Tah Roots Of Freedom Post-test

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This post-test contains 70 multiple choice questions. There is a 1-hour time limit for completion. Please keep in the mind the results will be used solely for the purpose of helping to evaluate and report on the overall success of the TAH Roots of Freedom grant program as required by the federal grants office.

Your individual scores will be kept strictly confidential and will only be used in comparison to pre-test scores and then compiled and reported in aggregate as part of the annual grant reporting requirements. This means individual scores will not be reported to Read morethe district or used for any other purpose. Thank you in advance for your time and participation!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The Open Door policy in China called for which of the  following?

    • A.

      A consortium of nations to govern China

    • B.

      International acknowledgement of China’s right to exclude the trade of any nation

    • C.

      Recognition of Chinese territorial gains in Manchuria

    • D.

      Reduction of foreign tariffs on Chinese goods

    • E.

      equal commercial access by all nations to the existing spheres of influence in China

    Correct Answer
    E. equal commercial access by all nations to the existing spheres of influence in China
    Explanation
    The Open Door policy in China called for equal commercial access by all nations to the existing spheres of influence in China. This means that all nations would have the same opportunities and rights to trade and conduct business in China, regardless of their previous influence or power in the region. This policy aimed to promote fair competition and prevent any one nation from dominating China's economy.

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  • 2. 

    Jacksonian Democracy was distinguished by the belief that

    • A.

      An aristocracy posed no danger to the Republic

    • B.

      The National Republicans alone knew what was right for the people

    • C.

      Political participation by the common man should be increased

    • D.

      Political rights should be granted to women

    • E.

      Franchise restrictions should be racially neutral

    Correct Answer
    C. Political participation by the common man should be increased
    Explanation
    Jacksonian Democracy was a political movement in the United States during the 19th century that aimed to increase the political power and participation of the common man. Supporters of Jacksonian Democracy believed that the government should be more accessible to ordinary citizens and that political decisions should be made by the majority rather than an elite few. This belief in increasing political participation by the common man was a key characteristic of Jacksonian Democracy and set it apart from other political ideologies of the time.

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  • 3. 

    President Monroe articulated the Monroe Doctrine in his 1823 address to Congress primarily in order to

    • A.

      Respond positively to the recent Latin American revolutions

    • B.

      Rule out United States involvement in South America

    • C.

      Provide a rationale for United States intervention in the Isthmus of Panama

    • D.

      Warn European nations against further colonial ventures in the Western Hemisphere

    • E.

      Encourage Britain to help the fledgling Latin America states

    Correct Answer
    D. Warn European nations against further colonial ventures in the Western Hemisphere
    Explanation
    In his 1823 address to Congress, President Monroe articulated the Monroe Doctrine primarily to warn European nations against further colonial ventures in the Western Hemisphere. This was in response to the growing concerns of European powers attempting to establish colonies or extend their influence in the Americas. The doctrine aimed to assert the United States' position as the dominant power in the region and prevent any further European colonization or intervention, thereby protecting the sovereignty and independence of the newly formed Latin American nations.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following transportation developments opened the West to settlement and trade between 1790 and 1830?

    • A.

      Turnpikes and canals

    • B.

      Railroads and steamships

    • C.

      Turnpikes and railroads

    • D.

      Clipper ships and turnpikes

    • E.

      Canals and railroads

    Correct Answer
    A. Turnpikes and canals
    Explanation
    Turnpikes and canals were the transportation developments that opened the West to settlement and trade between 1790 and 1830. Turnpikes, or toll roads, provided a reliable and efficient way for people to travel and transport goods over long distances. Canals, such as the Erie Canal, connected different regions and allowed for the transportation of goods by water, which was faster and cheaper than overland transportation. These developments helped to facilitate the movement of people and goods, leading to increased settlement and economic growth in the West during this time period.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following best describes the situation of freedom in the decade following the Civil War?

    • A.

      Each was given 40 acres of land and a mule by the Union government.

    • B.

      All were immediately granted political equality by the Emancipation Proclamation.

    • C.

      The majority entered sharecropping arrangements with former masters or other nearby planters.

    • D.

      They were required to pass a literacy test before being granted United States citizenship.

    • E.

      They supported the passage of Black Codes to ensure their economic and political rights.

    Correct Answer
    C. The majority entered sharecropping arrangements with former masters or other nearby planters.
    Explanation
    After the Civil War, the situation of freedom for former slaves was characterized by the majority of them entering sharecropping arrangements with their former masters or nearby planters. Sharecropping was a system in which former slaves would work on the land of their former masters in exchange for a share of the crops produced. This arrangement often resulted in continued economic dependence and limited upward mobility for former slaves, despite their newfound freedom.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following was a serious constitutional question after the Civil War?

    • A.

      The restoration of the power of the federal judiciary

    • B.

      The legality of the national banking system

    • C.

      The political and legal status of the former Confederate states

    • D.

      The relationship between the United States and Britain

    • E.

      The proposed annexation of Columbia

    Correct Answer
    C. The political and legal status of the former Confederate states
    Explanation
    After the Civil War, a serious constitutional question arose regarding the political and legal status of the former Confederate states. This question revolved around whether these states should be treated as conquered territories or be fully reintegrated into the Union. It raised issues such as the rights and representation of former Confederate leaders, the enforcement of civil rights for newly freed slaves, and the extent of federal government control over state governments. Resolving this question was crucial in determining the path towards reconstruction and the future of the United States.

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  • 7. 

    The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) did which of the following?

    • A.

      Denounced business combinations in restraint of trade

    • B.

      Sanctioned separate but equal public facilities for African Americans

    • C.

      Declared that the Fourteenth Amendment applied principally to the protection of corporations

    • D.

      Defined the Constitution as color blind

    • E.

      Empowered Congress to cancel treaties with American Indian tribes unilaterally

    Correct Answer
    B. Sanctioned separate but equal public facilities for African Americans
    Explanation
    The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) sanctioned separate but equal public facilities for African Americans. This means that the Court ruled that racial segregation was constitutional as long as the separate facilities provided to different races were equal in quality. This decision established the "separate but equal" doctrine, which allowed for the legal segregation of public facilities and institutions based on race. This decision had a significant impact on the civil rights movement and perpetuated racial discrimination for several decades.

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  • 8. 

    Shay’s Rebellion frightened many Americans when

    • A.

      City mobs raided flour supplies in Philadelphia

    • B.

      Debt-ridden farmers attacked courts in western Massachusetts

    • C.

      Indians raided frontier settlements in Virginia

    • D.

      Squatters terrorized proprietors in New York

    • E.

      Vigilantes in South Carolina patrolled the frontier

    Correct Answer
    B. Debt-ridden farmers attacked courts in western Massachusetts
    Explanation
    During Shay's Rebellion, debt-ridden farmers in western Massachusetts attacked courts as a form of protest against the oppressive economic conditions they were facing. These farmers were burdened with heavy debts and were often facing foreclosure on their lands. By attacking the courts, they aimed to disrupt the legal system that enforced these unfair economic policies. This rebellion sent shockwaves throughout the country, as it highlighted the underlying social and economic tensions that were prevalent in post-revolutionary America.

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  • 9. 

    “Competition is a law of nature…and can no more be done away with than gravitation….If we do not like survival of the fittest, we have only one possible alternative, survival of the unfittest."  The former is the law of civilization, the latter is the law of anti-civilization.” The quote above is an example of which of the following schools of thought?

    • A.

      Dialectical materialism

    • B.

      Utopian socialism

    • C.

      Social Darwinism

    • D.

      Transcendentalism

    • E.

      Existentialism

    Correct Answer
    C. Social Darwinism
    Explanation
    The quote above expresses the idea of "survival of the fittest" and the belief that competition is a natural law that cannot be eliminated. This aligns with the principles of Social Darwinism, which applies Darwin's theory of natural selection to society and suggests that competition and struggle are necessary for progress and improvement.

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  • 10. 

    Perfectionism in the mid-nineteenth century is best defined as

    • A.

      Improvement in the manners of the lower classes

    • B.

      Faith in human capacity to achieve a better life on earth through conscious acts of will

    • C.

      The rewards of church membership and regular attendance at Sunday services

    • D.

      Allegiance to the political tenets of Jacksonian Democracy

    • E.

      Belief in the inevitability of economic progress

    Correct Answer
    B. Faith in human capacity to achieve a better life on earth through conscious acts of will
    Explanation
    Perfectionism in the mid-nineteenth century refers to the belief that individuals have the ability to improve their lives through conscious efforts. It is about having faith in the human capacity to achieve a better life on earth by actively making choices and taking actions. This belief is rooted in the idea that personal growth and progress are attainable through individual willpower and determination. It is not about improvement in manners, rewards of church membership, allegiance to political tenets, or the inevitability of economic progress.

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  • 11. 

    The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were similar in that all involved a defense of

    • A.

      Freedom of the seas

    • B.

      Freedom of speech

    • C.

      The institution of slavery

    • D.

      States’ rights

    • E.

      Presidential power in foreign affairs

    Correct Answer
    D. States’ rights
    Explanation
    The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were all similar in that they all involved a defense of states' rights. These events were responses to perceived encroachments on states' rights by the federal government. The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were a response to the Alien and Sedition Acts and asserted the states' right to nullify unconstitutional federal laws. The Hartford Convention was a meeting of New England states to discuss their grievances against the War of 1812 and proposed amendments to the Constitution to protect states' rights. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was a response to the Tariff of 1828 and argued for the states' right to nullify federal laws they deemed unconstitutional.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following best describes the position on slavery of most northerners during the sectional crisis of the 1850s?

    • A.

      They were willing to accept slavery where it existed but opposed further expansion to the territories.

    • B.

      They were active supporters of complete abolition.

    • C.

      They favored continued importation of slaves from Africa.

    • D.

      They advocated expansion of the slave system to provide cheap labor for northern factories.

    • E.

      They advocated complete social and political equality for all races in the United States.

    Correct Answer
    A. They were willing to accept slavery where it existed but opposed further expansion to the territories.
    Explanation
    Most northerners during the sectional crisis of the 1850s were willing to accept slavery where it already existed but opposed its further expansion to the territories. This means that they did not support the complete abolition of slavery, but rather wanted to prevent its spread into new territories. This position reflected a desire to maintain a balance of power between free and slave states and avoid the political and social conflicts that would arise from the expansion of slavery.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is true of the case of Marbury v. Madison?

    • A.

      It established that Congress had the sole right to formulate national legislation

    • B.

      It supported Thomas Jefferson in his claim to have “executive review.”

    • C.

      It backed William Marbury in his request for a bank carrier.

    • D.

      It affirmed the principle of judicial review.

    • E.

      It determined the Senate’s right to “advise and consent.”

    Correct Answer
    D. It affirmed the principle of judicial review.
    Explanation
    Marbury v. Madison is a landmark Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review. In this case, the Supreme Court declared that it had the power to review and invalidate laws passed by Congress if they were found to be unconstitutional. This decision was significant because it established the Court as the final arbiter of the Constitution and gave it the power to interpret the law. It was a crucial moment in American constitutional history and has had a lasting impact on the balance of power between the branches of government.

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  • 14. 

    After the American Revolution, the concept of the “republican mother” suggested that

    • A.

      Women would be responsible for raising their children, especially their sons, to be virtuous citizens of the young republic

    • B.

      Voting would soon become a privilege granted to educated and/or married women

    • C.

      The first duty of mothers was to serve the needs of the government

    • D.

      Wives and mothers would be welcome in the emerging political parties

    • E.

      Women’s virtues had been the inspiration for the ideals of the Revolution

    Correct Answer
    A. Women would be responsible for raising their children, especially their sons, to be virtuous citizens of the young republic
    Explanation
    After the American Revolution, the concept of the "republican mother" suggested that women would be responsible for raising their children, especially their sons, to be virtuous citizens of the young republic. This concept emphasized the importance of women's role in shaping the future of the nation by instilling values of civic duty and patriotism in their children. It reflected the belief that the success of the new republic depended on the moral character of its citizens, which was believed to be influenced greatly by the upbringing provided by mothers.

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  • 15. 

    All of the following accurately describe Jefferson’s purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France EXCEPT:

    • A.

      It opened the Mississippi River permanently to western farmers.

    • B.

      It ended the threat of American Indian raids on western settlements.

    • C.

      It was made possible by the failure of Napoleon’s forces to suppress a slave revolt in Haiti.

    • D.

      It showed Jefferson’s considerable flexibility in dealing with foreign policy.

    • E.

      It violated Jefferson’s own views concerning the strict construction of the Constitution.

    Correct Answer
    B. It ended the threat of American Indian raids on western settlements.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "It ended the threat of American Indian raids on western settlements." This statement is incorrect because the Louisiana Purchase did not directly address or resolve the issue of American Indian raids on western settlements. The purchase primarily focused on the acquisition of land and control over the Mississippi River, while the issue of American Indian raids continued to persist after the purchase.

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  • 16. 

    President Jackson resisted the admission of Texas into the Union in 1836 primarily because he

    • A.

      Acknowledged the legitimacy of the Mexican government’s claim to Texas

    • B.

      Feared that debate over the admission of Texas would ignite controversy about slavery

    • C.

      Was ideologically opposed to territorial expansion

    • D.

      Could find no support within his own party for admitting Texas

    • E.

      Believed that admitting Texas would violate international law

    Correct Answer
    B. Feared that debate over the admission of Texas would ignite controversy about slavery
    Explanation
    President Jackson resisted the admission of Texas into the Union in 1836 primarily because he feared that debate over the admission of Texas would ignite controversy about slavery. This is because Texas was a territory where slavery was legal, and the admission of Texas as a state would have sparked a heated debate about the expansion of slavery into new territories. Jackson, as a supporter of slavery, did not want to risk the potential controversy and division that would arise from this debate.

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  • 17. 

    The Republican Party originated in the mid-1850s as a sectional party committed to which of the following?

    • A.

      Opposition to the further extension of slavery into the territories

    • B.

      Immediate emancipation of the slaves

    • C.

      Repeal of Whig economic policies

    • D.

      Restriction of immigration

    • E.

      Acknowledgement of popular sovereignty as the basis for organizing federal territories

    Correct Answer
    A. Opposition to the further extension of slavery into the territories
    Explanation
    The correct answer is opposition to the further extension of slavery into the territories. The Republican Party was formed in the mid-1850s with the main goal of preventing the spread of slavery into new territories. They believed that the expansion of slavery would threaten the rights of free labor and the economic development of the territories. This position was one of the key factors that led to the party's rise and eventual success in the 1860 presidential election with the election of Abraham Lincoln, who was also committed to stopping the spread of slavery.

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  • 18. 

    In 1890 the most important source of revenue for the federal government was

    • A.

      Income taxes

    • B.

      Inheritance taxes

    • C.

      Sales taxes

    • D.

      Liquor taxes

    • E.

      Customs duties

    Correct Answer
    E. Customs duties
    Explanation
    During the year 1890, customs duties were the primary source of revenue for the federal government. Customs duties are taxes imposed on imported goods, and at that time, they were a significant source of income for the government. This revenue was generated by levying taxes on goods brought into the country, which helped fund various government expenses and programs. Income taxes, inheritance taxes, sales taxes, and liquor taxes might have also contributed to the government's revenue, but during 1890, customs duties held the most importance in terms of generating funds for the federal government.

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  • 19. 

    William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” oration was primarily an expression of his

    • A.

      Fundamentalist religious beliefs

    • B.

      Neutral stance toward the belligerents of the First World War

    • C.

      Advocacy of free and unlimited coinage of silver

    • D.

      Opposition to teaching the theory of evolution in public schools

    • E.

      Anti-imperialist convictions

    Correct Answer
    C. Advocacy of free and unlimited coinage of silver
    Explanation
    William Jennings Bryan's "Cross of Gold" oration is well-known for his passionate advocacy of free and unlimited coinage of silver. In his speech, Bryan argued that adopting this policy would help alleviate the economic hardships faced by farmers and workers, who were struggling under the gold standard. He believed that increasing the money supply through silver coinage would lead to inflation, making it easier for debtors to repay their loans and stimulating economic growth. This position was a central part of Bryan's political platform and his campaign for the presidency in 1896.

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  • 20. 

    All of the following contributed to the decline of open-range cattle ranching at the end of the nineteenth century EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Excessively cold winters

    • B.

      Federal recognition of American Indian land claims

    • C.

      A drop in cattle prices at stockyards

    • D.

      Overgrazing

    • E.

      Production of crops for distant markets

    Correct Answer
    B. Federal recognition of American Indian land claims
    Explanation
    The decline of open-range cattle ranching at the end of the nineteenth century can be attributed to several factors. Excessively cold winters could have led to the death of cattle, making it difficult for ranchers to sustain their operations. A drop in cattle prices at stockyards would have affected the profitability of ranching. Overgrazing, caused by the large number of cattle on the range, would have depleted the available grazing land. The production of crops for distant markets would have required the conversion of grazing land into farmland. However, federal recognition of American Indian land claims would not directly contribute to the decline of open-range cattle ranching.

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  • 21. 

    Jacob Riis is best known for his work in the 1890s as a

    • A.

      labor organizer and Socialist Party activist

    • B.

      Leader of the People’s Party

    • C.

      Reformer who encouraged new immigrants to homestead

    • D.

      Playwright whose dramas celebrated the assimilation of immigrants into American society

    • E.

      Journalist and photographer who publicized the wretched conditions in which many immigrants lived

    Correct Answer
    B. Leader of the People’s Party
    Explanation
    Jacob Riis is best known for his work as a journalist and photographer who publicized the wretched conditions in which many immigrants lived. Through his photographs and writings, Riis shed light on the overcrowded tenements and poverty-stricken neighborhoods that immigrants faced in New York City. His work played a significant role in raising awareness about the living conditions of immigrants and advocating for social reforms. While Riis was involved in political activism and was a member of the Socialist Party, he is primarily remembered for his journalistic and photographic contributions.

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  • 22. 

    In the United States, the Haitian rebellion of the 1790’s prompted

    • A.

      The acquisition of Puerto Rico for colonization by emancipated slaves

    • B.

      A movement of free African Americans to Haiti

    • C.

      The passage of a federal law increasing the severity of punishments for slave rebellions

    • D.

      An increased fear of slave revolts in the South

    • E.

      A military expedition of southern slaveholders to restore French rule in Haiti

    Correct Answer
    D. An increased fear of slave revolts in the South
    Explanation
    The correct answer is an increased fear of slave revolts in the South. The Haitian rebellion of the 1790s, where enslaved Africans successfully revolted against their French colonizers, caused alarm among slaveholders in the United States. The success of the Haitian revolution fueled fears that similar uprisings could occur in the American South, leading to stricter control and harsher treatment of slaves. This fear ultimately contributed to the perpetuation of slavery and the resistance against abolitionist movements in the United States.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following statements about African American soldiers during the Civil War is correct?

    • A.

      They were primarily engaged in military campaigns west of the Mississippi.

    • B.

      They were limited to combat duty.

    • C.

      They were barred from receiving awards for valor in combat.

    • D.

      For most of the war, they were paid less than white soldiers of equal rank.

    • E.

      For most of the war, they were led by African American officers.

    Correct Answer
    D. For most of the war, they were paid less than white soldiers of equal rank.
    Explanation
    During the Civil War, African American soldiers were paid less than white soldiers of equal rank for most of the war. This discrepancy in pay was a result of racial discrimination and inequality within the military. Despite their contributions and sacrifices, African American soldiers were not given equal treatment or recognition.

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  • 24. 

    Between 1870 and 1900, farmers did all of the following in an attempt to better their condition EXCEPT

    • A.

      Seek state regulation of railways

    • B.

      Limit production of crops

    • C.

      Organize cooperative marketing societies

    • D.

      Form a third political party

    • E.

      Advocate inflation of the currency

    Correct Answer
    B. Limit production of crops
    Explanation
    During the period between 1870 and 1900, farmers took various actions to improve their situation. They sought state regulation of railways to ensure fair transportation costs, organized cooperative marketing societies to collectively sell their produce, formed a third political party (the Populist Party) to advocate for their rights, and advocated for inflation of the currency to ease their debt burden. However, one action they did not take was to limit the production of crops. This is because farmers believed that increasing production would lead to higher profits, so they focused on finding ways to sell their surplus rather than limiting production.

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  • 25. 

    Under the Articles of Confederation the United States central government had no power to

    • A.

      Levy taxes

    • B.

      Make treaties

    • C.

      Declare war

    • D.

      Request troops from states

    • E.

      Amend the Articles

    Correct Answer
    A. Levy taxes
    Explanation
    Under the Articles of Confederation, the United States central government had no power to levy taxes. This means that they were unable to impose taxes on the citizens or collect revenue to fund the government's operations. This lack of taxation power was one of the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and contributed to the economic instability and financial difficulties faced by the government during that time.

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  • 26. 

    Theodore Roosevelt was the first President to

    • A.

      Use troops without congressional approval

    • B.

      Balance the federal budget

    • C.

      Advocate an antilynching bill

    • D.

      Pursue an imperialistic foreign policy

    • E.

      Arbitrate a labor dispute

    Correct Answer
    E. Arbitrate a labor dispute
    Explanation
    Theodore Roosevelt was the first President to arbitrate a labor dispute. This means that he acted as a neutral third party to help resolve a conflict between labor unions and employers. By using his influence and authority, Roosevelt facilitated negotiations and reached a fair settlement between the two parties. This was a significant milestone as it demonstrated the President's willingness to intervene in labor disputes and promote peaceful resolutions, setting a precedent for future administrations.

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  • 27. 

    Prior to the Civil War, a transformation occurred in the workforce of the New England textile mills as New England farm girls were replaced by

    • A.

      French-Canadian immigrants

    • B.

      Freed African Americans from the South

    • C.

      Irish immigrants

    • D.

      German immigrants

    • E.

      Italian immigrants

    Correct Answer
    C. Irish immigrants
    Explanation
    During the period prior to the Civil War, the workforce in New England textile mills went through a significant change. This transformation involved the replacement of New England farm girls with Irish immigrants. The influx of Irish immigrants during this time was driven by various factors, including the Great Famine in Ireland, which led many Irish people to seek better opportunities and escape poverty. The Irish immigrants brought with them a willingness to work in harsh conditions for low wages, making them attractive to mill owners. Their arrival had a profound impact on the labor force and the overall industrialization of New England.

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  • 28. 

    Members of the Hudson River School were best known for their paintings of

    • A.

      Portraits

    • B.

      Battle scenes

    • C.

      Sporting scenes

    • D.

      Landscapes

    • E.

      Still lifes

    Correct Answer
    D. Landscapes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is landscapes. The Hudson River School was a group of American landscape painters in the mid-19th century. They were known for their realistic and detailed portrayals of the American landscape, particularly the Hudson River Valley and surrounding areas. Their paintings often depicted majestic mountains, serene rivers, and lush forests, capturing the beauty and grandeur of the natural world.

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  • 29. 

    The first attempt to apply the doctrine of popular sovereignty in determining the status of slavery occurred in

    • A.

      Texas

    • B.

      California

    • C.

      Kansas

    • D.

      Missouri

    • E.

      Oregon

    Correct Answer
    C. Kansas
    Explanation
    In the mid-19th century, the concept of popular sovereignty emerged as a way to determine the status of slavery in the United States. It allowed the residents of a territory to decide whether to allow or ban slavery. The first significant attempt to apply this doctrine occurred in Kansas, during a period known as "Bleeding Kansas." Pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers flooded the territory, leading to violent conflicts and political turmoil. This event highlighted the deep divisions over the issue of slavery and foreshadowed the coming Civil War.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following was true of the United States Constitution as adopted at the Constitutional Convention?

    • A.

      It was built as a series of compromises.

    • B.

      It provided exact specifications covering all aspects of government.

    • C.

      It was a revised version of the English Constitution.

    • D.

      It included a Bill of Rights.

    • E.

      It allowed all male citizens over the age of twenty-one to vote.

    Correct Answer
    A. It was built as a series of compromises.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the United States Constitution was built as a series of compromises. This is because during the Constitutional Convention, delegates from different states had various conflicting interests and viewpoints. In order to reach a consensus and create a constitution that would be acceptable to all states, compromises had to be made on issues such as representation, slavery, and the powers of the federal government. The resulting document, the United States Constitution, reflects these compromises and is often referred to as a "bundle of compromises."

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  • 31. 

    The Jefferson administration advocated which of the following changes as a means of restoring republican ideals?

    • A.

      Abolishing the bank of the United States

    • B.

      Reducing the scope of activities of the federal government

    • C.

      Discontinuing the funding of state debts

    • D.

      Increasing the size of the United States military

    • E.

      Adopting the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions at the national level

    Correct Answer
    B. Reducing the scope of activities of the federal government
    Explanation
    The Jefferson administration advocated for reducing the scope of activities of the federal government as a means of restoring republican ideals. This means that Jefferson believed in limiting the power and influence of the federal government, allowing more power to be held by the states and individual citizens. This aligns with the principles of republicanism, which emphasize limited government and the protection of individual rights and liberties.

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  • 32. 

    The Wilmot Proviso specifically provided for

    • A.

      The prohibition of slavery in Louisiana Purchase territory

    • B.

      The primacy of federal law over state-legislated Black Codes

    • C.

      The abolition of the international slave trade

    • D.

      The prohibition of slavery in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War

    • E.

      Federal return of fugitive slaves

    Correct Answer
    D. The prohibition of slavery in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War
    Explanation
    The Wilmot Proviso was a proposed amendment to a bill in 1846 that aimed to prohibit slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico as a result of the Mexican War. The amendment was introduced by David Wilmot, a member of the United States House of Representatives, with the intention of preventing the expansion of slavery into newly acquired territories. The Wilmot Proviso was not passed into law, but it played a significant role in the debate over slavery and the tensions between the North and South leading up to the American Civil War.

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  • 33. 

    Immigrants to the United States in the last quarter of the nineteenth century came primarily from

    • A.

      Latin America

    • B.

      Asia

    • C.

      Canada

    • D.

      Middle-class backgrounds

    • E.

      European farms and villages

    Correct Answer
    E. European farms and villages
    Explanation
    During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the majority of immigrants to the United States came from European farms and villages. This period is known as the "Old Immigration" and saw a significant influx of immigrants from countries such as Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Eastern European nations. These immigrants were predominantly seeking economic opportunities and better living conditions in America. They played a crucial role in the industrialization and growth of the United States during this time.

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  • 34. 

    During the presidency of William H. Taft, United States policy in Latin America was driven primarily by

    • A.

      The administration’s desire to benefit from European colonial inroads in the region

    • B.

      The President’s goal of founding an effective Pan-American organization to deal with hemispheric issues

    • C.

      Congress’ determination to ameliorate the hostility engendered by Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick policy

    • D.

      Concern for the development of democracy and the protection of civil rights in the region

    • E.

      Concern for United States economic and strategic interests in the region

    Correct Answer
    E. Concern for United States economic and strategic interests in the region
    Explanation
    During the presidency of William H. Taft, United States policy in Latin America was primarily driven by concern for United States economic and strategic interests in the region. This suggests that the administration focused on securing economic advantages and protecting strategic positions in Latin America, rather than prioritizing other factors such as democracy or civil rights.

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  • 35. 

    When war broke out in Europe in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson established a policy that called for

    • A.

      Immediate American aid to the Allied powers

    • B.

      Acknowledgment of American neutral rights on the high seas

    • C.

      American trade with Europe on a cash-and-carry basis only

    • D.

      A strict embargo on trade with all warring nations

    • E.

      Strict prohibition of American travel on the ships of belligerents

    Correct Answer
    B. Acknowledgment of American neutral rights on the high seas
    Explanation
    In 1914, when war broke out in Europe, President Woodrow Wilson established a policy that focused on acknowledging American neutral rights on the high seas. This meant that the United States would recognize and protect the rights of American ships and citizens to remain neutral and uninvolved in the conflict. Wilson's policy aimed to ensure that American vessels would not be attacked or interfered with while traveling in international waters. By acknowledging American neutral rights, Wilson aimed to maintain a stance of neutrality and avoid being dragged into the war.

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  • 36. 

    The Constitutional Convention designed the electoral college to

    • A.

      Strengthen the legislative branch against the executive branch

    • B.

      Strengthen the executive branch against the legislative branch

    • C.

      Ensure the independence of the judiciary

    • D.

      Protect the sovereignty of the states

    • E.

      Insulate the presidency from the popular will

    Correct Answer
    E. Insulate the presidency from the popular will
    Explanation
    The Electoral College was designed by the Constitutional Convention to insulate the presidency from the popular will. This means that it was intended to prevent the president from being directly elected by the people. Instead, the Electoral College allows for the election of the president by a group of electors who are chosen by each state. This system was put in place to ensure that the president would not be solely dependent on the popular vote, but rather be elected by a group of representatives who would make a more informed decision.

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  • 37. 

    Under Chief Justice John Marshall, Supreme Court decisions tend to

    • A.

      Promote business enterprise

    • B.

      Restrict federal powers of taxation

    • C.

      Restrict corporate development

    • D.

      Expand state control of economic activity

    • E.

      Reduce federal control of the economy

    Correct Answer
    A. Promote business enterprise
    Explanation
    Under Chief Justice John Marshall, Supreme Court decisions tended to promote business enterprise. Marshall's rulings, such as in the cases of Dartmouth College v. Woodward and McCulloch v. Maryland, established a strong foundation for the protection of property rights and contract rights, which were crucial for the growth of business and commerce. These decisions emphasized the importance of a stable legal environment and the enforcement of contracts, which encouraged investment and economic development. Additionally, Marshall's court also upheld the power of the federal government to regulate interstate commerce, further facilitating business activities.

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  • 38. 

    The women’s movement in the antebellum period was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      close links with the antislavery and temperance movements

    • B.

      Conventions in the Northeast and the Midwest, but not the South

    • C.

      Involvement of middle class women

    • D.

      A broad-based platform of legal and educational rights

    • E.

      Demands for equal compensation for equal work

    Correct Answer
    E. Demands for equal compensation for equal work
    Explanation
    The women's movement in the antebellum period was characterized by close links with the antislavery and temperance movements, conventions in the Northeast and the Midwest (but not the South), involvement of middle-class women, and a broad-based platform of legal and educational rights. However, demands for equal compensation for equal work were not a prominent aspect of the women's movement during this time.

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  • 39. 

    The Supreme Court’s decision in the Dred Scott case in 1857 effectively repealed the

    • A.

      Missouri Compromise

    • B.

      Fugitive Slave Act

    • C.

      Ostend Manifesto

    • D.

      Wilmot Proviso

    • E.

      Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution

    Correct Answer
    A. Missouri Compromise
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Missouri Compromise. The Supreme Court's decision in the Dred Scott case in 1857 declared that the Missouri Compromise, which had prohibited slavery in certain territories, was unconstitutional. This decision effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise and allowed for the expansion of slavery into new territories, leading to increased tensions between the North and the South in the years leading up to the Civil War.

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  • 40. 

    The decisions of the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries generally did which of the following?

    • A.

      Strengthened the position of big business.

    • B.

      Strengthened the regulatory powers of the federal government.

    • C.

      Strengthened the position of organized labor.

    • D.

      Protected the civil and political rights of African Americans.

    • E.

      Protected the civil and political rights of women.

    Correct Answer
    A. Strengthened the position of big business.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Strengthened the position of big business." This is because during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Supreme Court made several decisions that favored big business and supported their interests. These decisions often limited the power of labor unions, upheld contracts that protected corporations, and struck down regulations that aimed to regulate business practices. Overall, the Supreme Court played a significant role in consolidating the power and influence of big business during this time period.

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  • 41. 

    The majority of White families in the antebellum South owned

    • A.

      More than 100 slaves

    • B.

      50 to 100 slaves

    • C.

      10 to 50 slaves

    • D.

      5 to 10 slaves

    • E.

      No slaves

    Correct Answer
    E. No slaves
    Explanation
    During the antebellum period in the South, the majority of White families did not own any slaves. Slavery was mainly concentrated among the wealthy elite, with plantations and large farms being the primary owners of slaves. The majority of White families were small farmers or laborers who did not have the financial means to own slaves. Slavery was a system that primarily benefited the wealthy and powerful, while the majority of White families did not have the resources or social status to participate in slave ownership.

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  • 42. 

    The Missouri Compromise did which of the following

    • A.

      Prohibited slavery in all the territory of the Louisiana Purchase.

    • B.

      Provided for admission to the Union of all future states in pairs of one free, one slave.

    • C.

      Allowed Maine to enter the Union as a free state.

    • D.

      Finally settled the question of congressional power over slavery in the territories

    • E.

      Provided for the annexation of Texas.

    Correct Answer
    C. Allowed Maine to enter the Union as a free state.
    Explanation
    The Missouri Compromise allowed Maine to enter the Union as a free state. This compromise was reached in 1820 to maintain the balance between free and slave states in the United States. As part of the compromise, Missouri was admitted as a slave state, while Maine was admitted as a free state. This was done to ensure that there was an equal number of free and slave states, in order to prevent any imbalance of power between the North and the South. The Missouri Compromise also established a line, known as the 36°30' parallel, which prohibited slavery in future states north of this line within the Louisiana Purchase territory.

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  • 43. 

    “We believe that the time has come when the railroad corporations will either own the people or the people must own the railroads…We demand a national currency, safe, sound, and flexible…We demand a graduated income tax…We demand a free ballot.”   Which of the following groups included the passage above in its platform? American Federation of Labor

    • A.

      American Federation of Labor

    • B.

      Union-Labor Party

    • C.

      People’s Party (Populists)

    • D.

      National Grange

    • E.

      Democratic Party

    Correct Answer
    C. People’s Party (Populists)
    Explanation
    The passage above aligns with the platform of the People's Party (Populists). The party advocated for the nationalization of railroads, a national currency, a graduated income tax, and free elections. This platform reflects the party's commitment to addressing economic inequality and promoting the interests of the working class.

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  • 44. 

    The 1896 Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson also

    • A.

      Upheld segregated railroad facilities.

    • B.

      Declared civil rights legislation unconstitutional.

    • C.

      Upheld literacy testing as a condition of voting in federal elections.

    • D.

      Outlawed segregation in public schools.

    • E.

      Restricted the right to purchase or sell land.

    Correct Answer
    A. Upheld segregated railroad facilities.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Upheld segregated railroad facilities." In the Plessy v. Ferguson case, the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional. This decision allowed for the continued segregation of public facilities, including railroad cars. It established the legal precedent for racial segregation and discrimination, which persisted for many years until the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following aroused the greatest controversy in the United States at the end of the Spanish-American War?

    • A.

      Payment of a $20 million indemnity to Spain

    • B.

      Humanitarian efforts on behalf of concentration camp victims

    • C.

      Acquisition of the Philippine Islands

    • D.

      Liberation of Cuba from Spanish control

    • E.

      Increases in the size of the army and navy

    Correct Answer
    C. Acquisition of the Philippine Islands
    Explanation
    The acquisition of the Philippine Islands aroused the greatest controversy in the United States at the end of the Spanish-American War. This decision to annex the Philippines was met with significant opposition, as many Americans believed it went against the principles of self-determination and independence. Anti-imperialist groups argued that it was unjust to colonize another nation and that it would go against the values of the United States. This controversy led to a heated debate and protests across the country.

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  • 46. 

    The American Colonization Society was established in the early nineteenth century with the goal of

    • A.

      Encouraging immigration from Ireland and Germany

    • B.

      Encouraging Chinese contract laborers to emigrate to the United States

    • C.

      Settling White Americans on western lands

    • D.

      Settling American Indians on reservations

    • E.

      Transporting African Americans to Africa

    Correct Answer
    E. Transporting African Americans to Africa
    Explanation
    The correct answer is transporting African Americans to Africa. The American Colonization Society was founded in 1816 with the aim of resettling free African Americans and freed slaves in Africa. They believed that African Americans would have better opportunities in Africa and that it would also help to resolve the issue of slavery in the United States. The Society established the colony of Liberia on the west coast of Africa for this purpose, and over several decades, thousands of African Americans were transported there.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following best accounts for the success of the American Federation of Labor in organizing labor in the late 1800s?

    • A.

      Its policy of organizing only skilled craftsmen

    • B.

      Its organization of all workers within a single industry into one union

    • C.

      Its policy of racial inclusiveness

    • D.

      Its campaign for a minimum wage

    • E.

      Its active recruitment of immigrant workers

    Correct Answer
    A. Its policy of organizing only skilled craftsmen
    Explanation
    The American Federation of Labor's success in organizing labor in the late 1800s can be attributed to its policy of organizing only skilled craftsmen. By focusing on skilled workers, the union was able to establish a strong collective bargaining power and negotiate better wages and working conditions for its members. This approach allowed the union to effectively represent the interests of its members and gain support from skilled workers who saw the benefits of joining the organization.

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  • 48. 

    From the 1880’s to the beginning of the New Deal, the dominant American Indian policy of the United States government sought to

    • A.

      Strengthen traditional tribal authority

    • B.

      Relocate all American Indians to the Oklahoma territory

    • C.

      Encourage American Indian emigration to Canada

    • D.

      Encourage American Indians to preserve their languages and religions

    • E.

      Break up tribal landholdings

    Correct Answer
    E. Break up tribal landholdings
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "break up tribal landholdings." From the 1880's to the beginning of the New Deal, the United States government implemented policies that aimed to dismantle tribal land ownership and promote individual land ownership among Native Americans. This was done through the Dawes Act of 1887, which divided tribal lands into individual allotments, with the goal of assimilating Native Americans into mainstream American society. This policy was intended to weaken tribal authority and undermine traditional Native American culture and governance structures.

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  • 49. 

    Alexander Hamilton’s financial program was most favorable to

    • A.

      Western farmers

    • B.

      War veterans

    • C.

      Southern planters

    • D.

      Eastern merchants

    • E.

      State bankers

    Correct Answer
    D. Eastern merchants
    Explanation
    Alexander Hamilton's financial program was most favorable to eastern merchants because it aimed to strengthen the economy and promote industrialization. Hamilton believed in a strong central government and advocated for policies such as the establishment of a national bank and protective tariffs. These measures would benefit eastern merchants who were engaged in trade and manufacturing activities. The national bank would provide a stable currency and credit system, while protective tariffs would protect domestic industries from foreign competition. Overall, Hamilton's program aimed to promote economic growth and development, which would greatly benefit eastern merchants.

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  • 50. 

     The most unpopular and least successful of President Thomas Jefferson’s policies was his

    • A.

      Advocacy of territorial expansion

    • B.

      Handling of the Barbary Coast pirates

    • C.

      Reduction of the size of the military

    • D.

      Reduction of the national debt

    • E.

      Adherence to neutrality in dealing with England and France

    Correct Answer
    E. Adherence to neutrality in dealing with England and France
    Explanation
    President Thomas Jefferson's adherence to neutrality in dealing with England and France was the most unpopular and least successful of his policies. This policy caused tensions with both countries, as they were engaged in a conflict known as the Napoleonic Wars. By remaining neutral, Jefferson hoped to avoid entanglement in the war and protect American interests. However, this approach resulted in trade restrictions and the impressment of American sailors by both sides. The policy was criticized for not adequately defending American rights and for not taking a stronger stance against the aggressions of England and France.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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