? 

    • A.

      Interleukin-1

    • B.

      Interleukin-2

    • C.

      Interleukin-4

    • D.

      Interleukin-7

    Correct Answer
    C. Interleukin-4
    Explanation
    Interleukin-4 is responsible for the growth and maturation of B cells. Cytokines are small proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Interleukin-4 specifically stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of B cells, promoting their maturation into antibody-producing plasma cells. It also enhances the production of immunoglobulins, which are essential for the immune response. Therefore, Interleukin-4 is the correct answer for this question.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following types of immunoglobulins is the most responsible for promoting allergic reactions? 

    • A.

      IgA

    • B.

      IgM

    • C.

      IgD

    • D.

      IgE

    Correct Answer
    D. IgE
    Explanation
    IgE is the correct answer because it is the immunoglobulin that is primarily involved in promoting allergic reactions. When a person is exposed to an allergen, such as pollen or pet dander, their immune system produces IgE antibodies. These antibodies then bind to mast cells and basophils, which release histamine and other chemicals that cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, sneezing, and inflammation. IgE is also involved in the development of asthma and other allergic diseases.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following types of immunoglobulins is located on the surface of most B-lymphocytes? 

    • A.

      IgA

    • B.

      IgM

    • C.

      IgD

    • D.

      IgE

    Correct Answer
    C. IgD
    Explanation
    IgD is located on the surface of most B-lymphocytes.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following types of immunoglobulins does not cross the barrier between mother and infant in the womb? 

    • A.

      IgA

    • B.

      IgM

    • C.

      IgD

    • D.

      IgE

    Correct Answer
    A. IgA
    Explanation
    During pregnancy, IgG is the only immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta and provide passive immunity to the fetus. IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE do not cross the placental barrier.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease? 

    • A.

      Graves disease

    • B.

      Myasthenia gravis

    • C.

      Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    • D.

      Alzheimer's disease

    Correct Answer
    D. Alzheimer's disease
    Explanation
    Alzheimer's disease is not an autoimmune disease because it is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body, but Alzheimer's disease is not caused by an immune system dysfunction. Instead, it is associated with the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the brain, leading to the death of brain cells and the subsequent decline in cognitive abilities.

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  • 8. 

    T-cell activation requires a/an _______ cell. 

    • A.

      Activation

    • B.

      Accessory

    • C.

      Plasma

    • D.

      Helper

    Correct Answer
    B. Accessory
    Explanation
    T-cell activation requires an accessory cell. Accessory cells, such as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), play a crucial role in the activation of T-cells by presenting antigens to them. These antigens are recognized by the T-cell receptor, leading to T-cell activation and the initiation of an immune response. Accessory cells provide the necessary signals and co-stimulation to activate T-cells effectively.

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  • 9. 

    The thymus is located with the _______. 

    • A.

      Mediastinum

    • B.

      Peristinum

    • C.

      Epistinum

    • D.

      Endostinum

    Correct Answer
    A. Mediastinum
    Explanation
    The thymus is a gland located in the mediastinum, which is the central region of the chest between the lungs. It is responsible for the development and maturation of T-cells, which play a crucial role in the immune system. The other options (Peristinum, Epistinum, and Endostinum) are not anatomical terms and are not related to the location of the thymus gland.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following statements is false regarding the spleen? 

    • A.

      Divided up into lobules

    • B.

      Similar to a large lymph node

    • C.

      Contains macrophages

    • D.

      Limited blood within the lobules

    Correct Answer
    D. Limited blood within the lobules
    Explanation
    The spleen is not limited in terms of blood supply within the lobules. In fact, the spleen is highly vascularized and receives a large amount of blood flow. It acts as a filter for the blood, removing old or damaged red blood cells and pathogens. The spleen also contains macrophages, which are immune cells that help in the removal of foreign substances and cellular debris. Additionally, the spleen is similar to a large lymph node in terms of its function in the immune system.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is not considered a central location of lymph nodes? 

    • A.

      Cervical

    • B.

      Axillary

    • C.

      Inguinal

    • D.

      Tibial

    Correct Answer
    D. Tibial
    Explanation
    The tibial location is not considered a central location of lymph nodes. The cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions are known to have clusters of lymph nodes, which play a crucial role in filtering and trapping harmful substances. However, the tibial region is not typically associated with a high concentration of lymph nodes.

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  • 12. 

    Lymphocytes that reach the thymus become _____. 

    • A.

      T-cells

    • B.

      B-cells

    • C.

      Plasma cells

    • D.

      Beta cells

    Correct Answer
    A. T-cells
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes that reach the thymus undergo a process of maturation and differentiation, resulting in the development of T-cells. T-cells are a type of lymphocyte that play a crucial role in the immune response, recognizing and attacking foreign substances in the body. The thymus is an important organ for T-cell development, and it is where lymphocytes go to become T-cells. Therefore, the correct answer is T-cells.

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  • 13. 

    Lymphocytes that do not reach the thymus become _____. 

    • A.

      T-cells

    • B.

      B-cells

    • C.

      Plasma cells

    • D.

      Beta cells

    Correct Answer
    B. B-cells
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes that do not reach the thymus become B-cells. The thymus is an organ located in the chest that plays a crucial role in the development of T-cells, which are a type of lymphocyte involved in cell-mediated immune responses. Lymphocytes that do not undergo maturation in the thymus differentiate into B-cells instead. B-cells are responsible for producing antibodies and are involved in the humoral immune response.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is associated with a B cell deficiency? 

    • A.

      Job's syndrome

    • B.

      Chronic granulomatous disease

    • C.

      Bruton's agammaglobulinemia

    • D.

      Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    Correct Answer
    C. Bruton's agammaglobulinemia
    Explanation
    Bruton's agammaglobulinemia is associated with a B cell deficiency. This condition is characterized by a lack of mature B cells, leading to a deficiency in antibody production. It is an X-linked genetic disorder that primarily affects males. Patients with Bruton's agammaglobulinemia are more susceptible to recurrent bacterial infections, as their immune system is unable to mount an effective antibody response. Other options listed, such as Job's syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, are associated with different immune deficiencies or dysfunctions, but not specifically with B cell deficiencies.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is the autoantibody for systemic lupus? 

    • A.

      Anti-microsomal

    • B.

      Antinuclear antibodies

    • C.

      Anti-gliadin

    • D.

      Anti-histone

    Correct Answer
    B. Antinuclear antibodies
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Antinuclear antibodies. Antinuclear antibodies are autoantibodies that target components within the nucleus of cells. These antibodies are commonly found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation and the production of autoantibodies. The presence of antinuclear antibodies is a key diagnostic marker for SLE, as they can be detected using various laboratory tests such as indirect immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These antibodies can target different nuclear components, including DNA, histones, and other nuclear proteins, leading to tissue damage and the characteristic symptoms of SLE.

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  • 16. 

    The TB skin test is an example of ______. 

    • A.

      Delayed hypersensitivity

    • B.

      Serum sickness

    • C.

      Cytotoxic reaction

    • D.

      Arthus reaction

    Correct Answer
    A. Delayed hypersensitivity
    Explanation
    The TB skin test is an example of delayed hypersensitivity because it involves the injection of a small amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) into the skin. This stimulates an immune response that takes time to develop and is characterized by the infiltration of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, into the site of injection. This delayed response is a hallmark of delayed hypersensitivity reactions, which typically occur 24 to 72 hours after exposure to an antigen.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following types of cytokines is secreted by macrophages? 

    • A.

      IL-1

    • B.

      IL-2

    • C.

      IL-3

    • D.

      IL-4

    Correct Answer
    A. IL-1
    Explanation
    Macrophages are immune cells that play a crucial role in the immune response by engulfing and destroying pathogens. IL-1, also known as Interleukin-1, is a type of cytokine that is secreted by macrophages. IL-1 helps in promoting inflammation, activating other immune cells, and regulating the immune response. It plays a significant role in the body's defense against infections and in the development of various immune-mediated diseases.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following types of immunoglobulins binds complement? 

    • A.

      IgA

    • B.

      IgD

    • C.

      IgE

    • D.

      IgG

    Correct Answer
    D. IgG
    Explanation
    IgG is the correct answer because it is the only immunoglobulin that can bind complement. Complement is a group of proteins that help enhance the immune response by promoting inflammation, attracting immune cells, and destroying pathogens. IgG antibodies can activate the complement system by binding to specific antigens on the surface of pathogens, triggering a cascade of reactions that lead to the destruction of the pathogen. IgA, IgD, and IgE do not have the ability to bind complement.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is a key component of cytotoxic T cells? 

    • A.

      CD2

    • B.

      CD4

    • C.

      CD8

    • D.

      CD10

    Correct Answer
    C. CD8
    Explanation
    CD8 is a key component of cytotoxic T cells. CD8 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the recognition of antigens presented by MHC class I molecules on infected or cancerous cells. CD8 binds to the MHC class I molecule, which facilitates the activation of cytotoxic T cells and the subsequent killing of target cells. CD2, CD4, and CD10 are not specifically associated with cytotoxic T cells and have different functions in the immune system.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is not a primary target group of T cells? 

    • A.

      Viruses

    • B.

      Toxins

    • C.

      Fungi

    • D.

      TB

    Correct Answer
    B. Toxins
    Explanation
    T cells are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune response. They are primarily responsible for targeting and destroying infected cells, cancer cells, and foreign substances. While T cells can target viruses, fungi, and tuberculosis (TB) bacteria, they do not directly target toxins. Toxins are harmful substances produced by certain bacteria, plants, or animals, and they are typically neutralized by other components of the immune system, such as antibodies or specialized cells called macrophages. Therefore, toxins are not a primary target group of T cells.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 29, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    RNpedia.com
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