A Quiz On Various Philosophical Concepts

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A Quiz On Various Philosophical Concepts - Quiz

The following quiz is a compilation of various philosophical concepts that were defined during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Do you think that you know them all? If so, play this quiz till the end and prove you're worth to it. This quiz will become tougher after each step. So, be careful and all the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ethical theory mill uses to justify his outlook on liberty is utilitarianism

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mill uses utilitarianism to justify his outlook on liberty because utilitarianism is a moral theory that focuses on maximizing overall happiness and minimizing overall suffering. According to utilitarianism, actions are morally right if they produce the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Mill argues that individual liberty is essential for promoting happiness and overall well-being, as it allows individuals to pursue their own interests and make their own choices. Therefore, Mill's justification for his outlook on liberty is based on the utilitarian principle of maximizing overall happiness.

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  • 2. 

    Mill argued the development of democracy made the discussion of liberty less important

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Mill argued that the development of democracy actually made the discussion of liberty more important. He believed that in a democratic society, the majority could easily impose their views and limit the freedom of individuals. Therefore, he emphasized the need for protecting individual liberties and ensuring that the majority does not oppress the minority.

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  • 3. 

    Mill argued that if we cannot discuss opinions freely those opinions will

    • A.

      Descend into rote phrases

    • B.

      Become more vital and alive

    • C.

      Lead to a more just society

    • D.

      Develop into universal principles

    Correct Answer
    A. Descend into rote phrases
    Explanation
    Mill argued that if we cannot discuss opinions freely, they will lose their depth and originality, and instead become repetitive and clichéd. Without the ability to openly exchange ideas and challenge each other's perspectives, opinions will become stagnant and lose their vitality. This can hinder the progress of society, as it limits the exploration of new ideas and stifles intellectual growth. Therefore, if free discussion is restricted, opinions are likely to descend into rote phrases.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following thinkers did NOT influence Mill's on liberty

    • A.

      Bertrand Russell

    • B.

      Thomas Paine

    • C.

      John Locke

    • D.

      Jeremy Bentham

    Correct Answer
    A. Bertrand Russell
    Explanation
    Bertrand Russell did not influence Mill's ideas on liberty. Mill's work on liberty was heavily influenced by thinkers such as Thomas Paine, John Locke, and Jeremy Bentham. However, Bertrand Russell's ideas and philosophy were developed much later, and he did not have a direct influence on Mill's work.

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  • 5. 

    According to Mill Modern religion

    • A.

      Harms others as we pursue our personal liberty

    • B.

      Has become too fanatical

    • C.

      Teaches only abstinence from evil

    • D.

      Allows children to do whatever they want

    Correct Answer
    A. Harms others as we pursue our personal liberty
    Explanation
    Mill's perspective on modern religion is that it has become harmful to others as individuals pursue their personal liberty. This suggests that people are using their religious beliefs as a justification to harm or infringe upon the rights of others in the name of personal freedom. Mill argues that this fanatical approach to religion is detrimental to society and goes against his principle of harm principle, which states that individuals should be free to do as they please as long as they do not harm others.

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  • 6. 

    Mill believes the state ought to intervene in an individual's actions if

    • A.

      The individual is harming another person

    • B.

      The individual is expressing opinions that are not well reasoned

    • C.

      The individual is harming himself

    • D.

      The individual is expressing a minority opinion

    Correct Answer
    A. The individual is harming another person
    Explanation
    Mill believes that the state should intervene in an individual's actions if they are harming another person. This is because Mill's principle of harm states that individuals should be free to do as they please as long as they do not harm others. If someone's actions are causing harm to another person, then it is justified for the state to intervene in order to protect the rights and well-being of that individual.

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  • 7. 

    Mill defends freedom of opinion for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

    • A.

      It affirms tradition

    • B.

      Both opinions may include partial truths

    • C.

      Debating opinions is the only way to understand them completely

    • D.

      The popular opinion could be wrong

    Correct Answer
    A. It affirms tradition
    Explanation
    Mill defends freedom of opinion for all of the given reasons except for the fact that it affirms tradition. Mill believes that freedom of opinion is important because it allows for the consideration and exploration of different perspectives, as both opinions may include partial truths. He also argues that debating opinions is necessary in order to fully understand them. Additionally, Mill emphasizes that the popular opinion may be incorrect, and therefore, it is crucial to have the freedom to express alternative viewpoints. However, Mill does not specifically mention that freedom of opinion is valuable because it affirms tradition.

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  • 8. 

    Mill's definition of harm is when an action or opinion

    • A.

      Acts against an individual's obligations

    • B.

      Sets a bad example for others

    • C.

      Makes people upset

    • D.

      Violates an established code of conduct

    Correct Answer
    A. Acts against an individual's obligations
    Explanation
    Mill's definition of harm is when an action or opinion goes against an individual's obligations. This means that if someone does something that goes against what they are supposed to do or what is expected of them, it can be considered harmful. This definition focuses on the idea that harm is not just physical or emotional pain, but also includes actions that go against moral or social responsibilities.

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  • 9. 

    What does Mill argue is a danger to individuality

    • A.

      Lack of spontaneity

    • B.

      Lack of attention to tradition

    • C.

      Lack f historical knowledge

    • D.

      Lack of conformism

    Correct Answer
    A. Lack of spontaneity
    Explanation
    Mill argues that a lack of spontaneity is a danger to individuality. He believes that individuals should have the freedom to express themselves and act according to their own desires and impulses. Without spontaneity, people become stagnant and lose their ability to think and act independently. Mill argues that conformity and adherence to tradition can stifle individuality, and that allowing for spontaneity is essential for the development and preservation of individuality.

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  • 10. 

    Mill argues in favor of which of the following

    • A.

      A government warning citizens of a potential danger

    • B.

      A government prohibiting the sale of a potentially dangerous substance

    • C.

      A parent keeping a child out of school to help provide for the family A parent keeping a child out of school to help provide for the family

    • D.

      A parent keeping a child out of school to help provide for the family A person willingly becoming an indentured servant (slave) for financial gain

    Correct Answer
    A. A government warning citizens of a potential danger
  • 11. 

    According to Mill, it is acceptable for individuality to be limited if the society is in its early development.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mill believed that in the early stages of societal development, it may be acceptable to limit individuality in order to establish order and stability. He argued that as society progresses and individuals become more educated and enlightened, restrictions on individuality should gradually be lifted to allow for personal growth and self-expression. Therefore, the statement that it is acceptable for individuality to be limited in the early development of society aligns with Mill's views.

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  • 12. 

    Why does Mill forbid us to sell ourselves into slavery?

    • A.

      We may not permanently abdicate our liberty

    • B.

      We could not get a good enough price for ourselves

    • C.

      We will not be happy

    • D.

      Everyone sees slavery as a moral evil

    Correct Answer
    A. We may not permanently abdicate our liberty
    Explanation
    Mill forbids us to sell ourselves into slavery because he believes that our liberty is a fundamental aspect of our humanity and should not be permanently given up. He argues that individuals have a right to their own freedom and should not be treated as mere property to be bought and sold. Selling oneself into slavery would be a violation of this inherent right and would undermine the principles of individual autonomy and self-determination.

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  • 13. 

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma supports which ethical theory?

    • A.

      Social Contract Theory

    • B.

      The Prisoner’s Dilemma supports which ethical theory? Ethical Egoism

    • C.

      Utilitarianism

    • D.

      Cultural Relativism

    Correct Answer
    A. Social Contract Theory
    Explanation
    The Prisoner's Dilemma supports the Social Contract Theory. The theory suggests that individuals enter into a social contract to benefit themselves and society as a whole. In the Prisoner's Dilemma, the optimal outcome occurs when both prisoners cooperate, which aligns with the idea of individuals working together for the greater good. This supports the principles of the Social Contract Theory, which emphasize the importance of cooperation and mutual benefit in ethical decision-making.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the benefits of Social Contract Theory?

    • A.

      Matches with psychological egoism

    • B.

      Permits altruism through security

    • C.

      Provides security through mutual agreement

    • D.

      Explains the purpose of morality and government

    Correct Answer
    A. Matches with psychological egoism
    Explanation
    The Social Contract Theory does not align with psychological egoism, which asserts that individuals are inherently self-interested and act only to fulfill their own desires. In contrast, the Social Contract Theory argues that individuals enter into a social contract to establish a mutually beneficial society, where they agree to follow certain rules and laws for the greater good of all members. This theory allows for altruism and promotes the idea of working together for the security and well-being of society.

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  • 15. 

    One of the disadvantages of social contract theory is that it is an explicit agreement between members of society that requires people to follow the contract

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that one of the disadvantages of social contract theory is that it requires people to follow the contract. However, this is not true. Social contract theory is a moral and political theory that proposes that individuals give up some of their freedoms in exchange for the benefits and protection provided by living in a society. It is not an explicit agreement that requires people to follow the contract, but rather a theoretical framework that explores the obligations and responsibilities of individuals within a society.

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  • 16. 

    Why do we feel pity for others according to Hobbes

    • A.

      We are afraid their misfortune might happen to us

    • B.

      We are afraid they will find out we do not care about their misfortune.

    • C.

      We are benevolent by nature and feel sympathetic towards others.

    • D.

      We are stupid; smart people do not feel pity, according to Hobbes.

    Correct Answer
    A. We are afraid their misfortune might happen to us
    Explanation
    According to Hobbes, we feel pity for others because we are afraid that their misfortune might happen to us. This is based on the idea that humans are naturally self-interested and motivated by fear. When we see someone else experiencing misfortune, it triggers our own fear of similar situations and we empathize with them.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is an argument asserted by Hobbes

    • A.

      Humans are essentially equal and viciously competitive

    • B.

      The principle of utility is the one great universal moral principle.

    • C.

      The greatest happiness is the one universal moral principle.

    • D.

      There is no universal human nature.

    Correct Answer
    A. Humans are essentially equal and viciously competitive
    Explanation
    Hobbes argued that humans are essentially equal and also viciously competitive. This means that he believed that all humans are born with equal capabilities and potential, but their competitive nature drives them to constantly strive for power and dominance over others. Hobbes believed that this inherent competition among humans leads to a state of constant conflict and war, and that the only way to maintain order and peace is through a strong central authority.

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  • 18. 

    According to Hobbes we base our morality on our practical needs to escape the state of nature

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hobbes believed that human beings have a natural inclination towards self-preservation and avoiding harm. In the state of nature, where there is no authority or order, individuals are in constant conflict with one another. To escape this state of chaos, Hobbes argued that people form social contracts and establish a sovereign authority to maintain peace and security. This practical need for self-preservation and security forms the basis of our morality, as we adhere to certain moral principles to ensure our own well-being and the stability of society. Therefore, the statement is true according to Hobbes' perspective.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is NOT part of Hobbes social contract

    • A.

      We collectively agree to defend all members of society

    • B.

      We collectively agree to follow rules that benefit society

    • C.

      We collectively agree to accept punishment for breaking rules

    • D.

      We collectively agree to enforce those rules

    Correct Answer
    A. We collectively agree to defend all members of society
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "we collectively agree to defend all members of society." This is not part of Hobbes' social contract because Hobbes believed that individuals enter into a social contract to escape the state of nature, where life is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." In the social contract, individuals agree to give up some of their rights and freedoms in exchange for protection and security provided by a strong central authority. Therefore, defending all members of society is not a part of Hobbes' social contract as it focuses more on the protection and security of individuals rather than the collective defense of all members.

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  • 20. 

    The version of consequentialism is deliberately not concerned with an action's motives. it is based on a book written in the 1500s

    • A.

      Machiavellianism

    • B.

      Rule Utilitarianism

    • C.

      Act Utilitarianism

    • D.

      Ethical egoism

    Correct Answer
    A. Machiavellianism
    Explanation
    Machiavellianism is the correct answer because it aligns with the statement that the version of consequentialism is deliberately not concerned with an action's motives. Machiavellianism is a philosophy that focuses on the outcome or consequences of actions rather than the intentions behind them. This philosophy is based on the writings of Niccolò Machiavelli, who wrote "The Prince" in the 1500s. Therefore, Machiavellianism fits the description given in the question.

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  • 21. 

    Utilitarianism would agree with which one of the following statements

    • A.

      The end(goal) justifies the means

    • B.

      Might makes right (i.e strongest get to dictate rules)

    • C.

      God determines the ultimate value of good and evil.

    • D.

      It is morally praiseworthy to disregard one’s own interests for the sake of others.

    Correct Answer
    A. The end(goal) justifies the means
    Explanation
    Utilitarianism is a moral theory that states that the right course of action is the one that maximizes overall happiness or utility. According to utilitarianism, if the end goal or outcome of an action brings about the greatest amount of happiness or utility, then the means used to achieve that goal are justified. This means that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences rather than the intentions or motives behind it. Therefore, utilitarianism would agree with the statement that "the end(goal) justifies the means."

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  • 22. 

    One advantage to utilitarianism is that most values are already based on utilitarian standards

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Utilitarianism is a moral theory that focuses on maximizing overall happiness or well-being for the greatest number of people. Since most values already prioritize the well-being and happiness of individuals, they align with utilitarian standards. This means that many commonly held values, such as fairness, justice, and compassion, can be justified within a utilitarian framework. Therefore, the statement that most values are already based on utilitarian standards is true.

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  • 23. 

    The ethical framework that focuses on the ends (goals) of actions rather than the means or motives of actions is

    • A.

      Consequentialism

    • B.

      Subjectivism

    • C.

      Divine command theory

    • D.

      Theory of natural law

    Correct Answer
    A. Consequentialism
    Explanation
    Consequentialism is an ethical framework that emphasizes the outcomes or consequences of actions rather than the intentions or motives behind them. It holds that the morality of an action is determined by the overall result it produces. In other words, the ends justify the means. This perspective prioritizes the achievement of desirable outcomes and considers the potential benefits and harms caused by an action. Consequentialism allows for a flexible approach to ethics, as it evaluates the morality of actions based on their outcomes rather than relying on fixed rules or principles.

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  • 24. 

    Mill disagrees with Bentham by claiming the following

    • A.

      There is a qualitative difference between pleasures

    • B.

      Consequentialism is a form of Utilitarianism.

    • C.

      The greatest happiness principle is the one universal moral principle.

    • D.

      The principle of Utility is the one universal moral principle.

    Correct Answer
    A. There is a qualitative difference between pleasures
    Explanation
    Mill disagrees with Bentham by claiming that there is a qualitative difference between pleasures. While Bentham believed in the principle of utility, which states that the moral worth of an action is determined by its ability to maximize pleasure and minimize pain, Mill argued that not all pleasures are equal. He believed that higher intellectual and moral pleasures are of greater value than lower physical pleasures. Mill's view introduces a subjective element into utilitarianism, recognizing that different pleasures have different qualities and levels of desirability.

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  • 25. 

    Hedonism is an idea that started in ancient times and states that pleasure should be pursued as a path to happiness

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hedonism is an ancient philosophical concept that advocates the pursuit of pleasure as a means to achieve happiness. It suggests that maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain is the ultimate goal in life. This idea has its roots in ancient times and has been discussed by various philosophers throughout history. Therefore, the statement that hedonism is an idea that started in ancient times and states that pleasure should be pursued as a path to happiness is true.

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  • 26. 

    In this version of consequentialism the phrase "If it's good for me it's good" is used to justify behavior

    • A.

      Ethical Egoism

    • B.

      Rule Utilitarianism

    • C.

      Negative Utilitarianism

    • D.

      Act Utilitarianism

    Correct Answer
    A. Ethical Egoism
    Explanation
    Ethical egoism is a version of consequentialism that justifies behavior based on the principle that if it is good for oneself, then it is considered good. This ethical theory prioritizes self-interest and personal well-being above the interests of others. It argues that individuals should act in a way that maximizes their own happiness and fulfillment, without necessarily considering the impact on others. Therefore, the phrase "If it's good for me, it's good" aligns with the principles of ethical egoism.

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  • 27. 

    Which ethical framework primarily considers the overall consequences of a person's actions

    • A.

      Utilitarianism

    • B.

      Divine Command Theory

    • C.

      Theory of natural law

    • D.

      Subjectivism

    Correct Answer
    A. Utilitarianism
    Explanation
    Utilitarianism is an ethical framework that primarily focuses on the overall consequences of a person's actions. It suggests that the morality of an action is determined by its ability to maximize happiness or utility for the greatest number of people. This means that an action is considered morally right if it produces the greatest amount of overall happiness or well-being. Utilitarianism emphasizes the importance of considering the consequences and outcomes of our actions in order to make ethical decisions.

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  • 28. 

    This version of consequentialism seeks to reconcile consequentialism with deontology which is concerned with fulfilling responsibities

    • A.

      Rule Utilitarianism

    • B.

      Machiavellianism

    • C.

      Act Utilitarianism

    • D.

      Negative Utilitarianism

    Correct Answer
    A. Rule Utilitarianism
    Explanation
    Rule Utilitarianism is a version of consequentialism that aims to reconcile consequentialism with deontology. It emphasizes the importance of following rules and fulfilling responsibilities in order to achieve the greatest overall happiness or utility. Unlike Act Utilitarianism, which focuses on the consequences of individual actions, Rule Utilitarianism looks at the general rules or principles that, when followed, tend to produce the best outcomes for society as a whole. By considering the long-term consequences of adhering to certain rules, Rule Utilitarianism seeks to find a balance between fulfilling responsibilities and maximizing overall happiness.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of G.E.Moore's intrinsic goods

    • A.

      Rest

    • B.

      Pleasure

    • C.

      Friendship

    • D.

      Aesthetic Enjoyment

    Correct Answer
    A. Rest
    Explanation
    G.E. Moore's intrinsic goods are things that are valuable in and of themselves. Rest, pleasure, friendship, and aesthetic enjoyment are all examples of intrinsic goods according to Moore. However, the question asks for the option that is NOT one of Moore's intrinsic goods. Therefore, the correct answer is "Rest" because it is not considered one of Moore's intrinsic goods.

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  • 30. 

    One of the disadvantages to utilitarianism is that in select situations it is so focused on the past while it overlooks the future

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Utilitarianism is a moral theory that focuses on maximizing overall happiness or well-being. It does not prioritize the past over the future or vice versa. Instead, it considers the consequences of actions in terms of their impact on the future well-being of individuals affected by those actions. Therefore, the statement that utilitarianism is so focused on the past that it overlooks the future is incorrect.

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  • 31. 

    The ethical framework that proposes all actions should promote the greatest happiness and least amount of suffering for the greatest number of people is

    • A.

      Utilitarianism

    • B.

      Divine Command theory

    • C.

      Theory of Natural Law

    • D.

      Subjectivism

    Correct Answer
    A. Utilitarianism
    Explanation
    Utilitarianism is an ethical framework that suggests that the morality of an action should be determined by its ability to maximize overall happiness and minimize suffering for the greatest number of people. This means that actions are judged based on their consequences and the net impact they have on the well-being of individuals. Utilitarianism prioritizes the collective welfare over individual interests and emphasizes the importance of considering the greater good when making ethical decisions. This approach aims to create the greatest amount of overall happiness and is often associated with the principle of "the greatest good for the greatest number."

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  • 32. 

    Hobbes is most concerned with the principle of utility

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Hobbes is not most concerned with the principle of utility. Hobbes was a political philosopher who believed in the importance of a strong central authority to maintain social order and prevent chaos. He is best known for his book "Leviathan" where he argues for the necessity of a sovereign ruler. The principle of utility, on the other hand, is associated with utilitarianism, a moral theory that focuses on maximizing overall happiness or utility. Hobbes' philosophy is more concerned with the necessity of a strong government rather than the maximization of utility.

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  • 33. 

    Kant's theory of ethics is based on universal laws or maxims which are moral laws binding for all rational beings

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Kant's theory of ethics is based on the idea that moral laws should be universal and applicable to all rational beings. According to Kant, an action is morally right if it can be willed as a universal law. This means that an action should be based on principles that can be applied consistently to everyone in similar situations. Therefore, the statement that Kant's theory of ethics is based on universal laws or maxims which are moral laws binding for all rational beings is true.

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  • 34. 

    You should never lie no matter what is the kind of problematic universal law found in which theory

    • A.

      Deontology

    • B.

      Utilitarianism

    • C.

      Care ethics

    • D.

      Virtue ethics

    Correct Answer
    A. Deontology
    Explanation
    Deontology is a moral theory that focuses on the inherent rightness or wrongness of actions, regardless of their consequences. It emphasizes the importance of following universal moral laws and principles. In this case, the statement suggests that lying is always wrong, regardless of the situation or consequences. This aligns with deontological principles, making Deontology the correct answer. Utilitarianism, care ethics, and virtue ethics may consider lying acceptable in certain circumstances, depending on the overall outcome or the specific ethical framework being applied.

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  • 35. 

    Deontology is criticized because it is difficult to choose between opposing virtues

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Deontology is not criticized because it is difficult to choose between opposing virtues. Deontology is a moral theory that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions based on moral rules or duties, rather than the consequences of those actions. It is criticized for other reasons, such as its potential inflexibility and inability to account for situational factors.

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  • 36. 

    "If you want to do well on your final exam then you should make ample time to study " is an example of a hypothetical imperative

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement "If you want to do well on your final exam then you should make ample time to study" is an example of a hypothetical imperative because it presents a conditional action based on a desired outcome. It suggests that if the goal is to do well on the final exam, then the necessary action is to allocate enough time for studying. This type of imperative is based on hypothetical situations and the actions required to achieve specific goals.

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  • 37. 

    The Ethical framework that focuses on the moral quality of ones character rather than ones actions is

    • A.

      Virtue Ethics

    • B.

      Deontology

    • C.

      Divine Command theory

    • D.

      Utilitarianism

    Correct Answer
    A. Virtue Ethics
    Explanation
    Virtue Ethics is an ethical framework that emphasizes the moral character of an individual rather than focusing solely on their actions. It suggests that the primary concern should be on developing virtuous qualities such as honesty, compassion, and integrity. This approach believes that by cultivating good character traits, individuals will naturally make ethical decisions and act in morally upright ways. In contrast, other ethical frameworks like Deontology focus on the rightness of actions based on rules or duties, Divine Command theory emphasizes the importance of religious beliefs, and Utilitarianism prioritizes the overall happiness or utility of the majority.

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  • 38. 

    If Foolhardiness is the excess and cowardice is the deficiency what is the Golden Mean

    • A.

      Courage

    • B.

      Perseverance

    • C.

      Modesty

    • D.

      Patience

    Correct Answer
    A. Courage
    Explanation
    The question is asking for the "Golden Mean," which refers to Aristotle's concept of finding the balance between two extremes. In this case, the excess is foolhardiness and the deficiency is cowardice. Courage, therefore, is the virtue that lies between these two extremes. It is the ability to face danger or difficulty without being reckless or overly cautious. Courage strikes a balance between being too reckless and too fearful, making it the Golden Mean in this scenario.

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  • 39. 

    Virtue Ethics is criticized because it is difficult to choose between virtuous actions

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Virtue Ethics is criticized because it is difficult to choose between virtuous actions. This criticism arises from the fact that Virtue Ethics emphasizes the development of moral character and the cultivation of virtues, rather than focusing on specific rules or actions. Since different virtues may conflict with each other in certain situations, it can be challenging to determine which virtue should take precedence. This difficulty in decision-making is seen as a drawback of Virtue Ethics, as it may lead to moral ambiguity and uncertainty in practical situations.

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  • 40. 

    Who argues that virtue is found in the Golden Mean between two moral extremes

    • A.

      Aristotle

    • B.

      Kant

    • C.

      Mill

    • D.

      Noddings

    Correct Answer
    A. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle argues that virtue is found in the Golden Mean between two moral extremes. According to him, moral virtues lie between excess and deficiency, and the virtuous person is the one who strikes a balance between these extremes. For example, courage is the virtue that lies between recklessness (excess) and cowardice (deficiency). Aristotle believes that by practicing moderation and finding the middle ground, individuals can achieve moral excellence and live a virtuous life.

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  • 41. 

    Aristotle asserts our morality should be centered on maximizing the amount of sensuous pleasure we receive

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Aristotle does not assert that our morality should be centered on maximizing the amount of sensuous pleasure we receive. Instead, he argues that our morality should be based on achieving eudaimonia, which is often translated as "flourishing" or "living well." Eudaimonia involves the cultivation of virtues and the development of one's potential as a rational being, rather than simply pursuing pleasure. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 42. 

    ------- are universal moral laws that command moral obligation independent of experience or consequence

    • A.

      Categorical Imperative

    • B.

      Logical imperative

    • C.

      Hypothetical imperative

    • D.

      Divine imperative

    Correct Answer
    A. Categorical Imperative
    Explanation
    The Categorical Imperative is a concept developed by philosopher Immanuel Kant. It refers to universal moral laws that are binding on all rational beings, regardless of personal desires or consequences. These moral laws are based on reason and duty, and they are not dependent on individual experiences or outcomes. The Categorical Imperative emphasizes the importance of acting morally and treating others as ends in themselves, rather than as means to an end. It is a principle that guides ethical decision-making and promotes the idea of moral obligation.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 02, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Bushrabintory
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