# How Well Do You Know Inductive Reasoning?

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The opposite of deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning and has been a proven standard for the test of reasoning logical skills. Inductive reasoning is sometimes referred to as bottom-up logic.

• 1.

### Inductive reasoning starts with a?

• A.

Postulate

• B.

Question

• C.

Statement

• D.

Conclusion

D. Conclusion
Explanation
Inductive reasoning starts with a conclusion because it is a form of reasoning that involves making generalizations based on specific observations or evidence. In this process, one begins with specific instances and then draws a broader conclusion or generalization based on those instances. The conclusion acts as the starting point for the reasoning process, from which the individual then looks for patterns or connections to form a hypothesis or theory. Therefore, the correct answer is "conclusion".

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• 2.

### Inductive reasoning is also known as...

• A.

Conclusion management

• B.

Hypothesis construction

• C.

Inference

• D.

Inductivity

B. Hypothesis construction
Explanation
Inductive reasoning involves drawing general conclusions based on specific observations or examples. It is the process of constructing hypotheses or generalizations from limited information. This involves making educated guesses or predictions about future events based on past experiences or patterns. Therefore, the term "Hypothesis construction" accurately describes the process of inductive reasoning.

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• 3.

### The classic philosophical treatment of the problem of induction was given by the Scottish philosopher...

• A.

Karl Friedrich

• B.

David Hume

• C.

Thomas John

• D.

J Ayer

B. David Hume
Explanation
David Hume is the correct answer because he is widely known for his influential work on the problem of induction. Hume argued that induction, the process of reasoning from observed instances to general conclusions, cannot be justified rationally. He highlighted the problem of induction by questioning the assumption that the future will resemble the past based on past experiences. Hume's skepticism towards induction has had a significant impact on the philosophy of science and continues to be a topic of debate and discussion.

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• 4.

### One of these is a critic of inductive reasoning?

• A.

Ian Pope

• B.

John Lacke

• C.

Karl Popper

• D.

Thomas Hobbes

C. Karl Popper
Explanation
Karl Popper is a critic of inductive reasoning. He argued that inductive reasoning, which involves making generalizations based on specific observations or examples, is not a valid method for establishing scientific knowledge. Popper believed that scientific theories should be subject to rigorous testing and falsification, rather than relying on inductive reasoning to support their validity. He proposed the concept of falsifiability, which states that a scientific theory should be able to be proven false through empirical evidence. This critique of inductive reasoning has had a significant impact on the philosophy of science.

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• 5.

### A generalization proceeds from a premise to a...

• A.

Statement

• B.

Sample

• C.

Conclusion

• D.

Induction

C. Conclusion
Explanation
A generalization proceeds from a premise to a conclusion. It is a process of drawing a broad statement or idea based on specific instances or evidence. The premise serves as the starting point or evidence, and from there, a conclusion is derived. This conclusion is a general statement that applies to a larger group or situation beyond the specific instances mentioned in the premise. Generalizations help to simplify complex information and make broader claims based on the available evidence.

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• 6.

### Which of these is a generalization fallacy?

• A.

Biased sample

• B.

Induction

• C.

Inference

• D.

Statement

A. Biased sample
Explanation
A generalization fallacy occurs when a conclusion is drawn about a whole group based on a biased or unrepresentative sample. Biased sample is the correct answer as it refers to the error of making generalizations about a population based on a sample that is not representative of the whole group. This fallacy ignores the diversity and variations within the population, leading to inaccurate or misleading conclusions.

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• 7.

### Who created the Theory of Universal Inductive Inference?

• A.

Thomas John

• B.

Ray Solomonoff

• C.

Ray Druff

• D.

John Locke

B. Ray Solomonoff
Explanation
Ray Solomonoff is credited with creating the Theory of Universal Inductive Inference. This theory is a mathematical framework that deals with making predictions based on limited data. It aims to provide a formal method for generalizing from specific instances to general rules or patterns. Solomonoff's work in this field laid the foundation for modern machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms that are based on probabilistic reasoning and Bayesian inference.

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• 8.

### In which year was the Theory of Universal Inductive Inference founded?

• A.

1980

• B.

1988

• C.

1999

• D.

1960

D. 1960
Explanation
The Theory of Universal Inductive Inference was founded in 1960.

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• 9.

### Which of these is an element of the theory of universal inductive inference?

• A.

Algorithmic probability

• B.

Generalization

• C.

Inference

• D.

Inductive inference

A. Algorithmic probability
Explanation
Algorithmic probability is an element of the theory of universal inductive inference. This theory aims to find a general method for making predictions based on limited data. Algorithmic probability is a measure of the likelihood of a particular outcome occurring based on a specific algorithm. It provides a framework for determining the probability of different events or hypotheses given the available data. By incorporating algorithmic probability into inductive inference, it becomes possible to make more accurate predictions and generalize from limited observations.

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• 10.

### One of the skeptics of inductive reasoning include...

• A.

John Lowe

• B.

William Shakespeare

• C.

Sextus Empiricus

• D.

Aristotle

C. Sextus Empiricus
Explanation
Sextus Empiricus is one of the skeptics of inductive reasoning. He was a Greek philosopher who belonged to the Pyrrhonist school of skepticism. Sextus Empiricus argued that knowledge cannot be attained through inductive reasoning because it is based on subjective experiences and perceptions, which can vary from person to person. He believed that we should suspend judgment on all matters and refrain from making any claims about the nature of reality. Sextus Empiricus' skepticism challenges the reliability and validity of inductive reasoning, making him a notable critic of this method.

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