The Persian and Byzantine empires were weak.
They formed alliances with Germanic tribes.
Sunnis and Shiites put aside their differences to unite.
They used gunpowder and cannons to defeat enemies.
Muslims didn't make goods valued in international trade.
Muslims didn't want to trade because they wanted to avoid on-Muslims.
Muslim handicrafts were generally organized by guilds
Merchants were not respected in Muslim society.
They wanted to get good government jobs.
They were cunningly manipulated against their indigenous culture.
They were threatened with death if they didn't.
They wanted to get out of the non-Muslim tax.
Human figures are not allowed in religious art.
Secular art was not permitted at all.
Islamic beliefs were not reflected in Muslim art.
Paintings on canvas were the only art form available.
The Ottomans thought the Safavids were heretics.
The Safavids tried to convert Ottomans to Hinduism.
The Ottomans helped the Safavids' enemies.
The Safavids tried to take over the Ottoman silk trade.
His teachings would disrupt their trade.
His system of law would discriminate against them.
He worshipped many gods, not just one god.
The angel didn't really appear to him at all.
Died and was buried in a splendid tomb.
Organized the first community of Muslims.
Rededicated the Kaaba to Allah.
Received the revelation of the Sharia.