1.
Who is the creator of Ashtekar variables?
Correct Answer
A. Abhay Ashtekar
Explanation
Abhay Ashtekar is the creator of Ashtekar variables. These variables are a set of mathematical quantities used in loop quantum gravity, a theory that attempts to reconcile general relativity with quantum mechanics. Ashtekar developed these variables in the late 1980s as a new formulation of general relativity that allowed for a more precise description of the geometry of spacetime at the quantum level. His work has had a significant impact on the field of theoretical physics and has contributed to our understanding of the fundamental nature of the universe.
2.
When did Abhay Ashtekar introduced a Ashtekar variables?
Correct Answer
B. 1986
Explanation
Abhay Ashtekar introduced Ashtekar variables in 1986.
3.
What did Ashtekar variables provide?
Correct Answer
C. The connection representation of canonical general relativity
Explanation
Ashtekar variables provide the connection representation of canonical general relativity. This means that they provide a mathematical framework for describing the fundamental equations of general relativity in terms of connections, which represent the curvature of spacetime. This representation is useful for studying the dynamics of gravity and understanding the behavior of spacetime in the presence of matter and energy.
4.
Who was able to use the generalization of Ashtekar's formalism to real connections and in particular devise a way of simplifying the original Hamiltonian?
Correct Answer
D. Thomas Thiemann
Explanation
Thomas Thiemann was able to use the generalization of Ashtekar's formalism to real connections and devise a way of simplifying the original Hamiltonian.
5.
What does Smooth Lorentzian metrics gab (with signature −,+,+,+) constitute?
Correct Answer
A. The basic mathematical variables of general relativity
Explanation
Smooth Lorentzian metrics gab (with signature -,+,+,+) constitute the basic mathematical variables of general relativity. These metrics describe the geometry of spacetime in the theory of general relativity, which is a theory of gravity. The signature -,+,+,+ indicates that there is one negative and three positive eigenvalues in the metric tensor, corresponding to one dimension of time and three dimensions of space. Therefore, smooth Lorentzian metrics gab are fundamental in understanding the gravitational interactions and dynamics of spacetime.
6.
What is the "Loop quantum gravity"?
Correct Answer
A. Theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity
Explanation
Loop quantum gravity is a theory that attempts to merge quantum mechanics and general relativity in order to provide a theory of quantum gravity. It is an alternative approach to quantizing the canonical formulation of general relativity. This theory does not unify all consistent versions of superstring theory, so the correct answer is the theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.
7.
What did Abhay Ashtekar reformulate in 1986.?
Correct Answer
C. Einstein's general relativity
Explanation
In 1986, Abhay Ashtekar reformulated Einstein's general relativity. This means that he made modifications or changes to the theory of general relativity proposed by Albert Einstein. It is important to note that Newton's first law and the Higgs mechanism are unrelated to Ashtekar's reformulation of general relativity. Therefore, the correct answer is Einstein's general relativity.
8.
Who of this scientists is not in the Loop quantum cosmology field of study?
Correct Answer
D. Edwin Hubble
Explanation
Edwin Hubble is not in the Loop quantum cosmology field of study. Loop quantum cosmology is a branch of theoretical physics that combines loop quantum gravity and cosmology to understand the early universe. Martin Bojowald, Jerzy Lewandowski, and Carlo Rovelli are all scientists who have made significant contributions to the field of loop quantum cosmology. However, Edwin Hubble was an American astronomer who is best known for his observations that demonstrated the expansion of the universe, but he did not work specifically in the field of loop quantum cosmology.
9.
With which theory does Loop quantum gravity competes?
Correct Answer
B. Renormalization theory
Explanation
Loop quantum gravity and string theory are both contenders for a theory of quantum gravity. While loop quantum gravity is based on the principles of general relativity and seeks to quantize spacetime itself, string theory proposes that fundamental particles are actually tiny vibrating strings. Renormalization theory, on the other hand, is a mathematical technique used to remove infinities that arise in quantum field theories. It does not directly compete with loop quantum gravity as a theory of quantum gravity, but rather provides a mathematical framework for addressing certain issues in quantum field theories. Therefore, the correct answer is Renormalization theory.
10.
When was Abhay Vasant Ashtekar born?
Correct Answer
C. 1949
Explanation
Abhay Vasant Ashtekar was born in 1949.