Thyroid/Parathyroid Quiz

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| By Mn.clark124
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Mn.clark124
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Quizzes Created: 6 | Total Attempts: 4,186
Questions: 43 | Attempts: 1,858

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Thyroid/Parathyroid Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following transducers would be appropriate for evaluation of the thyroid gland and neck on average patient?

    • A.

      7.5 MHz curvilinear

    • B.

      5 MHz phased array

    • C.

      5 MHz linear array

    • D.

      12 MHz linear array

    Correct Answer
    D. 12 MHz linear array
    Explanation
    The 12 MHz linear array transducer would be appropriate for evaluation of the thyroid gland and neck on an average patient because it has a higher frequency (12 MHz) compared to the other transducers listed. Higher frequency transducers provide better resolution and are ideal for superficial structures like the thyroid gland and neck. The linear array design allows for a wider field of view, which is beneficial for evaluating larger areas such as the neck.

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  • 2. 

    The thyroid and parathyroid are both what?

    • A.

      Endocrine glands

    • B.

      Exocrine glands

    • C.

      Sebaceous glands

    • D.

      Apocrine glands

    Correct Answer
    A. Endocrine glands
    Explanation
    The thyroid and parathyroid glands are both endocrine glands. Endocrine glands are responsible for producing and releasing hormones directly into the bloodstream. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone, which helps regulate calcium levels in the body. These glands do not have ducts and their secretions are released directly into the bloodstream, distinguishing them from exocrine glands. Sebaceous glands are responsible for producing sebum, an oily substance that lubricates the skin, while apocrine glands are responsible for producing sweat.

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  • 3. 

    What is the main function of the thyroid gland?

    • A.

      The production of calcium

    • B.

      The storage of fats and vitamins

    • C.

      Regulation of the BMR

    • D.

      Production of antibodies

    Correct Answer
    C. Regulation of the BMR
    Explanation
    The main function of the thyroid gland is to regulate the basal metabolic rate (BMR). The thyroid gland produces hormones, such as thyroxine, which control the rate at which the body uses energy. This regulation of the BMR is important for maintaining overall metabolism, body temperature, and energy levels.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is FALSE regarding the anatomy of the neck and thyroid gland?

    • A.

      The strap muscles are anterolateral to the thyroid gland

    • B.

      The longus colli muscle is seen posterior to the thyroid gland

    • C.

      The trachea forms the lateral border of the thyroid gland

    • D.

      The CCA and IJV are posterolateral to the thyroid gland

    Correct Answer
    C. The trachea forms the lateral border of the thyroid gland
    Explanation
    The trachea is not a part of the thyroid gland's anatomy. The trachea is located in the midline of the neck, while the thyroid gland is situated on either side of the trachea. Therefore, the statement that the trachea forms the lateral border of the thyroid gland is false.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not a strap muscle?

    • A.

      Sternothyroid muscle

    • B.

      Sternohyoid muscle

    • C.

      Sternocleidomastoid muscle

    • D.

      Omohyoid muscle

    Correct Answer
    C. Sternocleidomastoid muscle
    Explanation
    The sternocleidomastoid muscle is not a strap muscle. Strap muscles are a group of muscles that run vertically along the neck and play a role in swallowing and speaking. The sternocleidomastoid muscle, on the other hand, is a large muscle located on the side of the neck that helps with head rotation and flexion. It is not part of the strap muscle group.

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  • 6. 

    A radioiodine scintigraphy examination can be used to evaluate thyroid nodules. Which of the following statements regarding this examination is false?

    • A.

      Nodules may be classified as either hot or cold nodules

    • B.

      A hot nodule traps an excessive amount of isotope and is hyperfunctioning

    • C.

      A cold nodule does not absorb isotope and demonstrates an area of decreased or absent activity

    • D.

      All cold nodules are malignant

    Correct Answer
    D. All cold nodules are malignant
    Explanation
    The statement "All cold nodules are malignant" is false. While cold nodules do not absorb isotope and may indicate a decreased or absent activity, not all cold nodules are malignant. In fact, the majority of cold nodules are benign. Further evaluation, such as a biopsy, is necessary to determine if a cold nodule is malignant or not.

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  • 7. 

    The thyroid is an endocrine gland that is made up of a right and left lobe, connected by a thin isthmus of tissue.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the thyroid gland is indeed made up of a right and left lobe, which are connected by a thin isthmus of tissue. This anatomical structure of the thyroid gland is well-documented and widely accepted in medical literature. Therefore, the statement "The thyroid is an endocrine gland that is made up of a right and left lobe, connected by a thin isthmus of tissue" is true.

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  • 8. 

    The thyroid gland recieves a rich blood supply from ___ arteries.

    Correct Answer
    4
  • 9. 

    What veins drain into the IJV?

    • A.

      Inferior thyroid vein

    • B.

      Superior thyroid vein

    • C.

      Middle thyroid vein

    • D.

      Both B & C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both B & C
    Explanation
    The IJV (internal jugular vein) drains blood from the head and neck region. The superior thyroid vein drains blood from the superior part of the thyroid gland, while the middle thyroid vein drains blood from the middle part of the thyroid gland. Therefore, both B (superior thyroid vein) and C (middle thyroid vein) veins drain into the IJV.

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  • 10. 

    The ________ thyroid drains into the brachiocephalic veins.

    Correct Answer
    Inferior
    Explanation
    The inferior thyroid drains into the brachiocephalic veins.

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  • 11. 

    The CCA and IJV form the posterior/lateral border of the thyroid gland 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The CCA (common carotid artery) and IJV (internal jugular vein) are anatomical structures that are located posteriorly and laterally to the thyroid gland. This means that they are positioned behind and to the sides of the thyroid gland. Therefore, the statement that the CCA and IJV form the posterior/lateral border of the thyroid gland is true.

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  • 12. 

    The echotexture of the normal thyroid is:

    • A.

      Anechoic

    • B.

      Homogeneous

    • C.

      Hyperechoic

    • D.

      Both B & C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both B & C
    Explanation
    The echotexture of the normal thyroid is described as both homogeneous and hyperechoic. Homogeneous refers to a uniform texture throughout the thyroid gland, while hyperechoic means that the thyroid tissue appears brighter or more echo-dense on ultrasound compared to surrounding structures. Therefore, the correct answer is both B & C.

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  • 13. 

    What does the parathyroid gland produce?

    Correct Answer
    PTH, parathyroid hormone
    Explanation
    The parathyroid gland produces parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH plays a crucial role in regulating calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. It acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase calcium absorption, decrease calcium excretion, and stimulate bone resorption, ultimately raising blood calcium levels. PTH also promotes the activation of vitamin D, which aids in calcium absorption from the intestines. Overall, PTH is essential for maintaining proper calcium homeostasis in the body.

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  • 14. 

    Where is the parotid gland located?

    Correct Answer
    Retromandibular fossa
    Explanation
    The parotid gland is located in the retromandibular fossa. The retromandibular fossa is a depression located behind the mandible, or lower jawbone. It is a space where the parotid gland sits, along with other structures such as the facial nerve. The parotid gland is the largest salivary gland and is responsible for producing saliva, which aids in the digestion of food.

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  • 15. 

    PTH regulates calcium and phosphorous levels in extracellular fluid.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    PTH, or parathyroid hormone, is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands that helps regulate calcium and phosphorous levels in the extracellular fluid. It does this by increasing the release of calcium from bones, increasing the absorption of calcium from the intestines, and decreasing the excretion of calcium by the kidneys. PTH also stimulates the kidneys to convert vitamin D into its active form, which helps with the absorption of calcium from the intestines. Therefore, the statement that PTH regulates calcium and phosphorous levels in extracellular fluid is true.

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  • 16. 

    What is the function of the parotid glands

    • A.

      Produce saliva

    • B.

      Secrete saliva

    • C.

      Facilitate mastication

    • D.

      Facilitate swallowing

    • E.

      Produce PTH

    • F.

      Produce TH

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Secrete saliva
    C. Facilitate mastication
    D. Facilitate swallowing
    Explanation
    The parotid glands have multiple functions. One of their main functions is to secrete saliva, which helps in the digestion process. They also facilitate mastication, which is the process of chewing food, by producing saliva that moistens the food and makes it easier to chew. Additionally, the parotid glands facilitate swallowing by producing saliva that helps in lubricating the food and facilitating its passage down the throat.

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  • 17. 

    What is the normal echogenicity of the normal salivary glands?

    • A.

      Hyperechoic

    • B.

      Hypoechoic

    • C.

      Homogeneous

    • D.

      Anechoic

    Correct Answer
    C. Homogeneous
    Explanation
    The normal echogenicity of the normal salivary glands is homogeneous. This means that the glands appear uniform in echogenicity, without any areas of increased or decreased echogenicity.

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  • 18. 

    Where is the most common place to produce stones?(gland)

    Correct Answer
    Submandibular gland
    Explanation
    The most common place to produce stones is the submandibular gland. This gland is located underneath the jaw and is responsible for producing saliva. Sometimes, due to various factors such as dehydration or an imbalance in the composition of saliva, stones can form in the ducts of the submandibular gland. These stones can cause blockages and lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, and difficulty in swallowing. Therefore, the submandibular gland is considered the most common location for the production of stones.

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  • 19. 

    Where is TSH produced?

    Correct Answer
    Anterior pituitary gland
    Explanation
    TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) is produced in the anterior pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. It is responsible for producing and releasing various hormones that regulate the functions of other endocrine glands in the body. TSH specifically stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development.

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  • 20. 

    The thyroid is the smallest endocrine gland in the body.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    It is the largest

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  • 21. 

    What does the thyroid control?

    Correct Answer
    BMR
    Explanation
    The thyroid controls the BMR, which stands for Basal Metabolic Rate. BMR refers to the amount of energy expended by the body at rest to maintain basic physiological functions such as breathing, circulation, and cell production. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate the body's metabolism and influence the BMR. Therefore, the correct answer is BMR.

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  • 22. 

    When does the thyroid begin emerging in embryology?

    • A.

      2-3 wks

    • B.

      10-12 wks

    • C.

      3-4 wks

    • D.

      1st week

    Correct Answer
    C. 3-4 wks
    Explanation
    During embryology, the thyroid begins to emerge around 3-4 weeks. This is the time when the thyroid diverticulum, an outpouching of the endodermal epithelium, starts to develop in the floor of the pharynx. The diverticulum then descends and forms the thyroid gland, eventually settling in its final location in the neck. Therefore, 3-4 weeks is the correct answer for when the thyroid begins emerging in embryology.

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  • 23. 

    What is the earliest endocrine structure to appear in embryology?

    Correct Answer
    Thyroid gland
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland is the earliest endocrine structure to appear in embryology. This gland develops from the endoderm of the primitive pharynx during the fourth week of embryonic development. It plays a crucial role in the production and regulation of thyroid hormones, which are essential for growth, metabolism, and brain development. The early appearance of the thyroid gland underscores its importance in embryonic development and highlights its role in regulating various physiological processes throughout life.

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  • 24. 

    How much does the thyroid gland weigh in an adult?

    • A.

      1-2 lbs

    • B.

      15-20 g

    • C.

      25-20 g

    • D.

      4-6 g

    Correct Answer
    B. 15-20 g
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland weighs between 15-20 g in an adult. This is the correct answer because it is within the normal range for the weight of the thyroid gland in adults. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck, and it plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and producing hormones that control various bodily functions.

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  • 25. 

    What is the mean length of the thyroid?

    Correct Answer
    40-60 mm
    Explanation
    The mean length of the thyroid is 40-60 mm. This means that, on average, the length of the thyroid gland falls within this range. It is important to note that individual variations may exist, and some individuals may have a thyroid length outside of this range.

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  • 26. 

    What is the mean AP diameter of the thyroid?

    Correct Answer
    13-18 mm
    Explanation
    The mean AP (anteroposterior) diameter of the thyroid gland is 13-18 mm. This measurement refers to the distance from the front to the back of the thyroid gland. It is an important parameter to assess the size and shape of the thyroid gland.

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  • 27. 

    What is the mean isthmus thickness?

    Correct Answer
    4-6 mm
    Explanation
    The mean isthmus thickness refers to the average thickness of the isthmus, which is a narrow strip of tissue connecting two larger parts. In this case, the mean isthmus thickness is stated to be 4-6 mm, indicating that on average, the isthmus measures between 4 and 6 millimeters in thickness.

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  • 28. 

    The principal responsibility of the thyroid gland is maintenance of body metabolism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland is responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism. These hormones help control how the body uses energy, including how it breaks down food and converts it into energy. Therefore, the statement that the principal responsibility of the thyroid gland is the maintenance of body metabolism is true.

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  • 29. 

    What hormones do the thyroid secrete?

    • A.

      T3

    • B.

      T4

    • C.

      T5

    • D.

      Calitonin

    • E.

      Calcium

    • F.

      Thyroxine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. T3
    B. T4
    D. Calitonin
    F. Thyroxine
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland secretes several hormones including T3 (triiodothyronine), T4 (thyroxine), calitonin, and thyroxine. T3 and T4 are the main hormones produced by the thyroid and are responsible for regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. Calitonin is involved in regulating calcium levels in the blood and plays a role in bone health. Thyroxine is another name for T4, so it is also secreted by the thyroid gland.

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  • 30. 

    What is the name of the wedge shaped muscle posterior to the thyroid lobes?

    Correct Answer(s)
    Longus coli muscle
    Explanation
    The longus coli muscle is a wedge-shaped muscle located posterior to the thyroid lobes. It is responsible for flexing and rotating the neck.

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  • 31. 

    The term euthyroid means the thyroid is producing too much thyroid hormone.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    It means the right amount

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  • 32. 

    How many parathyroid glands do most adults have?

    Correct Answer
    4
    Explanation
    Most adults have four parathyroid glands. These small glands are located behind the thyroid gland in the neck and are responsible for producing parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate calcium levels in the body. Having four parathyroid glands is the typical anatomical arrangement in most individuals.

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  • 33. 

    What is the primary source for the production of PTH?

    Correct Answer
    Chief cells
    Explanation
    Chief cells are the primary source for the production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH is a hormone that is responsible for regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the body. Chief cells are found in the parathyroid glands, which are small glands located near the thyroid gland in the neck. These cells secrete PTH in response to low levels of calcium in the blood. PTH then acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase calcium levels in the blood. Therefore, chief cells play a crucial role in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the body.

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  • 34. 

    What is the sonographic appearance of the normal thyroid gland?

    • A.

      Hypoechoic with scattered hyperechoic regions

    • B.

      Echogenic with high amplitude level echoes

    • C.

      Medium level echo amplitude similar to the testes

    • D.

      Hyperechoic with high level echoes

    Correct Answer
    C. Medium level echo amplitude similar to the testes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Medium level echo amplitude similar to the testes". This means that on a sonogram, the normal thyroid gland appears with echoes that have a medium level of amplitude, similar to the echoes seen in the testes.

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  • 35. 

    What would be an indication to perform a sonography examination of the thyroid gland?

    • A.

      Rule out multinodular gland

    • B.

      Demonstrate a benign versus malignant neoplasm

    • C.

      Document the thyroid as a primary metastatic site

    • D.

      Determine thyroid function

    Correct Answer
    A. Rule out multinodular gland
    Explanation
    An indication to perform a sonography examination of the thyroid gland would be to rule out a multinodular gland. Sonography can help identify the presence of multiple nodules in the thyroid gland, which can be indicative of certain thyroid disorders or diseases. By performing a sonography examination, healthcare professionals can assess the size, shape, and characteristics of the nodules and determine if further diagnostic tests or treatments are necessary.

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  • 36. 

    What structure is located immediately medial to the jugular vein?

    • A.

      Thyroid gland

    • B.

      Esophagus

    • C.

      Trachea

    • D.

      CCA

    Correct Answer
    D. CCA
    Explanation
    The structure located immediately medial to the jugular vein is the common carotid artery (CCA). The CCA is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. It is located on both sides of the neck and runs parallel to the jugular vein.

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  • 37. 

    What structure is located immediately posterior to the isthmus?

    • A.

      Esophagus

    • B.

      CCA

    • C.

      Trachea

    • D.

      Longus colli muscles

    Correct Answer
    C. Trachea
    Explanation
    The structure located immediately posterior to the isthmus is the trachea. The trachea is a tube-like structure that carries air to and from the lungs. It is situated behind the isthmus, which is a narrow portion of the thyroid gland. The trachea is responsible for allowing air to pass through it, facilitating the process of breathing.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following is indicactive of an abnormal parathyroid gland?

    • A.

      Located adjacent to the esophagus

    • B.

      Similar echogenicity as the thyroid gland

    • C.

      Measures 2 cm

    • D.

      4 in number

    Correct Answer
    C. Measures 2 cm
    Explanation
    An abnormal parathyroid gland that measures 2 cm is indicative of a potential issue. The normal size of a parathyroid gland is usually around 4-8 mm, so a gland that measures 2 cm is significantly larger than normal. This could suggest the presence of a parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, both of which can cause excessive production of parathyroid hormone and lead to hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism can result in elevated calcium levels in the blood, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, muscle weakness, and bone pain.

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  • 39. 

    What does the anterior pituitary gland release to restore the BMR when T4 falls below normal?

    • A.

      TCH

    • B.

      TSH

    • C.

      TBG

    • D.

      PTH

    Correct Answer
    B. TSH
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland releases TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) to restore the basal metabolic rate (BMR) when T4 (thyroxine) falls below normal. TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release more T4, which helps regulate metabolism and energy production in the body. When T4 levels are low, the release of TSH helps to increase T4 production and restore the BMR to its normal level.

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  • 40. 

    What is the most common site for ectopic thyroid tissue?

    • A.

      Substernal

    • B.

      Lingual area

    • C.

      Prelaryngeal

    • D.

      Sublingual

    Correct Answer
    B. Lingual area
    Explanation
    The most common site for ectopic thyroid tissue is the lingual area. Ectopic thyroid tissue refers to thyroid tissue that is located outside of its usual position in the neck. While ectopic thyroid tissue can be found in various locations, the lingual area, which refers to the area of the tongue, is the most common site. This can occur due to abnormal migration of thyroid tissue during embryonic development.

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  • 41. 

    What thyroid condition occurs with iodine deficiency?

    • A.

      Thyroiditis

    • B.

      Adenoma

    • C.

      Goiter

    • D.

      HYpothyroidism

    Correct Answer
    C. Goiter
    Explanation
    Goiter is the correct answer because it is a condition that occurs with iodine deficiency. Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones, and when there is not enough iodine in the diet, the thyroid gland enlarges in an attempt to compensate for the deficiency. This enlargement of the thyroid gland is known as a goiter. Thyroiditis, adenoma, and hypothyroidism are not directly caused by iodine deficiency.

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  • 42. 

    Which hormone is an important endocrine regulator of calcium and phosphorous concentration in extracellular fluid?

    • A.

      TBG

    • B.

      PTH

    • C.

      TSH

    • D.

      TCH

    Correct Answer
    B. PTH
    Explanation
    PTH, or parathyroid hormone, is an important endocrine regulator of calcium and phosphorous concentration in extracellular fluid. It is secreted by the parathyroid glands and acts to increase blood calcium levels by stimulating the release of calcium from bones, increasing the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys, and promoting the activation of vitamin D, which enhances calcium absorption in the intestines. PTH also decreases blood phosphorus levels by promoting its excretion in the urine. Overall, PTH plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphorous in the body.

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  • 43. 

    What substance in a thyroid nodule is associated with comet tail artifact?

    • A.

      Colloid

    • B.

      Calcitonin

    • C.

      Iron

    • D.

      Thyrotropin

    Correct Answer
    A. Colloid
    Explanation
    Colloid is the substance in a thyroid nodule that is associated with comet tail artifact. Comet tail artifact is a sonographic finding characterized by hyperechoic comet-like tails that extend posteriorly from the nodule. This artifact is caused by the presence of colloid within the nodule, which reflects sound waves and creates the comet tail appearance on ultrasound imaging. Calcitonin, iron, and thyrotropin are not specifically associated with comet tail artifact in thyroid nodules.

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