Biology 101-09 Practice Questions

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Biology Quizzes & Trivia
Purdue University Calumet Biology 101-09 Practice Final Exam Questions

  
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  • 1. 
    A major function of the mitochondrial inner membrane is the conversion of energy from electrons to the stored energy of the phosphate bond in ATP. To accomplish this function, this membrane must have all of the following features except
    • A. 

      Proteins to accept electrons from NADH

    • B. 

      The electron transport chain of proteins.

    • C. 

      High permeability to protons

    • D. 

      Proton pumps embedded in the membrane

    • E. 

      Integral, transverse ATP synthase


  • 2. 
    In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from
    • A. 

      The stroma into the thylakoid compartment

    • B. 

      The light reactions to the Calvin cycle

    • C. 

      The matrix to the stroma

    • D. 

      The stroma to the chlorophyll

    • E. 

      The intermembrane space to the matrix


  • 3. 
    The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law?
    • A. 

      The energy content of an organism is constant

    • B. 

      Organisms are unable to transform energy

    • C. 

      Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics

    • D. 

      The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity

    • E. 

      The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment


  • 4. 
    Consider the following: Succinic acid dehydrogenase catalyzes the reaction of succinic acid to fumaric acid. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles succinic acid by cannot be catalyzed by succinic dehydrogenase. Increasing the ratio of succinic acid to malonic acid reduces the inhibitory effect of malonic acid. Which of the following is correct?
    • A. 

      Succinic acid dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and fumaric acid is the substrate

    • B. 

      Fumaric acid is the product and malonic acid is a non competitive inhibitor

    • C. 

      Succinic acid dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and malonic acid is the substrate

    • D. 

      Malonic acid is the product, and fumaric acid is a competitive inhibitor

    • E. 

      Succinic acid is the substrate, and fumaric acid is the product


  • 5. 
    The next questions are based on the following information. A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X→Y→Z→A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.Substance A functions as
    • A. 

      A coenzyme

    • B. 

      An intermediate

    • C. 

      A competitive inhibitor

    • D. 

      The substrate

    • E. 

      An allosteric inhibitor


  • 6. 
    Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be
    • A. 

      To test for CO2 fixation in the dark

    • B. 

      To determine if they have thylakoids in the chloroplasts

    • C. 

      To test for production of either sucrose or starch

    • D. 

      To test for liberation of O2 in the light

    • E. 

      To do experiments to generate an action spectrum


  • 7. 
    Use the following information to answer the question below. Thomas Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments to algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.An outcome of this experiment was to help determine
    • A. 

      The relationship between heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms

    • B. 

      The relationship between wavelengths of light and the rate of aerobic respiration

    • C. 

      The relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide and the rate of photosynthesis

    • D. 

      The relationship between wavelengths of light and the oxygen released during photosynthesis

    • E. 

      The relationship between wavelengths of light and the amount of heat released


  • 8. 
    Correct statements regarding ATP includeI. ATP serves as a main energy shuttle inside cells.II. ATP drives endergonic reaction in the cell by the enzymatic transfer of the phosphate group to specific reactants.III. The regeneration of ATP from ADP and phosphate is an endergonic reaction
    • A. 

      I only

    • B. 

      II only

    • C. 

      III only

    • D. 

      I and III only

    • E. 

      I, II, and III


  • 9. 
    Because bundle-sheath cells are relatively protected from atmospheric oxygen, the level of __________ is held to a minimum in C4 plants.
    • A. 

      Photosynthesis

    • B. 

      Photorespiration

    • C. 

      Glycolysis

    • D. 

      Decarboxylation of malic acid

    • E. 

      Oxidative phosphorylation


  • 10. 
    The question below is based on the stages of glucose oxidation listed below.A. stage I: glycolysisB. stage II: oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoAC. stage III: Krebs cycleD. stage IV: oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)Carbon dioxide is release during which stage(s)?
    • A. 

      Stage III only

    • B. 

      Stages III and IV

    • C. 

      Stages I, II, and III

    • D. 

      Stages II and III

    • E. 

      Stages II, III, and IV


  • 11. 
    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?
    • A. 

      Fermentation and glycolysis

    • B. 

      Glycolysis and the oxidation of pyrubate to acetyl CoA

    • C. 

      The citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

    • D. 

      Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

    • E. 

      Oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation


  • 12. 
    Which of the following statements regarding events in the functioning of photosystem II is false?
    • A. 

      The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water

    • B. 

      The excitation is pased along to a molecule of P680 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit

    • C. 

      The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+

    • D. 

      Light energy excites electrons in an antenna pigment in a photosynthetic unit

    • E. 

      The splitting of water yields molecular oxygen as a by-product


  • 13. 
    CAM plants can keep stomates closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they
    • A. 

      Use the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which outcompetes rubisco for CO2

    • B. 

      Fix CO2 into organic acids during the night

    • C. 

      Fix CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells

    • D. 

      Use photosystems I and II at night

    • E. 

      Fix CO2 into pyruvic acid in the mesophyll cells


  • 14. 
    A young relative of yours has never had much energy. He goes to a doctor for help and is sent to the hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of his condition>
    • A. 

      His cells contain something that inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria

    • B. 

      His cells cannot move NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria

    • C. 

      His cells have a defective electron transport chain, so glucose goes to lactate instead of to acetyl CoA

    • D. 

      His cells lack the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate

    • E. 

      His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane


  • 15. 
    The electron transport chain energy is used to pump H+ ions into which location?
    • A. 

      Cytosol

    • B. 

      Mitochondrial outer membrane

    • C. 

      Mitochondrial inner membrane

    • D. 

      Mitochondrial intermembrance space

    • E. 

      Mitochondrial matrix


  • 16. 
    Chemical equilibrium is relatively rare in living cells. Which of the following could be an example of a reaction at chemical equilibrium in a cell?
    • A. 

      A chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are only used in a metabolic pathway that is completely inactive

    • B. 

      An endergonic reaction in a active metabolic pathway where the energy for that reaction is supplied only by heat from the environment

    • C. 

      A chemical reaction in which the entropy change in the reaction is just balanced by an opposite entropy change in the cell's surroundings

    • D. 

      A reaction in which the free energy at equilibrium is higher than the energy content at any point away from equilibrium

    • E. 

      There is no possibility of having chemical equilibrium in any living cell


  • 17. 
    All of the following statements are true except:
    • A. 

      Thylakoid membranes contain the photosynthetic pigments

    • B. 

      The O2 released during photosynthesis comes from water

    • C. 

      Glyceraldehyde phosphate is produced only in the light reactions of photosynthesis

    • D. 

      When chlorophyll is reduced, it gains electrons

    • E. 

      The light reactions of photosynthesis provide the energy for the Calvin cycle


  • 18. 
    Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?
    • A. 

      The reduction of NADP+

    • B. 

      The synthesis of ATP

    • C. 

      The flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I

    • D. 

      The splitting of water

    • E. 

      The absorption of light energy by chlorophyll


  • 19. 
    All of the following statements are representative of the second law of thermodynamics except
    • A. 

      Systems tend to rearrange themselves toward greater entropy

    • B. 

      Every time energy changes form, there is a decrease in entropy

    • C. 

      Highly organized systems require energy for their maintenance

    • D. 

      Energy transfers are always accompanied by some loss

    • E. 

      Heat energy represents lost energy to most systems


  • 20. 
    All of the following statements are correct regarding the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis except:
    • A. 

      One of the end products is glyceraldehyde phosphate

    • B. 

      The 5-carbon sugar RuBP is constantly being regenerated

    • C. 

      These reactions begin soon after sundown and end before sunrise

    • D. 

      The energy source utilized is the ATP and NADPH obtained through the light reaction


  • 21. 
    A new flower species has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are not being absorbed by this pigment?
    • A. 

      Green and yellow

    • B. 

      Blue, green, and red

    • C. 

      Blue and violet

    • D. 

      Red and yellow

    • E. 

      Green, blue and violet


  • 22. 
    During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?
    • A. 

      Food→NADH→electron transport chain→oxygen

    • B. 

      Food→Krebs cycle→ATP→NAD+

    • C. 

      Food→glycolysis→Krebs cycle→NADH→ATP

    • D. 

      Glucose→ATP→oxygen

    • E. 

      Glucose→ATP→electron transport chain→NADH


  • 23. 
    ATP is often an allosteric inhibitor of key enzymes in catabolic pathways. Which of the following statements in inconsistent with the role of ATP?
    • A. 

      When ATP Levels are low in the cell, there is no inhibition of the catabolic pathway and ATP production is at a maximum

    • B. 

      Increasing availability of ATP increases the energy available to drive endergonic reactions

    • C. 

      When ATP levels are high in the cell, it is an indication that energy supply from catabolic reactions exceeds energy demand by anabolic reactions

    • D. 

      The binding of ATP to allosteric sites on enzymes of the catabolic pathway decreases the production of ATP by the pathway.

    • E. 

      ATP couples energy prodcution in catabolic pathways to energy demand in anabolic pathways.


  • 24. 
    Muscle cells in oxygen deprivation convert pyruvate to ________ and in this step gain
    • A. 

      Lactate...ATP

    • B. 

      Alcohol...ATP

    • C. 

      Lactate...NAD+

    • D. 

      Alcohol...CO2

    • E. 

      ATP...NAD+


  • 25. 
    Which of the following is true regarding catabolic pathways?
    • A. 

      They lead to the synthesis of catabolic compounds

    • B. 

      They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers

    • C. 

      They release energy as the degrade polymers to monomers

    • D. 

      They do not depend on enzymes

    • E. 

      Both A and B are correct


  • 26. 
    In an experiment studying photosynthesis performed during the day, you provide a plant with radioactive carbon (14C) dioxide as a metabolic tracer. The 14C is incorporated first into oxaloacetic acid. The plant is best characterized as a
    • A. 

      C3 plant

    • B. 

      CAM plant

    • C. 

      Chemoautotroph

    • D. 

      Heterotroph

    • E. 

      C4 plant


  • 27. 
    Phosphofructokinase is an important control enzyme. All of the following statements concerning this enzyme are true except:
    • A. 

      It is activated by APM

    • B. 

      It is activated by citrate

    • C. 

      It is inhibited by ATP

    • D. 

      It is a coordinator of the processes of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

    • E. 

      It is an allosteric enzyme


  • 28. 
    An organism is discovered that consumes a considerable amount of sugar, yet does not gain much weight when denied air. Curiously, the consumption of sugar increases as air is removed from the organism's environment, but the organism seems to thrive even in the absence of air. When returned to normal air, the organism does fine. Which of the following best describes the organism?
    • A. 

      It is a facultative anaerobe

    • B. 

      It mus use a molecule other than oxygen to accept electrons from the electron transport chain

    • C. 

      It is a normal eukaryotic organism

    • D. 

      It is an anaerobic organism

    • E. 

      The organism obviously lacks the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain


  • 29. 
    Which of the following is not considered to be a wear molecular interaction?
    • A. 

      Covalent bond

    • B. 

      Van der Waals interactions

    • C. 

      Both A and C are correct

    • D. 

      Hydrogen bond

    • E. 

      Ionic bond in the presence of water


  • 30. 
    Collecting data based on observation is an example of ________; analyzing this data to reach a conclusion is an example of __________ reasoning.
    • A. 

      Hypothesis-based science; inductive

    • B. 

      Hypothesis-based science; deductive

    • C. 

      Descriptive science; deductive

    • D. 

      The process of science; deductive

    • E. 

      Discovery science; inductive


  • 31. 
    What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?
    • A. 

      Covalent bonds involve the sharing of protons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve the sharing of neutrons between atoms.

    • B. 

      Covalent bonds involve the sharing of protons between atoms, and iconic bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms.

    • C. 

      Covalent bonds involve the transfer of electrons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve the sharing of neutrons between atoms.

    • D. 

      Covalent bonds involve the sharing of neutrons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms.

    • E. 

      Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between atoms.


  • 32. 
    If atom 6x (atomic number 6) were allowed to react with hydrogen, the molecule formed would be
    • A. 

      H-X-H I H

    • B. 

      H I H-X-H I H

    • C. 

      H-X-H

    • D. 

      H=X=H

    • E. 

      X-H


  • 33. 
    All of the following statements are part of Charles Darwin's concept of natural selection except:
    • A. 

      Most individuals in a species do not survive to reproduce

    • B. 

      Every organism has the potential to produce more offspring than the local environment can support

    • C. 

      Better adapted members of a species will survive and reproduce more successfully

    • D. 

      Slight inheritable variations within a population may make an individual significantly more or less likely to survive in its environment, and thus to reproduce

    • E. 

      Characteristics of organisms are inherited as genes on chromosomes


  • 34. 
    The atomic number of carbon is 6. 14C is heavier than 12C because the atomic nucleus of 14C contains
    • A. 

      Seven protons and seven neutrons

    • B. 

      Six protons and eight neutrons

    • C. 

      Six protons and seven neutrons

    • D. 

      Six protons and six neutrons

    • E. 

      Eight protons and six neutrons


  • 35. 
    The ionic bond of sodium chloride is formed when
    • A. 

      Sodium and chlorine share an electron pair

    • B. 

      Chlorine gains a proton from sodium

    • C. 

      Sodium and chlorine both lose electrons from their outer valence shells

    • D. 

      Sodium gains an electron from chlorine

    • E. 

      Chlorine gains an electron from sodium


  • 36. 
    Evolution is biology's core theme that ties together all the other themes. This is because evolution
    • A. 

      Explains the unity and diversity of life

    • B. 

      Explains why some organisms have traits in common

    • C. 

      Explains why distantly related organisms sometimes resemble each other

    • D. 

      Explains how organisms become adapted to their environment through the differential reproductive success of varying individuals

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 37. 
    When blood glucose levels rise, the pancreas secretes insulin and as a result blood glucose levels decline. When blood glucose levels are low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and as a result blood glucose levels rise.Such regulation of blood glucose levels is an example of:
    • A. 

      A feedforward mechanism

    • B. 

      Positive feedback

    • C. 

      Negative feedback

    • D. 

      Feedback inhibition

    • E. 

      Both C and D


  • 38. 
    Which of these is a correct representation of the hierarchy of biological organization from least to most complex?
    • A. 

      Organelle of an intestinal cell, digestive system, small intestine, large intestine, intestinal tissue, organism

    • B. 

      Organelle of a stomach cell, digestive system, large intestine, small intestine, intestinal tissue, organism

    • C. 

      Molecule, small intestine, large intestine, intestinal tissue, digestive system, organism

    • D. 

      Molecule, digestive system, digestive cell organelle, small intestine, large intestine, intestinal cell, organism

    • E. 

      Molecule, intestinal cell organelle, intestinal cell, intestinal tissue, digestive system, organism


  • 39. 
    Who first names and described cells in 1665
    • A. 

      Charles Darwin

    • B. 

      Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

    • C. 

      Robert Hooke

    • D. 

      Theodor Schwann

    • E. 

      Matthias Schleiden


  • 40. 
    Van der Waals interactions result when?
    • A. 

      Electrons are not symmetrically distributed in a molecule

    • B. 

      A hydrogen atoms loses an electron

    • C. 

      Molecules held by ionic bond react with water

    • D. 

      Hybrid orbitals overlap

    • E. 

      Two polar covalent bonds react


  • 41. 
    In a hypothetical world, every 50 years people over 6 feet tall are eliminated from the population. Based on your knowledge of natural selection, you would predict that the average height of the human population will
    • A. 

      Gradually increase

    • B. 

      Rapidly increase

    • C. 

      Gradually decline

    • D. 

      Remain unchanged

    • E. 

      Rapidly decline


  • 42. 
    The dynamics of any ecosystem include the following major processes:
    • A. 

      The flow of energy from sunlight to producers and then to consumers

    • B. 

      The flow of energy from sunlight to producers and then to consumers, and the recycling of chemical nutrients

    • C. 

      The flow of energy from sunlight to producers

    • D. 

      The recycling of chemical nutrients

    • E. 

      The flow of energy to producers and the recycling of nutrients


  • 43. 
    Why is it important that an experiment include a control group?
    • A. 

      A control group assures that an experiment will be repeatable

    • B. 

      The control group provides a reserve of experimental subjects

    • C. 

      The control group is the group that the researcher is in control of; it is the group in which the researcher predetermines the nature of the results

    • D. 

      Without the control group, there is no basis for knowing if a particular result is due to the variable being tested or to some other factor

    • E. 

      A control group is required for the development of an "if...then" statement


  • 44. 
    Which of the following best describes the relationship between the atoms described below?    Atom 1                    Atom 2        1                               3          H                              H        1                               1
    • A. 

      They are ions

    • B. 

      They are isomers

    • C. 

      They are isotopes

    • D. 

      They are polymers

    • E. 

      They are both radioactive


  • 45. 
    Which of the following properties or processes do we associate with living things?
    • A. 

      Energy processing

    • B. 

      Growth and reproduction

    • C. 

      Evolutionary adaptations

    • D. 

      Responding to the environment

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 46. 
    Three or four of the following statements are true and correct. Which one, if any,is false?
    • A. 

      The trace element iodine is required only in very small quantities by vertebrates

    • B. 

      Iron is an example of an element needed by all organisms

    • C. 

      Virtually all organisms require the same elements in the same quantities

    • D. 

      Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up approximately 96% of living matter

    • E. 

      All of the statements are true and correct


  • 47. 
    Which property of the carbon atom gives it compatibility with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom?
    • A. 

      Carbon has 6 to 8 neutrons

    • B. 

      Carbon forms ionic bonds

    • C. 

      Carbon has a valence of 4

    • D. 

      A and C only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C


  • 48. 
    Which of the following statements in completely correct?
    • A. 

      NH3 is a weak base, and HCL is a strong acid

    • B. 

      H2CO3 is a weak acid, and NaOH is a weak base

    • C. 

      NH3 is a weak base, and H2CO3 is a strong acid

    • D. 

      NH3 is a strong base, and HCL is a weak acid

    • E. 

      H2CO3 is a strong acid, and NaOH is a strong base


  • 49. 
    Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
    • A. 

      Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta glycosidic linkages of cellulose

    • B. 

      The monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose

    • C. 

      Humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract

    • D. 

      Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the beta glycosidic linkages of starch but not the alpha glycosidic linkages of cellulose

    • E. 

      The monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is maltose


  • 50. 
    Research suggests that side effects from Ritalin, the drug used to treat attention deficit disorder, may be caused by contamination of enantiomers, or molecules that
    • A. 

      Differ in the electrical charge

    • B. 

      Differ in the location of their double bonds

    • C. 

      Lack an asymmetric carbon

    • D. 

      Are mirror images of one another

    • E. 

      Have identical three-dimensional shapes


  • 51. 
    Upon chemical analysis a particular protein was found to contain 556 amino acids. How many peptide bonds are present in this protein?
    • A. 

      558

    • B. 

      554

    • C. 

      139

    • D. 

      555

    • E. 

      556


  • 52. 
    The concept of vitalism is based on a belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws. According to this belief, organic compounds can arise only within living organisms. Which of the following did the most to refute the concept of vitalism?
    • A. 

      Kolbe's synthesis of acetic acid

    • B. 

      Wöhler's synthesis of urea

    • C. 

      Miller's experiments with ancient atmospheres

    • D. 

      Rodriguez's studies of phytochemicals

    • E. 

      Berzelius's distinction between organic and inorganic compounds


  • 53. 
    What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?
    • A. 

      Ionic bonds

    • B. 

      Phosphodiester bonds

    • C. 

      Hydrogen bonds

    • D. 

      Peptide bonds

    • E. 

      Disulfide bonds


  • 54. 
    If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the
    • A. 

      Concentration of OH- is 100 times less than what is was a pH 5

    • B. 

      Concentration of H+ is 2 times greater than what it was at pH 5

    • C. 

      Concentration of OH- is 100 times greater than what is was at pH5

    • D. 

      Concentration of H+ is 100 times greater and the concentration of OH- is 100 times less than what they were at pH 5

    • E. 

      Concentration of H+ is 2 times less than what it was at pH 5


  • 55. 
    Polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are similar in that they
    • A. 

      Are synthesized as a result of peptide bond formation between monomers

    • B. 

      Are synthesized from monomers by the process of hydrolysis

    • C. 

      All contain nitrogen in their monomer building blocks

    • D. 

      Are decomposed into their subunits by dehydration reactions

    • E. 

      Are synthesized from monomers by dehydration reactions


  • 56. 
    A double-stranded DNA molecule contains a total of 120 purines and 120 pyrimidines. This DNA molecule could be composed of
    • A. 

      120 thymine and 120 adenine molecules

    • B. 

      120 adenine and 120 uracil molecules

    • C. 

      240 adenine and 240 cytosine molecules

    • D. 

      240 guanine and 240 thymine molecules

    • E. 

      120 cytosine and 120 thymine molecules


  • 57. 
    An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between
    • A. 

      The two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas (H2)

    • B. 

      The H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule

    • C. 

      Mg+ and Cl- in MgCl2

    • D. 

      C and H in methane (CH4)

    • E. 

      Na+ and Cl- in salt


  • 58. 
    The hydrogenation of vegetable oil would result in which of the following?
    • A. 

      A decrease in the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil (fat) molecules

    • B. 

      The oil (fat) being a solid at room temperature

    • C. 

      An increase in the number of hydrogen atoms in the oil (fat) molecule

    • D. 

      A and C only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C


  • 59. 
    How many structural isomers are possible for a substance having the molecular formula C5H12?
    • A. 

      11

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      2

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      3


  • 60. 
    Consider a pohysaccharide consisting of 576 glucose molecules. The total hydrolysis of the poly saccharide would result in the production of
    • A. 

      576 glucose molecules

    • B. 

      575 glucose molecules

    • C. 

      575 water molecules

    • D. 

      A and B only

    • E. 

      B and C only


  • 61. 
    Which of the following statements is (are) true about the phosphate ion?
    • A. 

      It is negatively charged

    • B. 

      It has acid properties

    • C. 

      it is hydrophobic

    • D. 

      Only A and B are true

    • E. 

      A, B and C are true


  • 62. 
    Which of the following is a correct definition of a kilocalorie?
    • A. 

      The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1º F

    • B. 

      The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1,000 g of water by 1º F

    • C. 

      The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1ºC

    • D. 

      The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1º F

    • E. 

      The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1º C


  • 63. 
    A new organism is discovered in the forests of Costa Rica. Scientists there determine that the polypeptide sequence of hemoglobin from the new organism has 72 different amino acid differences from humans, 65 differences from a gibbon, 49 differences from a rat, and 5 differences from a frog. This data suggests that the new organism
    • A. 

      Is more closely related to frogs than to humans

    • B. 

      Is more closely related to humans than frogs

    • C. 

      Is more closely related to humans than to rats

    • D. 

      May have evolved from gibbons but not rats

    • E. 

      May have evolved from rats but not from humans and gibbons


  • 64. 
    Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are
    • A. 

      Nonpolar substances that have an attraction for water molecules

    • B. 

      Charged molecules that hydrogen-bond with wiater molecules

    • C. 

      Polar substances that repel water molecules

    • D. 

      Nonpolar substances that repel water molecules

    • E. 

      Polar substances that have an affinity for water


  • 65. 
    Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage living organisms by
    • A. 

      Washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients for plant growth

    • B. 

      Increasing the OH- concentration of lakes and streams

    • C. 

      Decreasing the H+ concentration of lakes and streams

    • D. 

      Buffering aquatic systems such as lakes and streams

    • E. 

      Both B and C


  • 66. 
    The molecular mass of glucose (C6H12O6) is 180g. To make a 0.5 M solution of glucose, you should do which of the following
    • A. 

      Dissolve 180 g of glucose in 1 L of water

    • B. 

      Dissolve 0.5 g of glucose in 1 L of water

    • C. 

      Dissolve 180 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of the solution in 1 L

    • D. 

      Dissolve 90 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of solution is 1 L

    • E. 

      Dissolve 0.5 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of solution is 1 L


  • 67. 
    What is the term used for a change in a protein's three-dimensional shape or conformation due to disruption of hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, or ionic bonds?
    • A. 

      Renaturation

    • B. 

      Denaturation

    • C. 

      Destabilization

    • D. 

      Stabilization

    • E. 

      Hydrolysis


  • 68. 
    The difference between the sugar in DNA and the sugar in RNA is that the sugar in DNA
    • A. 

      Can attach to a phosphate

    • B. 

      Has a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms

    • C. 

      Contains one less oxygen atom

    • D. 

      Is a six-carbon sugar and the sugar in RNA is a five-carbon sugar

    • E. 

      Can form a double-stranded molecule


  • 69. 
    Altering which of the following levels of structural organization could change the function of a protein?
    • A. 

      Primary

    • B. 

      Tertiary

    • C. 

      Secondary

    • D. 

      Quaternary

    • E. 

      All of these


  • 70. 
    Why does ice float in liquid water?
    • A. 

      Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice further apart than the water molecules of liquid water

    • B. 

      Ice always has air bubble that keep it afloat

    • C. 

      The ionic bonds between the molecule in ice prevent the ice from sinking

    • D. 

      The liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the ice

    • E. 

      The crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water


  • 71. 
    Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
    • A. 

      Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers

    • B. 

      Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis

    • C. 

      Hydrolysis only occurs in the urinary system, and dehydration reactions only occur in the digestive system

    • D. 

      A and C are correct


  • 72. 
    Which of the following is possible due to the high surface tension of water?
    • A. 

      Water can act as a solvent

    • B. 

      Water striders can walk across the surface of a small pond

    • C. 

      Organisms resist temperature changes, although they give off heat due to chemical reactions

    • D. 

      Lakes don't freeze solid in winter, despite low temperatures

    • E. 

      The pH of water remains exactly neutral


  • 73. 
    One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid is a weak acid that when placed in an aqueous solution dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+). Thus,H2CO3 ⇔ HCO3- + H+If the pH of the blood increases, one would expect
    • A. 

      A decrease in the concentration of HC03- and an increase in the concentration of both H2CO3 and H2O

    • B. 

      An increase in the concentration of H2CO3 and a decrease in the concentration of H2O

    • C. 

      An increase in the concentration of HCO3- and a decrease in the concentration of H2O

    • D. 

      A decrease in the concentration of H2CO3 and an increase in the concentration of H2O

    • E. 

      A decrease in the concentration of HCO3- and an increase in the concentration of H2O


  • 74. 
    Which of the following would there be the greatest need for osmoregulation?
    • A. 

      A red blood cell surrounded by plasma

    • B. 

      A lymphocyte before it has been take back into the lymph fluid

    • C. 

      A terrestrial animal such as a snake

    • D. 

      An animal connective tissue cell bathed in isotonic body fluid

    • E. 

      A plant being grown hydroponically (in a watery mixture of designated nutrients)


  • 75. 
    Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large and complex lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this?
    • A. 

      The Golgi apparatus

    • B. 

      Mitochondria

    • C. 

      The endoplasmic reticulum

    • D. 

      The membrane bound ribosomes

    • E. 

      The lysosome


  • 76. 
    The movement of potassium into an animal cell requires
    • A. 

      An energy source such as ATP or a proton gradient

    • B. 

      A co transport protein

    • C. 

      High cellular concentrations of potassium

    • D. 

      Low cellular concentrations of sodium

    • E. 

      A gradient of protons across the plasma membrane


  • 77. 
    Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells?
    • A. 

      The need for a surface area of sufficient area to allow the cell's function

    • B. 

      The evolution of larger cells after the evolution of smaller cells

    • C. 

      The observation that longer cells ususally have greater volume

    • D. 

      The difference in plasma membranes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    • E. 

      The evolution of eukaryotes after the evolution of prokaryotes


  • 78. 
    Of the following functions, which is most important for the glycoproteins and glycolipids of animal cell membranes?
    • A. 

      Active transport of molecules against their concentration gradients

    • B. 

      A cell's ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another

    • C. 

      Maintaining membrane fluidity at low temperatures

    • D. 

      Maintaining the integrity of a fluid mosaic membrane

    • E. 

      Facilitated diffusion of molecules down their concentration gradients


  • 79. 
    An organism with a cell wall would have the most difficulty doing which process?
    • A. 

      Osmosis

    • B. 

      Active transport

    • C. 

      Diffusion

    • D. 

      Phygocytosis

    • E. 

      Facilitated diffusion


  • 80. 
    Which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes?
    • A. 

      Golgi apparatus

    • B. 

      Lysosome

    • C. 

      Vacuole

    • D. 

      Mitochondrion

    • E. 

      Peroxisome


  • 81. 
    Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is true?
    • A. 

      Transport vesicles among the membranes of the endomembrane system produce the cytoskeleton

    • B. 

      Microfilaments are structurally rigid and resist compression,while microtubules resist tension (stretching)

    • C. 

      Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other

    • D. 

      Chemicals that block the assembly of the cytoskeleton would cause little effect on the cell's metabolism

    • E. 

      The dynamic aspect of cytoskeletal function is made possible by the assembly and disassembly of a large number of complex proteins into larger aggregates


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