Quiz On Dysarthria And Dyspraxia For Dss Exam

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Quiz On Dysarthria And Dyspraxia For Dss Exam - Quiz

Dysarthria is a condition wherein the muscles used for speech are weakened and difficult to control. Dyspraxia is a chronic neurological condition that affects the planning of movements and co-ordination. What can you tell us about them?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which dysarthria is characterised by atrophy and fasciculations?

    • A.

      Ataxic

    • B.

      Flaccid

    • C.

      Hyperkinetic

    • D.

      Hypokinetic

    • E.

      Spastic

    Correct Answer
    B. Flaccid
    Explanation
    Flaccid dysarthria is characterized by atrophy and fasciculations. Atrophy refers to the wasting away or loss of muscle tissue, which can lead to weakness and decreased muscle tone. Fasciculations are involuntary muscle twitches or contractions. Flaccid dysarthria is typically caused by damage or dysfunction to the lower motor neurons, which are responsible for sending signals from the brain to the muscles involved in speech production. This can result in weakness, reduced coordination, and a flaccid or floppy quality to the muscles involved in speech.

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  • 2. 

    Which dysarthria is characterised by emotional lability?

    • A.

      Ataxic

    • B.

      Flaccid

    • C.

      Hyperkinetic

    • D.

      Hypokinetic

    • E.

      Spastic

    Correct Answer
    E. Spastic
    Explanation
    Spastic dysarthria is characterized by emotional lability, which refers to sudden and unpredictable changes in emotions. This is because spastic dysarthria is caused by damage to the upper motor neurons, which can affect the control and coordination of the muscles involved in speech production. The emotional lability seen in spastic dysarthria is thought to be due to the disruption of neural pathways involved in emotional regulation.

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  • 3. 

    Which dysarthria is characterised by factors including nystagmus, hypotonia, intention tremor and dysmetria?

    • A.

      Ataxic

    • B.

      Flaccid

    • C.

      Hyperkinetic

    • D.

      Spastic

    • E.

      Unilateral Upper Motor Neuron

    Correct Answer
    A. Ataxic
    Explanation
    Ataxic dysarthria is characterized by various factors including nystagmus (involuntary eye movement), hypotonia (decreased muscle tone), intention tremor (shaking during voluntary movements), and dysmetria (inaccuracy in controlling movements). These symptoms suggest a lack of coordination and control over movements, which is typical of ataxic dysarthria. Flaccid dysarthria is characterized by weakness and reduced muscle tone, hyperkinetic dysarthria involves excessive involuntary movements, spastic dysarthria is characterized by muscle stiffness and tightness, and unilateral upper motor neuron dysarthria affects one side of the body due to damage to the upper motor neurons.

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  • 4. 

    Which dysarthria is characterised by festination?

    • A.

      Ataxic

    • B.

      Flaccid

    • C.

      Hypokinetic

    • D.

      Hyperkinetic

    • E.

      Spastic

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypokinetic
    Explanation
    Hypokinetic dysarthria is characterized by festination, which refers to a progressively increasing rate and difficulty in initiating and maintaining speech. This dysarthria is commonly associated with Parkinson's disease and is characterized by reduced movement, muscle rigidity, and tremors. The other types of dysarthria listed do not typically exhibit festination as a prominent feature.

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  • 5. 

    Which dysarthria is characterised by chorea, dystonia, and tics?

    • A.

      Ataxic

    • B.

      Flaccid

    • C.

      Hyperkinetic

    • D.

      Hypokinetic

    • E.

      Unilateral UMN

    Correct Answer
    C. Hyperkinetic
    Explanation
    Hyperkinetic dysarthria is characterized by involuntary movements such as chorea, dystonia, and tics. This type of dysarthria is caused by damage to the basal ganglia or its connections, resulting in abnormal muscle tone and movement. It often leads to imprecise articulation, variable speech rate, and excess or irregular movements of the speech muscles.

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  • 6. 

    Which dysarthria is characterised by unliateral palatal weakness?

    • A.

      Ataxic

    • B.

      Flaccid

    • C.

      Hypokinetic

    • D.

      Spastic

    • E.

      Unilateral UMN

    Correct Answer
    E. Unilateral UMN
    Explanation
    Unilateral UMN dysarthria is characterized by weakness on one side of the body, including the palatal muscles. This type of dysarthria is caused by damage to the upper motor neurons on one side of the brain, resulting in impaired control and coordination of the muscles involved in speech production. Symptoms may include imprecise articulation, reduced vocal volume, and a strained or harsh voice quality.

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  • 7. 

    A patient is presenting with irregular artic breakdowns, harsh voice, explosive loudness patterns and scanning speech. Which dysarthria holds the most likely diagnosis?

    • A.

      Ataxic

    • B.

      Flaccid

    • C.

      Hyperkinetic

    • D.

      Spastic

    • E.

      Unilateral UMN

    Correct Answer
    A. Ataxic
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms of irregular artic breakdowns, harsh voice, explosive loudness patterns, and scanning speech are consistent with ataxic dysarthria. Ataxic dysarthria is characterized by incoordination of the muscles involved in speech production, resulting in imprecise articulation, irregular breakdowns, and abnormal prosody. The other types of dysarthria listed do not typically present with the same combination of symptoms as described in the question.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is not a symptom of flaccid dysarthria?

    • A.

      Atrophy and fasciculations

    • B.

      Audible nasal emissions and nasal regurgitation

    • C.

      Variable prosodic rate

    • D.

      Breathiness and diplophonia

    • E.

      Slowed AMR's

    Correct Answer
    C. Variable prosodic rate
    Explanation
    Variable prosodic rate is not a symptom of flaccid dysarthria. Flaccid dysarthria is characterized by weakness and reduced muscle tone, leading to symptoms such as atrophy and fasciculations, audible nasal emissions and nasal regurgitation, breathiness and diplophonia, and slowed AMR's. However, variable prosodic rate is not typically associated with flaccid dysarthria.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is not a symptom of spastic dysarthria?

    • A.

      Emotional lability

    • B.

      Hyperactive gag reflex

    • C.

      Low pitch, with strained strangled voice quality

    • D.

      Festination

    • E.

      Excess and equal stress

    Correct Answer
    D. Festination
    Explanation
    Festination is not a symptom of spastic dysarthria. Spastic dysarthria is a speech disorder caused by muscle weakness and stiffness. Symptoms typically include low pitch, strained voice quality, excess and equal stress, and hyperactive gag reflex. Festination, on the other hand, is a symptom commonly associated with Parkinson's disease, characterized by a shuffling gait and a tendency to take small, quick steps.

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  • 10. 

    Which statement regarding ataxic dysarthria is incorrect?

    • A.

      Damage to the cerebellum and cerbellar system, and is usually bilateral

    • B.

      Rhythm is disturbed, but not articulation

    • C.

      Tone changes occur

    • D.

      Can be caused by Multiple Sclerosis, multiple systems atrophy and Shy-Drager syndrome

    • E.

      Includes major prosodic changes, including scanning, stumbling, prolonged phonemes, and a generally distrubed rhythm.

    Correct Answer
    C. Tone changes occur
    Explanation
    Ataxic dysarthria is a speech disorder caused by damage to the cerebellum and cerebellar system, which is usually bilateral. It is characterized by disturbed rhythm, articulation, and prosody. However, tone changes do not occur in ataxic dysarthria.

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  • 11. 

    Which statement regarding hypokinetic dysarthria is incorrect?

    • A.

      Characterised by reduced movements, festination, rigidity and Parkinsonism symptoms.

    • B.

      Occurs from damage to subcortical regions, particularly the basal ganglia

    • C.

      Prosody characterised by reduced stress, loudness, with inappropriate silences

    • D.

      Characterised by "blurred" speech, excess loudness variations, and reduced force

    • E.

      Articulation characterised by palilalia, reduced jaw stability and festination

    Correct Answer
    D. Characterised by "blurred" speech, excess loudness variations, and reduced force
    Explanation
    Hypokinetic dysarthria is a speech disorder characterized by reduced movements, festination, rigidity, and Parkinsonism symptoms. It occurs from damage to subcortical regions, particularly the basal ganglia. The prosody in hypokinetic dysarthria is characterized by reduced stress, loudness, and inappropriate silences. Articulation is characterized by palilalia, reduced jaw stability, and festination. However, "blurred" speech, excess loudness variations, and reduced force are not characteristic features of hypokinetic dysarthria.

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  • 12. 

    Which statement regarding hyperkinetic dysarthria is incorrect?

    • A.

      Includes oro-facial tardive dyskinesia, chorea and dystonia

    • B.

      Results from damage to the cerebellar unit or pyramidal pathway

    • C.

      Respiration characterised by sudden, forced involuntary inspiration or expiration

    • D.

      Has irregular artic breakdowns, a variable rate, distorted vowels, slow irregular AMR's

    • E.

      Phonation characteristics include pitch & loudness breaks, abnormal noises and a harsh vocal quality.

    Correct Answer
    B. Results from damage to the cerebellar unit or pyramidal pathway
    Explanation
    Hyperkinetic dysarthria is a motor speech disorder characterized by involuntary movements affecting the muscles involved in speech production. It is caused by damage to the basal ganglia, not the cerebellar unit or pyramidal pathway. The basal ganglia is responsible for regulating movement, and damage to this area can lead to abnormal muscle contractions and involuntary movements seen in hyperkinetic dysarthria. This can result in irregular articulation breakdowns, variable speech rate, distorted vowels, and abnormal phonation characteristics such as pitch and loudness breaks, abnormal noises, and a harsh vocal quality.

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  • 13. 

    Which statement regarding unilateral upper motor neuron dysarthria is incorrect?

    • A.

      Results from damage to upper motor neuron pathways

    • B.

      Possible unilateral tongue or lower face weakness with atrophy and fasciculations

    • C.

      Imprecise AMR's and irregular artic breakdowns

    • D.

      Includes mild dysphagia and drooling

    • E.

      Damage occurs through vascular events, TBI's and tumours

    Correct Answer
    B. Possible unilateral tongue or lower face weakness with atrophy and fasciculations
    Explanation
    The statement "Possible unilateral tongue or lower face weakness with atrophy and fasciculations" is incorrect because unilateral upper motor neuron dysarthria typically does not involve atrophy and fasciculations. Unilateral weakness may be present, but without these additional symptoms.

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  • 14. 

    Why do you assess dysarthria and dyspraxia? (5 reasons)

    Correct Answer
    Description Detection Establishing diagnostic possibilities Establishing a diagnosis Specifying severity
    Description of a disorder Detection of a disorder Establishing diagnostic possibilities Establishing a diagnosis Specifying severity
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to assess dysarthria and dyspraxia for description, detection, establishing diagnostic possibilities, establishing a diagnosis, and specifying severity. By assessing these speech and motor disorders, healthcare professionals can gather information about the characteristics and symptoms of the disorders (description), identify the presence of the disorders (detection), consider potential causes and underlying conditions (establishing diagnostic possibilities), confirm the presence of the disorders (establishing a diagnosis), and determine the extent and impact of the disorders (specifying severity).

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  • 15. 

    List what domains you assess when assessing dysarthria and dyspraxia.

  • 16. 

    Which of the following statements regarding paediatric assessment is incorrect?

    • A.

      The Robbins-Klee Protocol is for assessing respiratory support

    • B.

      VMPAC stands for Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children

    • C.

      The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment (GOS.SP.ASS) is for assessing childhood apraxia of speech

    • D.

      The Goldmann Fristoe test of articulation can be used for assessment of dysarthria and dyspraxia

    • E.

      The OME/OPE plus a speech sample can be used

    Correct Answer
    C. The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment (GOS.SP.ASS) is for assessing childhood apraxia of speech
    Explanation
    The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment (GOS.SP.ASS) is not used for assessing childhood apraxia of speech.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following statements is correct regarding assessment of adult dysarthria and dyspraxia?

    • A.

      Assessment tools include: OME, assessing oral mechanism at rest, Frenchay, Apraxia battery for adults

    • B.

      Assessment does not assess intelligibility or comprehesibility.

    • C.

      A case history is necessary

    • D.

      Salient features and confirmatory signs need to be identified

    • E.

      A speech sample may be taken

    Correct Answer
    B. Assessment does not assess intelligibility or comprehesibility.
    Explanation
    Assessment of adult dysarthria and dyspraxia includes various tools such as OME, Frenchay, and Apraxia battery for adults. However, the assessment does not specifically evaluate the intelligibility or comprehensibility of speech. To effectively assess these conditions, a case history is necessary, salient features and confirmatory signs need to be identified, and a speech sample may be taken.

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  • 18. 

    The nature of paediatric breakdowns include: (more than 1 correct answer):

    • A.

      Artic: place, manner, range of movement

    • B.

      Timing of speech sound production and co-ordination

    • C.

      Sequencing and accuracy disorders

    • D.

      Prosody disorders

    • E.

      Resonatory disorders

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Artic: place, manner, range of movement
    B. Timing of speech sound production and co-ordination
    C. Sequencing and accuracy disorders
    D. Prosody disorders
    E. Resonatory disorders
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes all the different aspects of paediatric breakdowns in speech. Articulation refers to the specific movements of the articulators (such as the tongue and lips) involved in producing speech sounds. Timing of speech sound production and co-ordination refers to the ability to produce speech sounds in the correct sequence and with appropriate timing. Sequencing and accuracy disorders refer to difficulties in organizing and producing speech sounds in the correct order and with accuracy. Prosody disorders involve difficulties with the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech. Resonatory disorders refer to problems with the resonance or quality of the voice.

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  • 19. 

    What are the parameters for speech production as listed by Joffee

    • A.

      Range

    • B.

      Strength

    • C.

      Co-ordination

    • D.

      Speed

    • E.

      Muscle tension

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Range
    B. Strength
    D. Speed
    Explanation
    Joffee lists range, strength, and speed as parameters for speech production. These parameters refer to the abilities and characteristics of the vocal muscles and mechanisms involved in producing speech. Range refers to the ability to produce a variety of pitches and tones. Strength refers to the power and force exerted by the vocal muscles. Speed refers to the rate at which speech sounds are produced. These parameters are important for effective and efficient speech production, allowing individuals to vary their pitch, project their voice, and articulate words clearly.

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  • 20. 

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAoS) is not characterised by

    • A.

      Inconsistent errors

    • B.

      Facial groping

    • C.

      Festination

    • D.

      Unusual stress patterns

    • E.

      Reduced word shapes

    Correct Answer
    D. Unusual stress patterns
    Explanation
    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAoS) is a motor speech disorder that affects a child's ability to plan and execute the movements necessary for speech production. It is characterized by inconsistent errors, where the child may produce the same word differently each time. Facial groping refers to the child's attempt to use facial movements to compensate for the difficulty in producing speech sounds. Festination is a term used to describe a rapid, hurried speech rate. Reduced word shapes refers to the limited variety of syllable shapes used by the child. Unusual stress patterns, however, are not a characteristic of childhood apraxia of speech.

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  • 21. 

    True or false: Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder with difficulty at the level of execution.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder characterized by difficulty in executing or controlling the movements necessary for speech production. It is caused by damage or dysfunction in the muscles or nerves responsible for speech. This can result in slurred or unclear speech, weak or imprecise articulation, and difficulty with breath control. Therefore, the statement that dysarthria is a motor speech disorder with difficulty at the level of execution is true.

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  • 22. 

    True or false: Dyspraxia is a motor speech disorder with difficulty at the level of planning or programming.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Dyspraxia is indeed a motor speech disorder that affects the planning and programming of motor movements required for speech. Individuals with dyspraxia have difficulty coordinating the muscles involved in speech production, resulting in speech difficulties such as slurred or unclear speech, difficulty with articulation, and problems with rhythm and timing. This difficulty in planning and programming the motor movements required for speech is a key characteristic of dyspraxia. Therefore, the statement "Dyspraxia is a motor speech disorder with difficulty at the level of planning or programming" is true.

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  • 23. 

    True or false: Joffee's note are shit

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      True

    • C.

      True

    • D.

      True

    • E.

      True

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. True
    B. True
    C. True
    D. True
    E. True
  • 24. 

    What is the correct order for the 4 stages of intervention?

    • A.

      Establish, generalise, maintain, stabilise

    • B.

      Generalise, Stabilise, establish, maintain

    • C.

      Establish, stabilise, generalise, maintain

    • D.

      Maintain, generalise, stabilise, establish

    • E.

      Stabilise, generalise, maintain, establish

    Correct Answer
    C. Establish, stabilise, generalise, maintain
    Explanation
    The correct order for the 4 stages of intervention is as follows: Establish, stabilise, generalise, maintain. This order suggests that the first step is to establish a foundation or baseline for the intervention. Then, the focus shifts to stabilising the progress made during the intervention. After that, the intervention can be generalised or applied to different situations or settings. Finally, the goal is to maintain the progress achieved through ongoing support and reinforcement.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following statement's is not true of intervention for multiple sound errors

    • A.

      Requires a more holistic approach than 'one sound at a time'

    • B.

      Targeting sound classes produces better results than 'one sound at a time'

    • C.

      Meaningful contrast therapy is useful

    • D.

      The child is doomed and there is nothing you can conceivably do to help the child

    Correct Answer
    D. The child is doomed and there is nothing you can conceivably do to help the child
    Explanation
    The statement "The child is doomed and there is nothing you can conceivably do to help the child" is not true of intervention for multiple sound errors. This answer is incorrect because intervention for multiple sound errors requires a holistic approach, targeting sound classes, and utilizing meaningful contrast therapy to achieve better results. It implies that there is no hope or possibility of helping the child, which is not true as intervention strategies can be effective in improving the child's speech.

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  • 26. 

    What does PROMPT stand for?

    Correct Answer
    Prompts for reconstructing oral muscular phonetic targets
    Prompts for Reconstructing Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets
    Explanation
    The acronym PROMPT stands for Prompts for Reconstructing Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets. This term refers to a technique used in speech therapy to help individuals improve their speech production skills by providing tactile cues and prompts to the muscles involved in speech production. The correct answer is "Prompts for reconstructing oral muscular phonetic targets, Prompts for Reconstructing Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets."

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  • 27. 

    What is stage one of PROMPT?

    • A.

      Tone

    • B.

      Phonation

    • C.

      Prosody

    Correct Answer
    A. Tone
    Explanation
    Stage one of PROMPT is focused on targeting the tone of speech. This involves helping the individual produce appropriate pitch and intonation patterns. By working on tone, PROMPT aims to improve the overall quality and clarity of the person's speech.

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  • 28. 

    Which two stages of PROMPT create breath control?

    • A.

      Tone and Prosody

    • B.

      Tone and Phonation

    • C.

      Phonation and tongue control

    • D.

      Phonation and prosody

    • E.

      Tone and sequenced movements in multiple planes

    Correct Answer
    B. Tone and Phonation
    Explanation
    Tone refers to the quality or pitch of a sound, while phonation refers to the production of vocal sounds. Both of these stages are involved in creating breath control. Tone helps regulate the airflow and the amount of air pressure used during speech, while phonation involves the coordinated movement of the vocal folds to produce specific sounds. Together, these stages contribute to the control and regulation of breath during speech.

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  • 29. 

    What is stage 2 of the PROMPT system?

    Correct Answer
    Phonation
    Explanation
    Stage 2 of the PROMPT system is phonation. Phonation refers to the production of sound through the vocal cords. In this stage, the individual learns to coordinate the movements of their vocal cords to produce clear and accurate speech sounds. This stage focuses on developing the ability to control pitch, volume, and voice quality during speech production. By mastering phonation, individuals can improve their overall speech intelligibility and communication skills.

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  • 30. 

    What is stage 3 of the PROMPT system?

    Correct Answer
    Jaw in the vertical plane
    Jaw in vertical plane
    Explanation
    Stage 3 of the PROMPT system is characterized by the jaw being in the vertical plane. This means that the movement and positioning of the jaw are focused on the vertical alignment, ensuring proper articulation and coordination during speech production. This stage is crucial for achieving clarity and precision in speech sounds.

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  • 31. 

    What is stage 4 of the PROMPT system?

    Correct Answer
    Face retraction and rounding (Horizontal plane)
    Face retraction and rounding
    Movements in the horizontal plane
    Explanation
    Stage 4 of the PROMPT system involves face retraction and rounding in the horizontal plane. This means that during this stage, the client is guided to retract their face and round their lips in a horizontal direction. The movements in the horizontal plane help to improve articulation and speech clarity.

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  • 32. 

    What is stage 5 of the PROMPT system?

    Correct Answer
    Tongue control
    Explanation
    Stage 5 of the PROMPT system is tongue control. This stage focuses on facilitating the movement and control of the tongue in order to improve speech production and articulation. By targeting the specific movements and coordination of the tongue, individuals can develop clearer and more precise speech sounds. This stage is important for individuals who may have difficulty with tongue movements and need extra support in order to improve their speech abilities.

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  • 33. 

    What is stage 6 of the PROMPT system?

    Correct Answer
    Sequenced movements
    Sequenced movements, co-articulation in multiple planes
    Co-articulation in multiple planes
    Explanation
    Stage 6 of the PROMPT system is characterized by sequenced movements and co-articulation in multiple planes. This means that the individual is able to perform movements in a coordinated and sequential manner, while also being able to coordinate different articulatory movements in multiple planes. This stage indicates a higher level of motor control and coordination, allowing for more precise and complex speech production.

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  • 34. 

    What is stage 7 of the PROMPT system?

    Correct Answer
    Prosody
    Explanation
    Stage 7 of the PROMPT system is Prosody. Prosody refers to the rhythm, stress, and intonation patterns in speech. In this stage, the focus is on helping individuals improve their ability to use appropriate prosody while speaking. This includes aspects such as varying pitch, stress, and rhythm to convey meaning and emotion effectively. By targeting prosody, the PROMPT system aims to enhance overall communication skills and promote clearer and more expressive speech.

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  • 35. 

    In administering PROMPT, what needs to be considered?

    • A.

      Posture

    • B.

      Positioning

    • C.

      Head control

    • D.

      Use of visual cues

    • E.

      Stabilising tongue before jaw

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Posture
    B. Positioning
    C. Head control
    Explanation
    When administering PROMPT (Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets), several factors need to be considered. These include posture, positioning, and head control. These factors are important in ensuring that the individual receiving PROMPT therapy is in a stable and optimal position to facilitate proper muscle movements and articulation. By maintaining proper posture, positioning, and head control, the therapist can effectively guide the individual in achieving accurate and coordinated speech movements.

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