Aapg Quiz: Sequence Stratigraphy, Part 1 (Of 5)

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Aapg Quiz: Sequence Stratigraphy, Part 1 (Of 5) - Quiz

Sequence stratigraphy is important to all subsurface geologists, and a thorough understanding of the principles can help you with a wide variety of plays, ranging from deep marine clastics, to fine-grained clastics (shale plays). Don't miss the AAPG Haynesville Playmaker Forum, April 26 in Houston, TX
AAPG and its sister organization, SEPM, offer a wide array of informational and instructional materials to help you learn what sequence stratigraphy is, and to apply it in ways that will help you.
Test your knowledge of sequence stratigraphy by taking the quick ten-question quiz. Be sure to fill in your full Read morename -- you'll be able to print out a certificate of completion, which includes your score on the quiz.
If you need to refresh your knowledge, please check out this website (provided by AAPG's sister society, SEPM). You may open the website and keep it open in a separate window while you take the quiz if you'd like an "open book" experience.
https://www. Sepmstrata. Org/page. Aspx? &pageid=15&3
Would you like to learn more? Keep checking back for more "Quick Bite Learning." Also, check out the AAPG's archived E-Symposia. We have at least two on sequence stratigraphy from industry experts, Janok Bhattacharya and Henry Posamentier.
Please contact Susan Nash, Ph. D. And connect via LinkedIn
https://www. Linkedin. Com/in/susannash/


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Stratigraphy is the science of

    • A.

      Time and movement.

    • B.

      The past is key to the present.

    • C.

      The present is key to the past.

    • D.

      Layered character of rocks.

    Correct Answer
    D. Layered character of rocks.
    Explanation
    Stratigraphy is the science of the layered character of rocks. The rocks can be sedimentary, volcanic, metamorphic or igneous. Imagery used with SEPM permission: http://www.sepmstrata.org/Terminology.aspx?id=stratigraphy

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  • 2. 

    Sequence stratigraphy focuses on

    • A.

      Paleoecological frameworks characterized by unique fossil assemblage

    • B.

      The order in which the strata accumulated combined with depositional and erosional surface frameworks to interpret depositional settings

    • C.

      Basin modeling and sea level

    • D.

      Astroblemes and other allochthonous events that can have local and regional implications, resulting in unique traps

    Correct Answer
    B. The order in which the strata accumulated combined with depositional and erosional surface frameworks to interpret depositional settings
    Explanation
    Sequence stratigraphy, a branch of sedimentary stratigraphy, uses the order strata accumulated in along with a framework of major depositional and erosional surfaces to interpret the depositional setting of clastic and carbonate sediments from continental, marginal marine, basin margins and down-slope settings of basins.

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  • 3. 

    Bounding surfaces

    • A.

      Are subdividing surfaces of the sedimentary section and are commonly generated by the changing relative sea level.

    • B.

      Surfaces that never tie to rebounds due to isostacy and eustacy.

    • C.

      Are boundaries that never have to do shales and TOC, and cannot be considered key indicators of the kitchen.

    • D.

      Are blurring surfaces that have to do with fracture patterns.

    Correct Answer
    A. Are subdividing surfaces of the sedimentary section and are commonly generated by the changing relative sea level.
    Explanation
    Imagery used with SEPM permission: http://www.sepmstrata.org/page.aspx?&pageid=15&3

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  • 4. 

    Sequence stratigraphy involves a geologic model that makes the following assumptions:

    • A.

      Sea level position varied

    • B.

      Subsidence was constant

    • C.

      Sediment supply was constant

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Imagery used with SEPM permission: http://www.sepmstrata.org/page.aspx?&pageid=15&3

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  • 5. 

    Walther's Law

    • A.

      Involves paleobotany and involves the depth and temperatures of sea water.

    • B.

      Establishes the geochemical signature of different formations.

    • C.

      Proposes that the vertical progression of facies should be the same as corresponding lateral facies changes.

    • D.

      Differentiates between clay minerals and carbonates.

    Correct Answer
    C. Proposes that the vertical progression of facies should be the same as corresponding lateral facies changes.
    Explanation
    Imagery used with SEPM permission: http://www.sepmstrata.org/Terminology.aspx?id=boundaries#

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  • 6. 

    Sequence stratigraphy involves combining the following:

    • A.

      All of the below.

    • B.

      Stratal architecture and the chronological order of the indicated facies along with grain size information and lithology.

    • C.

      The provenance of the different grains, combined with structural systems.

    • D.

      Diagenetic alteration and lamina.

    Correct Answer
    A. All of the below.
    Explanation
    Sequence stratigraphy involves combining stratal architecture, the chronological order of the indicated facies, grain size information, lithology, provenance of different grains, and structural systems. It also includes consideration of diagenetic alteration and lamina.

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  • 7. 

    A depositional sequence is

    • A.

      One that never uses water saturation in marker beds as sequence boundaries.

    • B.

      The term used to indicate that hydrothermal alteration has occurred at certain intervals in time.

    • C.

      A stratigraphic unit composed of a relatively conformable succession of genetically related strata and bounded at its top and base by unconformites or their correlative conformity.

    • D.

      Never used in deep marine clastics such as turbidites.

    Correct Answer
    C. A stratigraphic unit composed of a relatively conformable succession of genetically related strata and bounded at its top and base by unconformites or their correlative conformity.
    Explanation
    The analytical steps of sequence stratigraphic first identify the genetic units and boundaries that compose the stratigraphic section in outcrop, core, well-log and seismic data. The framework formed by the genetic units and boundaries is tied depositional models that explain the recurring character of the sequence stratigraphic units and surfaces and provides a common terminology for each of these models, whatever the tectonic setting, depositional setting, sediment types (siliciclastics, carbonates, evaporites) data set that is available for analysis (e.g., seismic data versus well logs or outcrop). It is generally assumed that many of the strata and surfaces are related to changes in the position of relative sea-level driven by eustasy.
    http://www.sepmstrata.org/Terminology.aspx?id=sequence%20stratigraphy#

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  • 8. 

    The sequence stratigraphy method of stratigraphic interpretation

    • A.

      Supports the idea that convection currents and subduction zones are the key to understanding depositional models.

    • B.

      Combines the stratal architecture (geometric relationship) of the sedimentary facies and the chronological order of their accumulation to enhance the interpretation of depositional setting and prediction of stratal continuity.

    • C.

      Involves microseismic, and nothing more.

    • D.

      Allows the geologist to rule out salt tectonics.

    Correct Answer
    B. Combines the stratal architecture (geometric relationship) of the sedimentary facies and the chronological order of their accumulation to enhance the interpretation of depositional setting and prediction of stratal continuity.
    Explanation
    The major problem with sequence stratigraphy is that the definition, terminology and interpretation of the surfaces of sequence stratigraphy is complex and sometimes contentious. In an attempt to circumnavigate this, the site places a heavy dependence on the explanation of terminology linked pop-up boxes so as to clarify the understanding and use of this discipline of stratigraphy.

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  • 9. 

    Lithostratigraphic analysis

    • A.

      Maps lithofacies independent of subdividing external and internal boundaries.

    • B.

      Forces one to include Young's modulus values.

    • C.

      Always puts into question all geomechanical calculations, including pore pressure.

    • D.

      Establishes hiearchies of relevance, exclusing igneous intrusions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Maps lithofacies independent of subdividing external and internal boundaries.
    Explanation
    Lithostratigraphic analysis which maps lithofacies independent of subdividing external and internal boundaries. Allostratigraphic analysis that identifies and includes as time markers bounding discontinuities including erosion surfaces, marine flooding surfaces, and markers that include tuffs, tempestites, and/or turbidite boundaries etc., but considers these as independent of any model of base level change.

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  • 10. 

    Stacking patterns include

    • A.

      Parasequence

    • B.

      Progradation

    • C.

      Retrogradation

    • D.

      Transgression

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    To establish the depositional setting of the sedimentary section, sequence stratigraphy uses the geometric arrangement of sedimentary fill, particularly the vertical succession of sedimentary facies geometries and their enveloping surfaces known as stacking patterns. Imagery used with SEPM permission: http://www.sepmstrata.org/CMS_Images/wagoner-fig10Small.jpg

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