Obstetric And Perinatal Infections

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| By Aliciaperkins
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Aliciaperkins
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Quizzes Created: 11 | Total Attempts: 26,706
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Obstetric And Perinatal Infections - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The leading cause of maternal mortality in endemic areas of the southwest US and Latin America is due to what fungal infection?

    • A.

      Candidiasis

    • B.

      Malaria

    • C.

      Poliomyelitis

    • D.

      Coccidioidomycosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Coccidioidomycosis
    Explanation
    Coccidioidomycosis is the correct answer because it is a fungal infection that is prevalent in endemic areas of the southwest US and Latin America. This infection, also known as Valley fever, is caused by inhaling spores of the fungus Coccidioides. It can cause a range of symptoms, from mild flu-like symptoms to severe pneumonia. In pregnant women, it can lead to complications such as pneumonia, respiratory distress, and even death, making it a leading cause of maternal mortality in these areas.

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  • 2. 

    Once a fetus is infected, it more more susceptible to infection due to its poor immunity and lack of synthesis of what antibody?

    • A.

      IgA

    • B.

      IgD

    • C.

      IgG

    • D.

      IgM

    Correct Answer
    C. IgG
    Explanation
    Once a fetus is infected, it is more susceptible to infection due to its poor immunity and lack of synthesis of IgG antibodies. IgG antibodies are the most abundant type of antibody in the body and they play a crucial role in providing passive immunity to the fetus during pregnancy. These antibodies are transferred from the mother to the fetus through the placenta, providing protection against various infections. However, if the fetus becomes infected, its own immune system is not fully developed and it cannot produce enough IgG antibodies to effectively fight off the infection, making it more susceptible to further infections.

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  • 3. 

    Molecules that can cause cellular defects in growth, i.e. induce fetal malformations, are known as

    • A.

      Secretagogues

    • B.

      Teratogens

    • C.

      Hematotrophic

    • D.

      Cytopathogenic

    Correct Answer
    B. Teratogens
    Explanation
    Teratogens are molecules that can cause cellular defects in growth and induce fetal malformations. They are substances or agents that can interfere with the normal development of an embryo or fetus. These molecules can be drugs, chemicals, infections, or even physical factors like radiation. Teratogens can have a wide range of effects on the developing organism, leading to various birth defects or developmental abnormalities. It is important to identify and avoid exposure to teratogens during pregnancy to ensure the healthy development of the fetus.

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  • 4. 

    A distinguishing factor between viral teratogens (rubella) and other teratogens (drugs, radiation) would be that

    • A.

      Only viral teratogens cause retarded fetal growth

    • B.

      Fetal death is only a possibility with other teratogens, not viral

    • C.

      Maternal effects are only seen with viral teratogens

    • D.

      Genetic factors are not present with viral teratogens

    Correct Answer
    D. Genetic factors are not present with viral teratogens
    Explanation
    Genetic factors refer to the presence of specific genes or genetic abnormalities that can increase the risk of birth defects or developmental issues in the fetus. In the context of teratogens, genetic factors can interact with other environmental factors to influence the likelihood and severity of birth defects. The given answer suggests that genetic factors are not present with viral teratogens, implying that viral infections during pregnancy do not directly affect the genetic makeup of the fetus. This distinguishes viral teratogens from other teratogens, such as drugs or radiation, which can potentially interact with genetic factors to cause birth defects.

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  • 5. 

    Primary infection of the mother, rather than re-activation, tends to have a worse fetal consequence. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Primary infection of the mother refers to the first time she is exposed to a particular infection. This is usually more severe because her immune system has not encountered the pathogen before and therefore has not developed specific defenses against it. As a result, the infection can have more severe consequences for the fetus. In contrast, reactivation of a previous infection tends to have milder effects because the mother's immune system has already developed some level of immunity to the pathogen. Therefore, the statement that primary infection of the mother tends to have worse fetal consequences is true.

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  • 6. 

    A fetus is particularly susceptible to rubella infection when maternal infection occurs during what stage of pregnancy?

    • A.

      1st trimester

    • B.

      2nd trimester

    • C.

      3rd trimester

    • D.

      Susceptibility unknown

    Correct Answer
    A. 1st trimester
    Explanation
    During the first 3 months, organ development occurs. virus interfere with development of heart, brain, eyes and ears

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  • 7. 

    Congenital rubella is associated with the development of what clinical condition in 80% of those infants infected?

    • A.

      Blindness

    • B.

      Deafness

    • C.

      Obesity

    • D.

      Diabetes mellitus

    Correct Answer
    B. Deafness
    Explanation
    Congenital rubella is a viral infection that can be passed from a pregnant woman to her unborn baby. It is known to cause a range of birth defects, with deafness being the most common clinical condition associated with it. Approximately 80% of infants infected with rubella during pregnancy will develop some degree of hearing loss. This is due to the virus affecting the development of the baby's auditory system in the womb. Therefore, deafness is the most likely clinical condition to be associated with congenital rubella infection.

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  • 8. 

    What antibody, produced by the fetus, can be detected in the cord blood of an infant infected with the rubella virus?

    • A.

      IgA

    • B.

      IgD

    • C.

      IgG

    • D.

      IgM

    Correct Answer
    D. IgM
    Explanation
    During a rubella virus infection, the fetus produces IgM antibodies, which can be detected in the cord blood of an infected infant. IgM antibodies are the first type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection. They are typically present in the early stages of an infection and help to activate other immune cells to fight against the virus. Therefore, the presence of IgM antibodies in the cord blood indicates an active rubella virus infection in the infant.

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  • 9. 

    Congenital rubella is completely preventable by

    • A.

      Isolation

    • B.

      Vaccination

    • C.

      Having a superb immune system

    Correct Answer
    B. Vaccination
    Explanation
    The correct answer is vaccination. Congenital rubella refers to rubella infection in a pregnant woman, which can cause severe birth defects in the baby. Vaccination against rubella is highly effective in preventing the disease. It helps to build immunity in individuals, preventing them from getting infected and transmitting the virus to others, including pregnant women. By vaccinating individuals, especially women of childbearing age, the risk of congenital rubella can be significantly reduced, ultimately preventing the associated birth defects.

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  • 10. 

    A primary CMV infection occurring during the first trimester is associated with sensorineural hearing loss, more specifically associated with what cranial nerve?

    • A.

      CN IV

    • B.

      CN V

    • C.

      CN VI

    • D.

      CN VIII

    Correct Answer
    D. CN VIII
    Explanation
    inner ear - abnormality in the hair cells of the organ of Corti in the cochlea

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  • 11. 

    95% of infants infected with congenital CMV infection are symptomatic at birth.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    most are symptomatic. Deafness and mental retardation may not be detectable until later in childhood

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  • 12. 

    Clinical features such as hepatosplenomegaly, skin and mucosal lesions, and a saddle-shaped nose are associated with what congenital infection?

    • A.

      Congenital rubella

    • B.

      Congenital CMV

    • C.

      Congenital syphilis

    • D.

      Congenital HIV

    Correct Answer
    C. Congenital syphilis
    Explanation
    Clinical features such as hepatosplenomegaly, skin and mucosal lesions, and a saddle-shaped nose are commonly seen in individuals with congenital syphilis. This infection is caused by the transmission of the bacteria Treponema pallidum from an infected mother to her fetus during pregnancy. These clinical features can occur due to the systemic spread of the bacteria and the resulting inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues.

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  • 13. 

    Congenital HIV is most likely transmitted to the fetus during what stage or pregnancy?

    • A.

      First 3 months

    • B.

      Late pregnancy or during delivery

    • C.

      No known susceptibility during any stage

    Correct Answer
    B. Late pregnancy or during delivery
    Explanation
    Congenital HIV is most likely transmitted to the fetus during late pregnancy or during delivery. This is because the virus can be passed from an HIV-positive mother to her baby through the placenta or during childbirth. Transmission during the first 3 months of pregnancy is less likely because the placenta is not fully developed at that stage, making it harder for the virus to cross the placental barrier. However, it is still important for pregnant women with HIV to receive proper medical care and take necessary precautions to reduce the risk of transmission to their babies.

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  • 14. 

    Congenital HIV infections can be controlled or prevented by 

    • A.

      Offering antiviral drugs during pregnancy

    • B.

      Having an elective cesarean section

    • C.

      Avoid breast feeding

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Congenital HIV infections can be controlled or prevented by offering antiviral drugs during pregnancy, having an elective cesarean section, and avoiding breastfeeding. Antiviral drugs can reduce the viral load in the mother, decreasing the risk of transmission to the fetus. An elective cesarean section can further reduce the risk of transmission during delivery. Finally, avoiding breastfeeding can prevent transmission of the virus through breast milk. Therefore, all of the above options are effective in controlling or preventing congenital HIV infections.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following must be present In order to positively diagnosis an infant with congenital HIV?

    • A.

      Anti-HIV

    • B.

      HIV antigen

    • C.

      Both Anti-HIV and antigen

    • D.

      Maternal IgG-Ab

    Correct Answer
    C. Both Anti-HIV and antigen
    Explanation
    In order to positively diagnose an infant with congenital HIV, both Anti-HIV and antigen must be present. Anti-HIV refers to the antibodies produced by the body in response to HIV infection, while HIV antigen is a protein produced by the virus itself. The presence of both indicates an active HIV infection in the infant, confirming the diagnosis. Maternal IgG-Ab, on the other hand, refers to the maternal antibodies passed on to the infant, which may or may not indicate an actual HIV infection in the infant.

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  • 16. 

    Listeria monocytogenes is classified as a

    • A.

      Fungus

    • B.

      Gram negative rod

    • C.

      Gram positive cocci

    • D.

      Gram positive rod

    Correct Answer
    D. Gram positive rod
    Explanation
    Listeria monocytogenes is classified as a gram positive rod because it is a bacterium that appears purple when stained with the Gram stain. Gram positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall, which retains the crystal violet stain, while gram negative bacteria do not. Listeria monocytogenes is rod-shaped and belongs to the phylum Firmicutes, which includes other gram positive bacteria.

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  • 17. 

    Due to the risk of development of congenital malformations, it is suggested that during pregnancy, women should not consume raw or undercooked meat because

    • A.

      Listeria is heat resistant

    • B.

      Listeria can grow at regular refrigeration temperatures

    • C.

      It will give you morning sickness

    • D.

      The consumption of excess mercury can be fatal

    Correct Answer
    B. Listeria can grow at regular refrigeration temperatures
    Explanation
    During pregnancy, it is important for women to avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat due to the risk of developing congenital malformations. The correct answer states that Listeria can grow at regular refrigeration temperatures. Listeria is a bacteria that can contaminate raw or undercooked meat and can cause a serious infection called listeriosis. This bacteria is able to grow and multiply even in refrigerated temperatures, increasing the risk of infection if the meat is not properly cooked. Therefore, it is crucial for pregnant women to thoroughly cook their meat to kill any potential Listeria bacteria and reduce the risk of listeriosis.

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  • 18. 

    Listeriosis has the potential to cause bacteremia in pregnancy women, which is why treatment with ampicillin may need to be combined with what other medication in order to achieve a bactericidal effect?

    • A.

      Cephalosporin

    • B.

      Doxycycline

    • C.

      Gentamicin

    • D.

      Interferons

    Correct Answer
    C. Gentamicin
    Explanation
    During pregnancy, Listeriosis can lead to bacteremia in women. Ampicillin is a commonly used antibiotic to treat Listeriosis, but it may not be sufficient on its own to achieve a bactericidal effect. Combining ampicillin with gentamicin can enhance the effectiveness of the treatment. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, thus aiding in the eradication of the Listeria bacteria. Therefore, combining ampicillin with gentamicin can help achieve a bactericidal effect and effectively treat Listeriosis in pregnant women.

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  • 19. 

    Chorioamnionitis and maternal fever can be the result of bacterial infections caused by colonized flora in the vagina and rectum, such as 

    • A.

      Group A hemolytic streptococci

    • B.

      Group B hemolytic streptococci

    • C.

      Candida

    • D.

      Staph auerus

    Correct Answer
    B. Group B hemolytic streptococci
    Explanation
    Chorioamnionitis and maternal fever can be caused by bacterial infections, and one of the common bacteria responsible for these infections is group B hemolytic streptococci. This bacterium is commonly found in the vagina and rectum and can lead to inflammation of the fetal membranes and amniotic fluid, resulting in chorioamnionitis. Maternal fever can also occur as a response to this bacterial infection. Therefore, group B hemolytic streptococci is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 20. 

      This is an example of what type of infection that usually causes inflammation and edema of the eye and is more severe?

    • A.

      Congenital HSV

    • B.

      Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum

    • C.

      Chlamydia infection

    • D.

      Staphylococcal infection

    Correct Answer
    B. Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum
    Explanation
    Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum is a type of infection that usually causes inflammation and edema of the eye and is more severe. This infection is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which is transmitted from the mother to the newborn during delivery. It can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly, including corneal scarring, vision loss, and systemic infection. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are essential to prevent these complications.

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  • 21. 

    This condition presents clinically with large areas of epidermal loss where bullae have burst due to epidermolytic toxins. 

    • A.

      Congenital HSV

    • B.

      Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum

    • C.

      Staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome

    • D.

      Congenital syphilis

    Correct Answer
    C. Staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome
    Explanation
    Staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome is a condition characterized by large areas of epidermal loss where bullae have burst due to epidermolytic toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. This condition typically affects infants and young children, and is caused by a localized infection with the bacteria. The epidermolytic toxins cause the outer layer of the skin to separate and blister, leading to the characteristic appearance of large areas of epidermal loss. This condition is different from other options listed, such as congenital HSV, gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, and congenital syphilis, which present with different clinical features and underlying causes.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Feb 03, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 08, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Aliciaperkins
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