1.
What defines a trajectory as hyperbolic in celestial mechanics?
Correct Answer
B. Energy is positive.
Explanation
Energy is positive. In celestial mechanics, a trajectory is considered hyperbolic when the total mechanical energy of the system is positive. This occurs when the kinetic energy of the object exceeds the potential energy due to gravity, allowing the object to escape the gravitational influence of the larger body. In the case of a hyperbolic trajectory, the object follows a path that does not form a closed orbit but instead extends to infinity, as the object possesses sufficient energy to overcome the gravitational attraction and move away from the central body without returning. Hyperbolic trajectories are important in space exploration and astronomy, as they can be observed in scenarios such as comets passing through our solar system or spacecraft performing flyby maneuvers around planets.
2.
What is the shape of the path followed by an object on a hyperbolic trajectory relative to the celestial body it is escaping?
Correct Answer
C. Hyperbolic
Explanation
Hyperbolic. The path followed by an object on a hyperbolic trajectory relative to the celestial body it is escaping is in the shape of a hyperbola. This open curve resembles a stretched ellipse, with two distinct branches that extend to infinity. The hyperbolic path is a result of the object having excess kinetic energy compared to the gravitational potential energy binding it to the celestial body. As the object moves away from the body, its velocity remains greater than the escape velocity, allowing it to continue on an escape trajectory and never return to the vicinity of the celestial body. Hyperbolic trajectories are studied in celestial mechanics, astrophysics, and aerospace engineering to understand the motion of objects in space and to plan interplanetary missions that require a spacecraft to escape the gravitational influence of a planet or moon.
3.
Which parameter determines the openness of a hyperbolic trajectory?
Correct Answer
C. Eccentricity
Explanation
Eccentricity. The openness of a hyperbolic trajectory is determined by its eccentricity. Eccentricity is a parameter that describes the shape of a conic section, such as an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola. For hyperbolas, eccentricity (e) is greater than 1 (e > 1). A larger eccentricity corresponds to a more open and less curved hyperbolic trajectory, meaning that the object will move away from the central body more rapidly and follow a path closer to a straight line. In celestial mechanics, the eccentricity of a hyperbolic trajectory is a crucial factor in understanding the behavior of objects on escape trajectories, such as comets passing through our solar system or spacecraft leaving the gravitational influence of a planet.
4.
In a hyperbolic trajectory, how does the velocity at infinity compare to the escape velocity at that distance?
Correct Answer
A. Greater
Explanation
Greater. In a hyperbolic trajectory, the velocity at infinity is greater than the escape velocity at that distance. The velocity at infinity refers to the limiting value of the object's velocity as it moves infinitely far away from the celestial body it is escaping. Since the object on a hyperbolic trajectory possesses excess kinetic energy compared to its gravitational potential energy, its velocity remains higher than the escape velocity throughout its journey. This allows the object to escape the gravitational influence of the celestial body and continue moving away without being pulled back or entering a closed orbit. The difference between the velocity at infinity and the escape velocity is a measure of the additional kinetic energy the object carries as it travels along its hyperbolic path, which determines how quickly it moves away from the celestial body and the openness of its trajectory.
5.
What role does the specific orbital energy play in determining the type of trajectory?
Correct Answer
C. Determines type of orbit
Explanation
Determines type of orbit. The specific orbital energy, which is the sum of an object's kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy per unit mass, plays a crucial role in determining the type of orbit it follows.In celestial mechanics, the specific orbital energy can be positive, negative, or zero. This value determines whether the object will follow an elliptical, parabolic, or hyperbolic trajectory around a celestial body.1. If the specific orbital energy is negative, the object will follow a closed elliptical orbit, where it is gravitationally bound to the central body and will periodically return to its initial position.2. If the specific orbital energy is zero, the object will follow a parabolic trajectory, where it has just enough energy to escape the gravitational influence of the celestial body but will not return.3. If the specific orbital energy is positive, the object will follow a hyperbolic trajectory, where it possesses excess energy and will move away from the celestial body without returning.Therefore, the specific orbital energy is essential in understanding and categorizing the motion of objects in space.
6.
What is the trajectory of a spacecraft using a gravity assist maneuver to escape the solar system likely to be?
Correct Answer
D. Hyperbolic
Explanation
Hyperbolic. A spacecraft using a gravity assist maneuver to escape the solar system is likely to follow a hyperbolic trajectory. In a gravity assist maneuver, the spacecraft approaches a celestial body, such as a planet, and uses its gravitational pull to change direction and gain velocity without expending additional fuel or energy. By carefully planning the approach and flyby trajectory, the spacecraft can gain enough kinetic energy to exceed the escape velocity of the celestial body and even that of the solar system. This excess kinetic energy results in a hyperbolic trajectory, where the spacecraft moves away from the celestial body and eventually escapes the gravitational influence of the solar system, allowing it to venture into interstellar space. Hyperbolic trajectories and gravity assist maneuvers are crucial for space exploration and have been used in missions like Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 to gain enough velocity to study the outer planets and travel beyond our solar system.
7.
If a comet passes the sun with a speed greater than the local escape velocity, which path will it follow?
Correct Answer
C. Hyperbolic
Explanation
Hyperbolic. If a comet passes the Sun with a speed greater than the local escape velocity, it will follow a hyperbolic path. The excess speed of the comet provides it with more kinetic energy than the gravitational binding energy between it and the Sun, allowing it to escape the Sun's gravitational influence. As a result, the comet will follow a hyperbolic trajectory, where it approaches the Sun, swings around it, and then continues to move away, never to return. This type of trajectory is characteristic of many long-period comets that originate from the Oort Cloud or even interstellar space, making a single pass through our solar system before heading back into the vast expanse of interstellar space. In contrast, short-period comets that have lower speeds relative to the Sun typically follow elliptical orbits and return periodically, creating opportunities for multiple observations and scientific study.
8.
Which force law is used to derive the equations governing hyperbolic trajectories?
Correct Answer
B. Newton's law of universal gravitation
Explanation
Newton's law of universal gravitation. The equations governing hyperbolic trajectories can be derived using Newton's law of universal gravitation. This law states that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.Mathematically, it is expressed as:F = G (m1 * m2) / r^2where F is the gravitational force between two masses (m1 and m2), r is the distance between their centers, and G is the gravitational constant.By combining this law with Newton's second law of motion, which relates force, mass, and acceleration, it is possible to derive the equations describing the motion of objects following hyperbolic trajectories under the influence of gravity. These equations are essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of celestial bodies, spacecraft, and other objects moving through space.
9.
How does the hyperbolic excess velocity affect the trajectory of a passing celestial body?
Correct Answer
D. Determines the asymptotic speed
Explanation
Determines the asymptotic speed. The hyperbolic excess velocity, also known as the excess velocity, has a direct impact on the trajectory of a passing celestial body by determining its asymptotic speed. The excess velocity is the difference between the velocity of the object at a given point on its trajectory and the local escape velocity at that point. In the case of a hyperbolic trajectory, the excess velocity is positive, indicating that the object has more kinetic energy than the gravitational binding energy between it and the central body. This excess velocity is responsible for the object's ability to escape the gravitational influence of the central body, and it also determines the asymptotic speed of the object, which is the limiting speed it reaches as it moves infinitely far away. A higher excess velocity results in a more open hyperbolic trajectory and a greater asymptotic speed, while a lower excess velocity leads to a narrower hyperbola and a smaller asymptotic speed. Thus, the hyperbolic excess velocity plays a crucial role in shaping the path of celestial bodies passing through our solar system or other gravitational systems.
10.
What is the angle between the asymptotes of a hyperbolic trajectory known as?
Correct Answer
D. Angle of deflection
Explanation
Angle of deflection. The angle between the asymptotes of a hyperbolic trajectory is referred to as the angle of deflection. This angle is a characteristic parameter of hyperbolic trajectories, which are followed by objects that have excess kinetic energy compared to the gravitational potential energy between them and the central body. The asymptotes of a hyperbola represent the straight lines that the trajectory approaches as it extends to infinity. The angle of deflection, measured between these asymptotes, provides a way to describe the shape and orientation of the hyperbolic path. In gravitational slingshot maneuvers used by spacecraft for velocity boosts, the angle of deflection is a crucial factor in determining the change in the spacecraft's trajectory and the resulting increase in speed.