Sistemul Nervos - Test 1

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Sistemul Nervos - Test 1 - Quiz

Test 1


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Neuronii: 

    • A.

      Prezintă centrozom

    • B.

      Au rol în nutriţia celulelor gliale

    • C.

      Sunt mai numeroşi decât celulele gliale

    • D.

      Au corp celular şi prelungiri

    Correct Answer
    D. Au corp celular şi prelungiri
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "au corp celular şi prelungiri" which means "they have a cell body and extensions." This statement is true because neurons are specialized cells that have a cell body, which contains the nucleus and other organelles, and extensions called dendrites and axons. These extensions allow neurons to receive and transmit electrical signals, enabling them to communicate with other neurons and carry out their functions in the nervous system.

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  • 2. 

    Cerebelul are rol în:

    • A.

      Comandarea mişcărilor

    • B.

      Sensibilitatea auditivă

    • C.

      Menţinerea echilibrului

    • D.

      Reglarea poftei de mâncare

    Correct Answer
    C. Menţinerea echilibrului
    Explanation
    The cerebellum is responsible for maintaining balance in the body. It receives information from the sensory systems, such as the inner ear and the visual system, and coordinates muscle movements to ensure stability and equilibrium. It plays a crucial role in coordinating and fine-tuning voluntary movements, allowing for smooth and coordinated motor control.

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  • 3. 

    Cerebelul:

    • A.

      Are rol în reglarea temperaturii

    • B.

      Este situat în canalul vertebral

    • C.

      Prezintă substanţă albă la interior

    • D.

      Recepţionează informaţii vizuale

    Correct Answer
    C. Prezintă substanţă albă la interior
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "prezintă substanţă albă la interior." This means that the cerebellum has white matter in its interior. The cerebellum is a part of the brain that is responsible for coordinating movement, balance, and posture. It contains both gray matter and white matter, with the white matter being located on the inside. White matter consists of myelinated nerve fibers, which allow for the transmission of signals between different parts of the brain.

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  • 4. 

    Substanţa albă a măduvei spinării:  

    • A.

      Conţine centrii nervoşi

    • B.

      Integrează activitatea nervoasă superioară

    • C.

      Coordonează comportamentele învăţate

    • D.

      Conduce impulsurile nervoase între măduvă şi encefal

    Correct Answer
    D. Conduce impulsurile nervoase între măduvă şi encefal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "conduce impulsurile nervoase între măduvă şi encefal." This is because the substance known as white matter in the spinal cord is responsible for transmitting nerve impulses between the spinal cord and the brain. It acts as a communication pathway, allowing information to be relayed between these two important parts of the central nervous system.

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  • 5. 

    Nucleii senzitivi din trunchiul cerebral:

    • A.

      Primesc impulsuri de la organe de simţ

    • B.

      Sunt centrii unor reflexe condiţionate

    • C.

      Formează scoarţa cerebeloasă

    • D.

      Trimit comenzi la muşchii scheletici

    Correct Answer
    A. Primesc impulsuri de la organe de simţ
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "primesc impulsuri de la organe de simţ" which translates to "receive impulses from sense organs" in English. This statement suggests that the sensory nuclei in the brainstem receive signals or impulses from the sense organs in the body. These sense organs include the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, which send sensory information to the brain for processing and interpretation.

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  • 6. 

    Următorul reflex somatic este monosinaptic:

    • A.

      De flexie

    • B.

      Rotulian

    • C.

      De micţiune

    • D.

      Vasoconstrictor

    Correct Answer
    B. Rotulian
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "rotulian." The rotulian reflex is a monosynaptic reflex that involves the contraction of the quadriceps muscle in response to tapping the patellar tendon. This reflex helps to maintain balance and stability while standing and walking. The sensory neuron carries the signal from the patellar tendon to the spinal cord, where it synapses directly with the motor neuron that innervates the quadriceps muscle, causing it to contract and extend the leg.

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  • 7. 

    Celulele gliale:

    • A.

      Sunt anucleate

    • B.

      Generează impulsurile nervoase

    • C.

      Sintetizează mielina

    • D.

      Sunt hrănite de către neuroni

    Correct Answer
    C. Sintetizează mielina
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "sintetizează mielina." Glial cells, also known as neuroglia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system. One of their important functions is the synthesis of myelin, a fatty substance that forms a protective sheath around nerve fibers. Myelin helps to insulate and speed up the conduction of nerve impulses. Therefore, the statement that glial cells synthesize myelin is accurate.

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  • 8. 

    Paralizia unui membru se numeşte:

    • A.

      Boala Parkinson

    • B.

      Epilepsie

    • C.

      Monohibridare

    • D.

      Monoplegie

    Correct Answer
    D. Monoplegie
    Explanation
    Monoplegie is the correct answer because it refers to the paralysis of a single limb, such as an arm or a leg. It is a medical term used to describe the loss of motor function in one limb due to injury or disease. Parkinson's disease and epilepsy are unrelated conditions that do not specifically refer to the paralysis of a limb. Monohibridare is not a recognized medical term and does not relate to paralysis.

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  • 9. 

    Următorul reflex somatic este polisinaptic:

    • A.

      De flexie

    • B.

      Rotulian

    • C.

      De micţiune

    • D.

      Vasoconstrictor

    Correct Answer
    A. De flexie
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "de flexie". A polisinaptic reflex involves multiple synapses in the reflex arc, meaning that there are interneurons involved in the transmission of the signal. In the case of the reflex de flexie, this refers to a reflex that causes a bending or flexing movement in response to a stimulus. This type of reflex typically involves a sensory neuron, an interneuron, and a motor neuron, with the interneuron serving as a link between the sensory and motor neurons.

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  • 10. 

    Sistemul nervos periferic este:

    • A.

      Localizat în cutia craniană

    • B.

      Format din ganglioni nervoşi şi nervi

    • C.

      Responsabil de analiza informaţiilor

    • D.

      Format din encefal şi măduva spinării

    Correct Answer
    B. Format din ganglioni nervoşi şi nervi
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "format din ganglioni nervoşi şi nervi" which translates to "composed of ganglia and nerves" in English. This answer is correct because the peripheral nervous system (Sistemul nervos periferic) is indeed made up of ganglia (ganglioni nervoşi) and nerves (nervi). The peripheral nervous system includes all the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord, and it is responsible for transmitting information to and from the central nervous system.

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  • 11. 

    Este o afecţiune a sistemului nervos:

    • A.

      Stomatita

    • B.

      Hepatita

    • C.

      Enterocolita

    • D.

      Epilepsia

    Correct Answer
    D. Epilepsia
    Explanation
    Epilepsia este o afecțiune a sistemului nervos caracterizată prin apariția recurentă a crizelor convulsive. Aceasta poate fi cauzată de diferite factori, cum ar fi traumatismele cerebrale, anomalii genetice sau tulburări metabolice. Crizele epileptice pot varia în intensitate și pot implica manifestări motorii, senzoriale sau cognitive. Tratamentul pentru epilepsie poate include administrarea de medicamente antiepileptice și, în unele cazuri, intervenții chirurgicale pentru a controla sau reduce frecvența și severitatea crizelor.

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  • 12. 

    Leziuni sub formă de plăci în substanţa albă sunt caracteristice paraliziei.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Leziuni sub formă de plăci în substanţa albă sunt manifestări ale sclerozei în plăci.

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  • 13. 

    Rigiditatea musculară generalizată, tremurături ale membrelor şi mersul rigid cu paşii mici sunt manifestări ale bolii Parkinson.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Generalized muscle rigidity, limb tremors, and a rigid gait with small steps are characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This neurodegenerative disorder affects the dopamine-producing cells in the brain, leading to movement difficulties and other motor symptoms. These symptoms can progressively worsen over time and can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Treatment options for Parkinson's disease include medication, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

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  • 14. 

    Convulsii, pierderea cunoştinţei şi agitarea membrelor sunt manifestări ale epilepsiei.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Convulsii, pierderea cunoştinţei şi agitarea membrelor sunt manifestări comune ale epilepsiei. Epilepsia este o tulburare a sistemului nervos care cauzează activitate electrică anormală în creier, ceea ce poate duce la convulsii și pierderea temporară a cunoștinței. Agitarea membrelor este, de asemenea, un simptom comun al crizelor epileptice. Prin urmare, afirmația că aceste manifestări sunt asociate cu epilepsia este corectă.

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  • 15. 

    Substanţa albă formează la suprafaţa emisferelor cerebrale scoarţa cerebrală.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Substanţa cenuşie formează la suprafaţa emisferelor cerebrale scoarţa cerebrală.

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  • 16. 

    Măduva spinării este situată în.........................................

    Correct Answer
    canalul vertebral
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "canalul vertebral." The spinal cord is located in the canalul vertebral, which is a hollow space formed by the vertebrae of the spine. This canal provides protection to the delicate spinal cord, which is responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body.

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  • 17. 

    Reflexele monosinaptice cuprind în arcul reflex unul sau mai mulţi neuroni de asociaţie.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Reflexele monosinaptice cuprind în arcul reflex numai doi neuroni: unul senzitiv situat în ganglionul spinal şi unul motor situat în substanţa cenuşie, coarnele ventrale (anterioare).

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  • 18. 

    Reflxele polisinaptice cuprind în arcul reflex cel puţin trei neuroni: unul senzitiv situat în ganglionul spinal, unul motor situat în substanţa cenuşie - coarnele ventrale  şi cel puţin un neron de asociaţie.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Reflexele polisinaptice cuprind în arcul reflex cel puțin trei neuroni: unul senzitiv situat în ganglionul spinal, unul motor situat în substanța cenușie - coarnele ventrale și cel puțin un neuron de asociație. This means that polisinaptic reflexes involve at least three neurons: one sensory neuron located in the spinal ganglion, one motor neuron located in the gray matter - ventral horns, and at least one association neuron.

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  • 19. 

    Sistemul nervos central este alcătuit din măduva spinării şi ............................................

    Correct Answer
    encefal
    creier
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is composed of the spinal cord and the brain. The brain is the main control center of the body, responsible for processing and coordinating information from the senses, as well as controlling movement, thoughts, emotions, and other functions. The encephalon, also known as the brain, is a vital component of the central nervous system, working in conjunction with the spinal cord to regulate and control various bodily functions.

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  • 20. 

    Sistemul nervos periferic este alcătuit din ganglioni nervoşi şi......................................

    Correct Answer
    nervi
    Explanation
    The peripheral nervous system is composed of ganglia and nerves. Ganglia are clusters of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system, while nerves are bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. Therefore, the correct answer is "nervi," which is the Romanian word for "nerves."

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  • 21. 

    Integrarea organismului în mediul de viaţă este realizată de sistemul nervos..............................

    Correct Answer
    somatic
    al vieţii de relaţie
    al vietii de relatie
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "somatic, al vieţii de relaţie, al vietii de relatie." The explanation is that the integration of the organism into the living environment is achieved by the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movements and sensory perception. Additionally, the organism interacts with its surroundings through the activities and relationships of daily life, which is referred to as "al vieţii de relaţie" in Romanian. Both terms are used to describe different aspects of the organism's integration into its environment.

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  • 22. 

    Reglarea activităţii organelor interne este realizată de sistemul nervos............................................

    Correct Answer
    vegetativ
    autonom
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "vegetativ, autonom." The explanation for this is that the regulation of internal organ activity is carried out by the autonomic nervous system, also known as the vegetative nervous system. This system controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing. It is responsible for maintaining homeostasis and ensuring that the body's internal organs are functioning properly without conscious effort.

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  • 23. 

    Reflexul este răspunsul organismului la acţiunea unui stimul, cu ajutorul sistemului nervos.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement explains that reflex is the response of the organism to a stimulus with the help of the nervous system. This means that when a stimulus is applied to the body, the nervous system automatically generates a response without conscious thought. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 24. 

    Substanţa cenuşie a măduvei este situată central şi conţine corpii neuronilor.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the gray matter of the spinal cord is indeed located centrally and contains the cell bodies of neurons. This gray matter is responsible for processing and transmitting sensory information, as well as coordinating motor functions.

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  • 25. 

    Substanţa albă a măduvei este situată la periferie şi conţine axoni grupaţi în fascicule.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the white matter of the spinal cord is indeed located on the periphery and contains grouped axons in bundles.

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  • 26. 

    Măduva spinării este protejată de peretele osos al canalului medular, de membranele meningeale şi de lichidul...............................................

    Correct Answer
    cefalorahidian
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "cefalorahidian." The sentence states that the spinal cord is protected by the bony wall of the medullary canal, the meningeal membranes, and the cerebrospinal fluid. "Cefalorahidian" is the Romanian term for cerebrospinal fluid, which acts as a cushion and protects the spinal cord from external damage.

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  • 27. 

    Encefalul este alcătuit din: trunchi cerebral, cerebel, diencefal şi emisfere cerebrale.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the brain is indeed composed of the brainstem (which includes the medulla, pons, and midbrain), the cerebellum, the diencephalon (which includes the thalamus and hypothalamus), and the cerebral hemispheres. These structures make up the major divisions of the brain and are responsible for various functions such as sensory processing, motor control, and higher cognitive processes.

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  • 28. 

    Trunchiul cerebral este situat la baza cutiei craniene şi se continuă în jos cu măduva spinării, la nivelul orificiului occipital.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true. The brainstem is indeed located at the base of the cranial cavity and continues downwards with the spinal cord through the occipital foramen.

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  • 29. 

    Substanţa cenuşie a trunchiului este situată la exterior iar substanţa albă în interior.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Substanţa cenuşie a trunchiului este situată central, sub formă de insule cenuşii înconjurate de substanţă albă, formând nuclei.

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  • 30. 

    Nucleii senzitivi din trunchiul cerebral primesc impulsuri de la receptorii din organele de simţ, pielea şi muşchii capului.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the sensory nuclei in the brainstem do receive impulses from the sensory receptors in the organs of sensation, skin, and muscles of the head. This means that these nuclei play a crucial role in processing sensory information from these areas and relaying it to higher brain centers for further interpretation and response.

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  • 31. 

    Nucleii senzitivi din trunchiul cerebral sunt centrii unor reflexe vegetative: salivar, gastrosecretor, lacrimal etc.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Nucleii vegetativi din trunchiul cerebral sunt centrii unor reflexe vegetative: salivar, gastrosecretor, lacrimal etc.

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  • 32. 

    Nucleii vegetativi din trunchiul cerebral sunt centrii unor reflexe vegetative: salivar, gastrosecretor, lacrimal etc.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the nuclei in the brainstem are responsible for controlling various vegetative reflexes such as salivation, gastric secretion, and tear production. These reflexes are important for maintaining normal bodily functions and are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. The brainstem acts as a relay center, receiving sensory input and sending out motor signals to coordinate these reflexes. Therefore, the statement accurately describes the role of the nuclei in the brainstem in controlling vegetative reflexes.

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  • 33. 

    Centrii respiratori situaţi în substanţa cenuşie a măduvei produc ritmic impulsuri destinate muşchilor respiratori şi reglează ventilaţia pulmonară.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false. The correct answer is false because the respiratory centers are located in the medulla oblongata, not in the gray matter of the spinal cord. These respiratory centers are responsible for producing rhythmic impulses that regulate the respiratory muscles and control pulmonary ventilation.

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  • 34. 

    Cerebelul este situat ventral faţă de trunchiul cerebral şi este legat de acesta prin trei perechi de cordoane de substantă albă numite pedunculi cerebeloşi.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cerebelul este situat dorsal faţă de trunchiul cerebral.

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  • 35. 

    Cerebelul este situat dorsal faţă de trunchiul cerebral şi este legat de acesta prin trei perechi de cordoane de substantă albă numite pedunculi cerebeloşi.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true. The cerebellum is indeed located dorsal to the brainstem and is connected to it through three pairs of white matter cords called cerebellar peduncles.

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  • 36. 

    Substanţa cenuşie formează la suprafaţa cerebelului..........................................şi în interior nucleii cerebeloşi.

    Correct Answer
    scoarţa cerebeloasă
    scoarta cerebeloasa
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "scoarţa cerebeloasă" or "scoarta cerebeloasa". This answer is correct because it accurately completes the sentence and makes grammatical sense. The sentence is stating that the gray matter forms on the surface of the cerebellum and inside the cerebellar nuclei. "Scoarţa cerebeloasă" or "scoarta cerebeloasa" translates to "cerebellar cortex" in English, which is the outer layer of the cerebellum. This layer is made up of gray matter and is responsible for processing sensory information and coordinating movement.

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  • 37. 

    Cerebelul asigură menţinerea echilibrului pe baza informaţiilor primite de la urechea internă.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The cerebellum is responsible for maintaining balance based on information received from the inner ear. It receives signals from the vestibular system in the inner ear, which detects changes in head position and movement. The cerebellum processes this information and sends signals to the muscles to adjust body position and maintain balance. Therefore, the statement "Cerebelul asigură menţinerea echilibrului pe baza informaţiilor primite de la urechea internă" is true.

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  • 38. 

    Cerebelul asigură menţinerea echilibrului pe baza informaţiilor primite de la urechea medie.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cerebelul asigură menţinerea echilibrului pe baza informaţiilor primite de la urechea internă.

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  • 39. 

    Cerebelul controlează poziţia corpului pe baza informaţiilor primite de la proprioceptori.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the cerebellum is responsible for controlling the body's position and movement. It receives information from proprioceptors, which are sensory receptors located in the muscles, tendons, and joints. These proprioceptors provide feedback about the body's position, allowing the cerebellum to make adjustments and maintain balance and coordination.

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  • 40. 

    Cerebelul asigură precizia mişcărilor comandate de emisferele cerebrale.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the cerebellum is responsible for coordinating and regulating voluntary movements initiated by the cerebral hemispheres. It receives signals from various parts of the brain and spinal cord, allowing it to fine-tune and adjust movements to ensure precision and accuracy. Without the cerebellum's input, movements would be less controlled and more prone to errors.

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  • 41. 

    Nu intră în alcătuirea trunchiului cerebral:

    • A.

      Bulbul rahidian

    • B.

      Puntea lui Varolio

    • C.

      Mezencefalul

    • D.

      Diencefalul

    Correct Answer
    D. Diencefalul
    Explanation
    The correct answer is diencefalul. The diencephalon is a part of the brain located between the brainstem and the cerebrum. It consists of several structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus. However, the question asks for a structure that does not belong to the brainstem, and the diencephalon is not part of the brainstem. The other options, bulbul rahidian (medulla oblongata), puntea lui Varolio (pons), and mezencefalul (midbrain), are all components of the brainstem.

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  • 42. 

    Reflexele care au centrii în trunchiul cerebral sunt necondiţionate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Reflexele care au centrii în trunchiul cerebral sunt necondiţionate. This statement is true. Reflexes that have centers in the brainstem are considered to be unconditioned reflexes. Unconditioned reflexes are innate and automatic responses to specific stimuli, and they do not require prior learning or conditioning. The brainstem, which includes the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, plays a crucial role in controlling many basic reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, and blinking. These reflexes are essential for our survival and are not influenced by learning or conditioning.

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  • 43. 

    Hipotalamusul are rol în reglarea aportului de alimente şi lichide.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is a small region in the brain that plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including the intake of food and fluids. It helps to control hunger and thirst by monitoring the body's energy and hydration levels. When these levels are low, the hypothalamus sends signals to stimulate appetite and thirst, prompting the individual to eat and drink. Therefore, it is true that the hypothalamus is involved in regulating the intake of food and fluids.

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  • 44. 

    Hipotalamusul are rol în reglarea temperaturii corpului.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature. It acts as a thermostat, constantly monitoring the temperature of the body and making adjustments to maintain homeostasis. When the body gets too hot, the hypothalamus triggers mechanisms like sweating and dilation of blood vessels to cool down. Conversely, when the body gets too cold, the hypothalamus triggers mechanisms like shivering and constriction of blood vessels to generate heat. Therefore, it is correct to say that the hypothalamus is involved in regulating body temperature.

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  • 45. 

    Scoarţa cerebrală este sediul activităţii nervoase superioare, la nivelul ei închizându-se reflexe nervoase condiţionate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain and is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, perception, and memory. It is involved in processing sensory information and initiating voluntary movements. Additionally, the cerebral cortex is also involved in the formation and execution of conditioned reflexes, which are learned responses to specific stimuli. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cerebral cortex is the site of higher nervous activity, including conditioned reflexes.

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    Quiz Edited by
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