“Avoid direct sunlight and tanning beds while on this medication.”
“Milk and cheese products result in increased levels of tetracycline.”
“Antacids taken with the medication help to reduce gastrointestinal distress.”
“Take the medication until you are feeling better.”
The penicillin will cause an enhanced anticoagulant effect of the warfarin.
The penicillin will cause the anticoagulant effect of the warfarin to decrease.
The warfarin will reduce the antiinfective action of the penicillin.
The warfarin will increase the effectiveness of the penicillin.
Notify the physician.
Take the patient’s vital signs.
Stop the antibiotic infusion.
Check for allergies.
Blood culture, ampicillin dose, urine culture
Urine culture, ampicillin dose, blood culture
Ampicillin dose, blood and urine cultures
Blood and urine cultures, ampicillin dose
“Take it with cheese and crackers or yogurt.”
“Take each dose with a glass of milk.”
“Take an antacid with each dose as needed.”
“Drink a full glass of water with each dose.”
Increased red blood cell count
Increased white blood cell count
Decreased white blood cell count
Decreased platelet count
Large doses of antibiotics that kill normal flora.
The infection spreading from her lungs to the new site of infection.
Resistance of the pneumonia-causing bacteria to the drugs.
An allergic reaction to the antibiotics.
Antiseptics are used to sterilize surgical equipment.
Disinfectants are used as preoperative skin preparation.
Antiseptics are used on living tissue to kill microorganisms.
Disinfectants are used only on nonliving objects to destroy organisms.
Chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiclens)
Shortness of breath
Swelling of the tongue
Black, hairy tongue
White blood cell count of 7000 mm3
Tinnitus and hearing loss
Decreased creatinine levels
Monitoring blood pressure for hypertension during the infusions
Infusing the drug rapidly
Restricting fluids during vancomycin therapy
Infusing the drug over at least 1 hour
Risk for injury (hearing loss)
Disturbed body image related to gynecomastia
Imbalanced nutrition, less than body requirements, related to nausea
“The combined effect of both antibiotics is greater than each of them alone.”
“The first antibiotic was not strong enough to work.”
“We have not yet isolated the bacteria, so the two antibiotics are given to cover a wide range of microorganisms.”
“We can give a reduced amount of each one if we give them together.”
Calcium channel blockers
Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor antidepressants
Administer the vancomycin as ordered and draw a peak level.
Hold the drug and administer 4 hours later.
Hold the drug and notify the physician.
Repeat the test to verify results.
Colistimethate sodium or colistin (Coly-Mycin)
Tendinitis and tendon rupture
Decreasing serum creatinine level
Rising serum creatinine level
Monitoring serum creatinine levels
Restricting fluids while the patient is on this medication
Warning the patient that he might feel flushed or have facial itching
Instructing the patient to report dizziness or a feeling of fullness in the ears
Reporting a trough drug level of 12 mcg/mL and holding the drug
Reporting a trough drug level of 24 mcg/mL and holding the drug
Insomnia and nervousness
Temporary swelling and rash
Transient burning when applied
This medication has no adverse effects.
The didanosine is less expensive.
Didanosine has been shown to improve survival rates.
The zidovudine therapy is effective for only a year.
The zidovudine therapy may have caused severe bone marrow suppression.
Intravenous infusions should be administered slowly, over at least 1 hour.
Intravenous infusions should be administered by rapid bolus.
Intravenous acyclovir should be refrigerated.
Oral fluids should be restricted while a patient is taking intravenous acyclovir.
It has a synergistic effect when given with cidofovir, thus making the antiviral medication more effective.
The probenecid also prevents the replication of the virus.
Concurrent drug therapy with probenecid reduces the nephrotoxicity of the cidofovir.
The probenecid reduces the adverse gastrointestinal effects of the cidofovir.
Are given for palliative reasons only.
Will be effective as long as he is not exposed to the virus again.
Can be given in large enough doses to eradicate the virus without harming the body’s healthy cells.
May also kill healthy cells while killing viruses.
“Now that you’ve had the flu, you will need a booster vaccination, not the antiviral drug.”
“We need to do a blood test to verify that you actually have the flu.”
“Ideally, drug therapy should be started within 2 days of symptom onset, not 4 days
“We’ll get you a prescription. As long as you start treatment within the next 24 hours, the drug should be effective.”
“Be sure to wash your hands thoroughly before and after applying this medicine.”
“Apply this ointment until the lesion stops hurting.”
“Sterile gloves are required when applying this ointment.”
“Use a clean glove when applying this ointment.”
“If your partner develops these lesions, then he can also use the medication.”
“You need to avoid touching the area around your eyes.”
“You will have to practice abstinence when these lesions are active.”
“Ask your health care provider about getting Pap smears done every 6 months because of an increased risk for cervical cancer.”
Type 2 diabetes
Headache and nervousness
Reddish-orange urine and stool
Numbness and tingling of extremities
The chronic cough is gone.
There are two consecutive negative purified protein derivative (PPD) results over 2 months.
There is increased tolerance to the medication therapy and there are fewer reports of adverse effects.
There is a decrease in symptoms of tuberculosis along with improved chest x-rays and sputum cultures.
Women have a high risk for thrombophlebitis while on this drug.
A higher dose of rifampin will be necessary because of the contraceptive.
Oral contraceptives are less effective while the patient is taking rifampin.
The incidence of adverse effects is greater if the two drugs are taken together.
“Drug therapy will last until the symptoms have stopped.”
“Drug therapy will continue until the tuberculosis develops resistance.”
“You should expect to take these drugs for as long as 24 months.”
“You will be on antituberculosis drug therapy for the rest of your life.”
“It is hoped that at least one of these drugs will work to fight the tuberculosis.”
“Taking multiple drugs reduces the chance that the tuberculosis will become drug resistant.”
“Using several drugs has a faster effect than single-drug therapy.”
“Using multiple drugs enhances the effect of each drug.”
“Take medications until the symptoms disappear.”
“Take medications at the same time every day.”
“You will be considered contagious during most of the illness and must take precautions to avoid spreading the disease.”
“Stop taking the medications if you have severe adverse effects.”
“Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while on this therapy.”
“If you notice reddish-brown or reddish-orange urine, stop taking the drug and contact your doctor right away.”
“If you experience a burning or tingling in your fingers or toes, report it to your physician immediately.”
“Oral contraceptives may not work while you are taking these drugs, so you will have to use another form of birth control.”
Discontinue the infusion immediately.
Reduce the infusion rate gradually until the adverse effects subside.
Administer the medication by rapid IV infusion to reduce the potential adverse effects.
Nothing; these are expected side effects of this medication.
Reduced action of oral anticoagulants, resulting in decreased prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR)
Increased action of oral anticoagulants, resulting in increased PT-INR
Increased change in renal impairment caused by the antifungal drug
Decreased effectiveness of the antifungal drug
Discontinuing the infusion immediately if fever, chills, or nausea occur
Gradually increasing the infusion rate until adverse effects occur
If fever, chills, or nausea occur during the infusion, administering medications to treat the symptoms
Before beginning the infusion, administering an antipyretic and an antiemetic drug
The lipid formulations may be given in an oral form.
The doses are much lower than the doses of the older drugs.
The lipid formulations are associated with fewer adverse effects than the older drugs.
There is no difference in cost between the new and older forms.
“The medication can be stopped when your symptoms are relieved.”
“Discontinue this medication if menstruation begins.”
“Daily douching is part of the treatment for vaginal fungal infections.”
“Abstain from sexual intercourse until the treatment has been completed and the infection has resolved.”
Decreased breath sounds in the lower lobes
History of cardiac dysrhythmias
History of diabetes type II
Potassium level of 3.8 mEq/L
Serum potassium level of 2.9 mEq/L
Serum potassium level of 5.6 mEq/L
White blood count of 6500 mm3
Platelet count of 300,000 per microliter
A single dose of a vaginal antifungal cream.
A one-time infusion of amphotericin B.
A single dose of a fluconazole (Diflucan) oral tablet.
Less effective than the suppositories.
“Chew the lozenges until they are completely dissolved.”
“Let the lozenge dissolve slowly and completely in your mouth without chewing it.”
“Rinse your mouth with water before taking the inhaler.”
“Rinse your mouth with mouthwash after taking the inhaler.”
Administering the medication by rapid IV infusion
Discontinuing the drug immediately if the patient develops tingling and numbness in the extremities
If adverse effects occur, reducing the IV rate gradually until they subside
Using an infusion pump for IV therapy
Monitoring the IV site for signs of phlebitis and infiltration
Ordering premedication for fever and nausea
Knowing that the intravenous solution for amphotericin B will be cloudy
Knowing that muscle twitching may indicate hypokalemia
“The tetracycline prevents reinfection by the malarial parasite.”
“The antibiotic is combined with quinine to reduce the adverse effects of the quinine.”
“An antibacterial drug prevents the occurrence of superinfection during antimalarial therapy.”
“The two drugs are more effective against malaria when given together.”
The medication is better absorbed and has fewer adverse effects if taken on an empty stomach.
This drug should be started 3 weeks before exposure but can be discontinued once she leaves the area.
This drug is taken only when she observes mosquito bites, because it can have toxic effects if taken unnecessarily.
This drug is usually started 1 to 2 weeks before traveling to endemic areas and is continued for 4 weeks after leaving the area.
The urine may become dilute and pale during therapy.
Taking the medications with food reduces gastrointestinal upset.
The medications should be taken on an empty stomach.
The drugs may be discontinued once the diarrhea subsides.
They may cause severe drowsiness.
Anthelmintics are very specific in their actions.
Anthelmintics are effective against broad classes of infestations.
They are used to treat protozoal infections such as intestinal amebiasis.