Psych Chapter 10: Emotional Development

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Psych Chapter 10: Emotional Development - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Jeniel is a very active, uninhibited little girl. Her parents provide her with a stimulating environment and allow her to run and explore whenever they can. This illustrates:

    • A.

      Environmental influences shaping personality.

    • B.

      Goodness of fit.

    • C.

      Secure attachment.

    • D.

      Gender shaping environment.

    Correct Answer
    B. Goodness of fit.
    Explanation
    The given scenario of Jeniel being provided with a stimulating environment and the freedom to explore suggests that her parents are creating a good match or "goodness of fit" between her personality and her environment. This means that her parents are accommodating and adapting to Jeniel's individual needs and characteristics, allowing her to thrive and develop her personality in a way that suits her best.

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  • 2. 

    John does not recognize when or understand why his wife gets frustrated when he leaves his dirty socks and other laundry on the bathroom floor. John is lacking:

    • A.

      Identity cohesion.

    • B.

      Self-efficacy .

    • C.

      Emotional competence .

    • D.

      Industry.

    Correct Answer
    C. Emotional competence .
    Explanation
    John's lack of recognition and understanding of his wife's frustration with his behavior indicates a lack of emotional competence. Emotional competence refers to the ability to recognize, understand, and manage one's own emotions and the emotions of others. In this case, John is unable to recognize and understand why his wife gets frustrated, suggesting a lack of emotional intelligence and competence in dealing with emotions.

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  • 3. 

    Jackson checks his mother’s expression before venturing toward the sidewalk. This is an example of:

    • A.

      Social referencing.

    • B.

      Separation protest.

    • C.

      Joint attention.

    • D.

      Strange situation anxiety.

    Correct Answer
    A. Social referencing.
    Explanation
    In this scenario, Jackson is observing his mother's facial expression before deciding to venture toward the sidewalk. This behavior is indicative of social referencing, which is the act of using others' emotional expressions and reactions to guide one's own behavior and make sense of unfamiliar situations. Jackson is seeking cues from his mother to determine if it is safe or appropriate for him to proceed towards the sidewalk.

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  • 4. 

    High cortisol levels, high activity in the right frontal brain lobe, and high and stable heart rate are associated with:

    • A.

      Pride.

    • B.

      Pain.

    • C.

      Joy.

    • D.

      Inhibition.

    Correct Answer
    D. Inhibition.
    Explanation
    High cortisol levels, high activity in the right frontal brain lobe, and high and stable heart rate are associated with inhibition. Inhibition refers to the ability to control or suppress certain behaviors or impulses. High cortisol levels are often linked to stress and anxiety, which can lead to increased inhibition. The right frontal brain lobe is involved in regulating emotions and behavior, and high activity in this area can indicate heightened inhibition. Additionally, a high and stable heart rate is often associated with a state of alertness and self-control, further supporting the association with inhibition.

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  • 5. 

    Baby Ryan feels attached to his mother. Which of the following statements is most likely TRUE?

    • A.

      Ryan expects his mother to provide pleasure.

    • B.

      Ryan is surprised when his mother provides pleasure.

    • C.

      Ryan's mother has little time for contact comfort, but provides physical comfort.

    • D.

      Ryan is too young to have expectations about others.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ryan expects his mother to provide pleasure.
    Explanation
    Based on the information given, it is most likely true that Ryan expects his mother to provide pleasure. The statement implies that Ryan has a strong emotional bond with his mother and relies on her for emotional satisfaction and happiness. This suggests that Ryan has developed expectations regarding his mother's ability to provide him with pleasure and fulfill his emotional needs.

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  • 6. 

    Hal is a great dad. Which of the following likely characterizes a typical interaction with his children?

    • A.

      Hal is usually at work until after the children go to bed. On Saturdays, he takes his kids out for ice cream.

    • B.

      Hal is the homework consultant.

    • C.

      Hal likes to tickle and wrestle with his children.

    • D.

      Hal is in charge of feeding and bathing his children.

    Correct Answer
    C. Hal likes to tickle and wrestle with his children.
    Explanation
    Hal liking to tickle and wrestle with his children likely characterizes a typical interaction with his children because it shows a playful and affectionate relationship between Hal and his kids. This suggests that Hal enjoys spending quality time with his children and engages in physical activities that create a bond and bring joy to their relationship.

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  • 7. 

    Janice is a sensitive and responsive caregiver. She anticipates her baby’s needs and is available and flexible. What type of attachment is Janice’s baby likely to form?

    • A.

      Secure.

    • B.

      Insecure

    • C.

      Avoidant.

    • D.

      Insecure resistant.

    Correct Answer
    A. Secure.
    Explanation
    Janice's baby is likely to form a secure attachment. This is because Janice is described as a sensitive and responsive caregiver who anticipates her baby's needs and is available and flexible. These qualities create a secure and nurturing environment for the baby, allowing them to develop a healthy attachment characterized by trust, comfort, and a sense of security.

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  • 8. 

    Maria is pregnant. Statistically speaking, what Chess and Thomas temperament will her child most likely have?

    • A.

      Difficult.

    • B.

      Extroverted

    • C.

      Easy.

    • D.

      Slow-to-warm-up.

    Correct Answer
    C. Easy.
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, Maria being pregnant does not provide any indication of the temperament her child will have. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the most likely temperament for her child.

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  • 9. 

    Nora frequently socializes with her neighbors and has intense positive emotions with family members and established friends. Nora is MOST likely a(n):

    • A.

      Middle-aged adult.

    • B.

      Older adult.

    • C.

      Adolescent.

    • D.

      Toddler.

    Correct Answer
    B. Older adult.
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, Nora is described as someone who frequently socializes with her neighbors and has intense positive emotions with family members and established friends. These characteristics are more commonly associated with older adults who have established social networks and strong emotional connections with loved ones. Adolescents and toddlers are less likely to have these types of social interactions and emotional relationships. Therefore, Nora is most likely an older adult.

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  • 10. 

    Jenna cries when her mother leaves her with the babysitter. Jenna is showing:

    • A.

      Stranger anxiety.

    • B.

      Separation protest.

    • C.

      Emotional deregulation.

    • D.

      Self stimulation.

    Correct Answer
    B. Separation protest.
    Explanation
    Jenna crying when her mother leaves her with the babysitter indicates separation protest. Separation protest is a common behavior observed in infants and toddlers when they experience distress or anxiety when separated from their primary caregiver. In this case, Jenna's crying is a clear sign of her protest against being separated from her mother, which is a typical response at her age. Stranger anxiety refers to a child's fear or wariness of unfamiliar people, emotional deregulation refers to difficulty in managing emotions, and self-stimulation refers to repetitive or self-soothing behaviors.

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  • 11. 

    Andrew is beginning to smile whenever he sees his mother’s face. Approximately how old is Andrew?

    • A.

      2 to 3 months.

    • B.

      4 to 5 months

    • C.

      6 to 7 months

    • D.

      8 to 9 months.

    Correct Answer
    A. 2 to 3 months.
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, Andrew is beginning to smile whenever he sees his mother's face. This behavior typically starts to develop between 2 to 3 months of age in infants. Therefore, it can be inferred that Andrew is approximately 2 to 3 months old.

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  • 12. 

    Kierra is a young, single parent who is emotionally distant from her children. When she does interact with them, she often gets frustrated and sends them away from her. What type of attachment are her children likely to form?

    • A.

      Disinterested.

    • B.

      Independent.

    • C.

      Avoidant.

    • D.

      Secure.

    Correct Answer
    C. Avoidant.
    Explanation
    Kierra's emotional distance and frustration when interacting with her children are indicators of an avoidant attachment style. In this type of attachment, children learn to suppress their needs and emotions, as they perceive that their caregiver is unresponsive and unavailable. As a result, they may become emotionally distant themselves and learn to rely on themselves rather than seeking comfort and support from their caregiver. This can lead to difficulties in forming close and secure relationships later in life.

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  • 13. 

    Goodness of fit occurs when a child’s temperament matches:

    • A.

      Environmental demands.

    • B.

      The parent's temperament.

    • C.

      The parent's attachment style.

    • D.

      Reciprocal interactions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Environmental demands.
    Explanation
    Goodness of fit refers to the degree of compatibility between a child's temperament and the environmental demands they face. It suggests that when a child's temperament aligns well with the expectations and requirements of their environment, they are more likely to experience positive outcomes and adaptive behavior. This concept emphasizes the importance of considering the fit between a child's unique characteristics and the demands of their surroundings in order to promote their healthy development.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is more characteristic of love in a mature relationship than in a new relationship?

    • A.

      Physical attraction.

    • B.

      Mutual interest.

    • C.

      Romance.

    • D.

      Passion.

    Correct Answer
    B. Mutual interest.
    Explanation
    In a mature relationship, mutual interest is more characteristic of love compared to a new relationship. This is because as a relationship develops and matures, the initial physical attraction and passion may fade away, but mutual interest remains strong. Mutual interest signifies a deeper connection and shared values, interests, and goals, which are essential for a long-lasting and healthy relationship. Romance and passion may still exist in a mature relationship, but they are not as central as mutual interest.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following temperament categories coincide with each other?

    • A.

      Slow-to-warm-up, extraversion surgency, inhibited.

    • B.

      Difficult, effortful control, uninhibited.

    • C.

      Easy, effortful control, inhibited.

    • D.

      Easy, extraversion surgency, uninhibited.

    Correct Answer
    D. Easy, extraversion surgency, uninhibited.
    Explanation
    The categories of "easy," "extraversion surgency," and "uninhibited" coincide with each other. This means that individuals who are categorized as "easy" in terms of temperament are also likely to exhibit traits of extraversion surgency and uninhibited behavior.

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  • 16. 

    The most frequent expression of an infant’s fear involves:

    • A.

      Heredity.

    • B.

      Reciprocal interaction.

    • C.

      Abuse or neglect.

    • D.

      Stranger anxiety.

    Correct Answer
    D. Stranger anxiety.
    Explanation
    Stranger anxiety refers to the fear and wariness that infants often display towards unfamiliar people. It is a common and normal developmental milestone that typically emerges around 6 to 8 months of age. Infants may become clingy, cry, or exhibit signs of distress when confronted with unfamiliar individuals. This fear is believed to be a protective mechanism that helps infants recognize and differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar faces, ensuring their safety and well-being. Therefore, stranger anxiety is the most frequent expression of an infant's fear, as mentioned in the answer choice.

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  • 17. 

      As young children get older, they:  

    • A.

      Need more help from parents to regulate emotion.

    • B.

      Gradually become able to regulate emotion.

    • C.

      Shift from internal to external regulation of emotional arousal.

    • D.

      Become less dependent on cognitive strategies for regulating emotions.

    Correct Answer
    B. Gradually become able to regulate emotion.
    Explanation
    As young children get older, they gradually become able to regulate their emotions. This means that as they grow and develop, they gain the skills and abilities to manage and control their emotions more effectively. This could be due to a combination of factors, such as increased cognitive abilities, socialization experiences, and the development of emotional awareness and self-regulation skills. It is a normal part of child development for children to become more independent in regulating their own emotions as they get older.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is TRUE of the nature/nurture argument regarding temperament?

    • A.

      Biology is the primary influence across the life span.

    • B.

      The influence of biology increases as the child gets older.

    • C.

      Experience and environment both influence temperament across the life span.

    • D.

      Environment is the primary influence across the life span.

    Correct Answer
    C. Experience and environment both influence temperament across the life span.
    Explanation
    Experience and environment both influence temperament across the life span. This means that both nature (biology) and nurture (experience and environment) play a role in shaping a person's temperament. It suggests that while biology may have some influence, external factors such as life experiences and the environment also have a significant impact on a person's temperament throughout their life.

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  • 19. 

    Cherilyn’s parents often ignore her affect or try to explain that her problems should not upset her. Cherilyn’s parents are:

    • A.

      Emotion-coaching.

    • B.

      Emotion-dismissing.

    • C.

      Emotion-attending.

    • D.

      Emotion-scaffolding.

    Correct Answer
    B. Emotion-dismissing.
    Explanation
    Cherilyn's parents often ignore her affect or try to explain that her problems should not upset her. This indicates that they are dismissing her emotions rather than acknowledging or attending to them. Emotion-dismissing parents tend to downplay or invalidate their child's feelings, which can be detrimental to the child's emotional well-being.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is MOST likely to cause an infant to express fear?

    • A.

      Stranger anxiety.

    • B.

      Depth perception tasks.

    • C.

      Unfamiliar objects.

    • D.

      Loud noises.

    Correct Answer
    A. Stranger anxiety.
    Explanation
    Stranger anxiety is the most likely cause for an infant to express fear because it is a normal developmental stage where infants become wary and fearful of unfamiliar people. This fear is a result of their growing cognitive abilities and their ability to differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar faces. It is a natural response as infants become more attached to their primary caregivers and feel uncomfortable or scared when faced with unfamiliar individuals. Depth perception tasks, unfamiliar objects, and loud noises may also cause fear in infants, but stranger anxiety is specifically related to fear of unfamiliar people.

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