1.
From when is dated the Ishongo bone?
Correct Answer
B. 20,000 BC
Explanation
The Ishango bone is a mathematical artifact that is believed to have been created around 20,000 BC. It was discovered in the Ishango region of what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. The bone is engraved with a series of notches and markings that are thought to represent a primitive form of counting or tallying system. This makes it one of the oldest known examples of mathematical notation. The age of the bone is determined through various dating techniques and archaeological evidence.
2.
Who invented the first numerical system?
Correct Answer
A. The Sumerians
Explanation
The Sumerians invented the first numerical system. They were an ancient civilization that existed in Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq, around 3000 BCE. The Sumerians developed a base-60 numerical system known as the sexagesimal system, which is still used today for measuring time and angles. They also introduced the concept of place value, where the value of a digit depends on its position in a number. This numerical system was a significant advancement in mathematics and laid the foundation for future developments in mathematics and science.
3.
Who do we owe the first decimal system to?
Correct Answer
B. The Egyptians
Explanation
The Egyptians are credited with developing the first decimal system. They used a hieroglyphic system that included symbols for counting up to nine, and then repeated these symbols to represent larger numbers. This system laid the foundation for the modern decimal system we use today, where each digit's value is determined by its position in the number. The Egyptians' decimal system was a significant advancement in mathematics and had a lasting impact on the development of numerical systems worldwide.
4.
Which civilization used the first decimal ratios?
Correct Answer
C. The Indus valley civilization
Explanation
The Indus valley civilization is believed to have used the first decimal ratios. This ancient civilization, which thrived in the Indus River valley around 2500 BCE, had a highly advanced and organized system of weights and measures. Archaeological findings suggest that they used a decimal system for measurement, with units such as the cubit and the brick size based on multiples of 10. This indicates a sophisticated understanding and application of decimal ratios, making the Indus valley civilization the likely answer to this question.
5.
Where was the Shu Square invented?
Correct Answer
A. In China
Explanation
The Shu Square was invented in China.
6.
Where are Brahmi numerals from?
Correct Answer
A. India
Explanation
Brahmi numerals are from India.
7.
Which civilization invented the abacus?
Correct Answer
B. The Babylonians
Explanation
The Babylonians invented the abacus. The abacus was a counting tool used for mathematical calculations. The Babylonians were known for their advanced knowledge in mathematics and their contributions to the field. They developed the abacus as a way to perform calculations more efficiently, making it an important invention in the history of mathematics.
8.
Who are credited with being the first ones to use the number "0"?
Correct Answer
C. The late Olmecs
Explanation
The late Olmecs are credited with being the first ones to use the number "0". The Olmec civilization, which existed in Mesoamerica from approximately 1400 BCE to 400 BCE, made significant advancements in mathematics and developed a sophisticated numeral system that included the concept of zero. This innovation in mathematics had a profound impact on subsequent civilizations in the region, including the Mayans, who further developed and utilized the concept of zero in their own mathematical and astronomical systems.
9.
Which civilization created the positional notation base-10 numeral system?
Correct Answer
B. India
Explanation
India is the correct answer because it is widely accepted that the positional notation base-10 numeral system, also known as the decimal system, was developed in ancient India. This system revolutionized mathematics by introducing the concept of place value, where the value of a digit depends on its position in the number. The Indian mathematician Aryabhata is credited with the earliest known use of this system in the 5th century. The decimal system later spread to other civilizations, but its origins can be traced back to India.
10.
In what year did John Napier discusses the Napierian logarithms?
Correct Answer
A. In 1614
Explanation
John Napier discussed the Napierian logarithms in 1614.