What Do You Know About Myology?

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What Do You Know About Myology? - Quiz

In medicine and medical sciences, myology deals with understanding the scientific ins and outs of the muscular system, which encompasses the study of the structure, function, disorders, and diseases of the muscular system and the corresponding tissues and supporting structures.
Meanwhile, the disorders and diseases can also be related to the nervous system and other systems of the body.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these is shortened during a skeletal muscle contraction? 

    • A. 

      A-band

    • B. 

      Z-disc

    • C. 

      Actin filament

    • D. 

      Sarcomere

    Correct Answer
    D. Sarcomere
    Explanation
    During a skeletal muscle contraction, the sarcomere is shortened. The sarcomere is the basic unit of contraction in a muscle, consisting of overlapping actin and myosin filaments. When the muscle contracts, the actin and myosin filaments slide past each other, causing the sarcomere to shorten. This shortening of the sarcomere is what ultimately leads to the shortening of the entire muscle and the generation of force.

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  • 2. 

    Which of these is common with visceral smooth muscles? 

    • A. 

      They are found in the Iris

    • B. 

      They are mainly controlled by nervous stimulus

    • C. 

      They contract when overstretched

    • D. 

      They are composed of individual muscle fibers

    Correct Answer
    C. They contract when overstretched
    Explanation
    Visceral smooth muscles are commonly found in organs such as the intestines, blood vessels, and uterus. They are mainly controlled by the autonomic nervous system and respond to nervous stimuli. However, the correct answer is that they contract when overstretched. This is known as the stress-relaxation response, where the muscle initially contracts when stretched but then relaxes to maintain its original length. This allows the organs to accommodate changes in volume or pressure without tearing or damage.

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  • 3. 

    Which of these is true about skeletal muscle contraction? 

    • A. 

      The Sarcomere shortens during contraction

    • B. 

      The Sarcomere elongates during contraction

    • C. 

      Actin and myosin filaments shorten when it contracts

    • D. 

      Actin shortens while myosin elongates during contraction

    Correct Answer
    A. The Sarcomere shortens during contraction
    Explanation
    During skeletal muscle contraction, the sarcomere, which is the basic functional unit of a muscle, shortens. This is because the actin and myosin filaments within the sarcomere slide past each other, causing the sarcomere to contract. The actin and myosin filaments themselves do not shorten or elongate, but rather overlap and slide, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomere.

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  • 4. 

    Which of these is not a reason why a visceral muscle differs from a skeletal muscle? 

    • A. 

      It contracts when stretched

    • B. 

      It contains no actin or myosin

    • C. 

      Its cells have unstable resting membrane potentials

    • D. 

      It is not paralyzed when its motor nerve supply is cut

    Correct Answer
    B. It contains no actin or myosin
    Explanation
    Visceral muscles and skeletal muscles differ in several ways. One of the reasons is that visceral muscles contract when stretched, whereas skeletal muscles do not. Another reason is that the cells of visceral muscles have unstable resting membrane potentials, which is not the case for skeletal muscles. Additionally, when the motor nerve supply is cut, visceral muscles are not paralyzed, unlike skeletal muscles. However, the fact that visceral muscles contain no actin or myosin is not a reason why they differ from skeletal muscles.

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  • 5. 

    Which of these does not reduce a muscle tone? 

    • A. 

      Curare-like drugs

    • B. 

      Cerebellar lesions

    • C. 

      Upper motor neuron lesions

    • D. 

      Cerebellar lesions

    Correct Answer
    C. Upper motor neuron lesions
    Explanation
    Upper motor neuron lesions do not reduce muscle tone. Upper motor neurons are responsible for transmitting signals from the brain to the spinal cord and muscles, and they play a role in maintaining muscle tone. When these neurons are damaged or lesioned, it can lead to increased muscle tone or spasticity rather than reducing it.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is not a component of the thin filament?

    • A. 

      Myosin

    • B. 

      Troponin

    • C. 

      Tropomyosin

    • D. 

      Actin

    Correct Answer
    A. Myosin
    Explanation
    Myosin is not a component of the thin filament. The thin filament is primarily composed of actin, which forms the main structure of the filament. Troponin and tropomyosin are regulatory proteins that are associated with actin and help regulate muscle contraction. Myosin, on the other hand, is a thick filament protein that interacts with actin during muscle contraction. Therefore, myosin is not a component of the thin filament.

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  • 7. 

    What connects a muscle to a bone? 

    • A. 

      Ligaments

    • B. 

      Tendons

    • C. 

      Fibers

    • D. 

      Veins

    Correct Answer
    B. Tendons
    Explanation
    Tendons connect muscles to bones. They are strong, fibrous tissues that attach muscles to bones, allowing for movement and transmitting the force generated by the muscles to the bones. Ligaments, on the other hand, connect bones to other bones and provide stability to joints. Fibers and veins do not have a direct connection to muscles and bones.

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  • 8. 

    What group of muscles does the heart belong to? 

    • A. 

      Voluntary muscles

    • B. 

      Involuntary muscles

    • C. 

      Premeditated muscles

    • D. 

      Reflexive muscles

    Correct Answer
    B. Involuntary muscles
    Explanation
    The heart belongs to the group of involuntary muscles. Involuntary muscles are not under conscious control and function automatically. The heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body, and its contractions are regulated by the autonomic nervous system, without any conscious effort or control.

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  • 9. 

    Which of these is another name for a Synapse? 

    • A. 

      Tendon junction

    • B. 

      Cartilage junction

    • C. 

      Neuromuscular junction

    • D. 

      Ligaments junction

    Correct Answer
    C. Neuromuscular junction
    Explanation
    A synapse is a specialized junction between two nerve cells, where signals are transmitted. The options "tendon junction," "cartilage junction," and "ligaments junction" do not accurately describe a synapse. The correct answer, "neuromuscular junction," refers to the synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber, where the signal is transmitted from the nerve cell to the muscle, resulting in muscle contraction.

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  • 10. 

    Which type of muscles control the flow of substances in the lumen? 

    • A. 

      Smooth muscles

    • B. 

      Skeletal muscles

    • C. 

      Hormonal systems

    • D. 

      Visceral muscles

    Correct Answer
    A. Smooth muscles
    Explanation
    Smooth muscles are responsible for controlling the flow of substances in the lumen. Smooth muscles are found in the walls of various organs and structures, including blood vessels, digestive tract, and urinary system. They are involuntary muscles, meaning they are not under conscious control. Smooth muscles contract and relax to regulate the movement of substances, such as blood, food, and urine, through the lumen of these organs. This allows for the proper functioning and coordination of various bodily processes.

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