Fiscal Policy, The Fed And Monetary Policy

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Fiscal Policy, The Fed And Monetary Policy - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What term is used for a government plan to reduce aggregate demand and slow the economy?

    • A.

      Contractionary fiscal policy

    • B.

      Discretionary fiscal policy

    • C.

      Expansionary fiscal policy

    • D.

      Stabilizing fiscal policy

    Correct Answer
    A. Contractionary fiscal policy
    Explanation
    Contractionary fiscal policy refers to a government plan aimed at reducing aggregate demand and slowing down the economy. This is typically done through measures such as reducing government spending, increasing taxes, or a combination of both. By implementing contractionary fiscal policy, the government aims to control inflation, reduce public debt, or address other economic concerns.

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  • 2. 

    What are the two basic tools that the federal government uses to influence the economy?

    • A.

      Entitlements and spending

    • B.

      Entitlements and wages

    • C.

      Taxation and spending

    • D.

      Taxation and wages

    Correct Answer
    C. Taxation and spending
    Explanation
    The federal government uses taxation and spending as the two basic tools to influence the economy. Taxation refers to the collection of taxes from individuals and businesses, which helps the government generate revenue and control the flow of money within the economy. By adjusting tax rates, the government can incentivize or discourage certain economic activities. On the other hand, government spending involves the allocation of funds towards various sectors such as infrastructure, healthcare, education, and defense. This spending can stimulate economic growth, create jobs, and address societal needs. Both taxation and spending play crucial roles in shaping the overall economic conditions of a country.

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  • 3. 

    Why is fiscal policy described as countercyclical?

    • A.

      It often produces the opposite effect of what was intended.

    • B.

      Rational expectations lead individuals to take countermeasures against the policy

    • C.

      Its goal is to smooth out the peaks and troughs of the business cycle.

    • D.

      It produces sharp ups and downs in economic performance.

    Correct Answer
    C. Its goal is to smooth out the peaks and troughs of the business cycle.
    Explanation
    Fiscal policy is described as countercyclical because its goal is to smooth out the peaks and troughs of the business cycle. Countercyclical fiscal policy involves using government spending and taxation to offset fluctuations in the economy. During economic downturns, the government may increase spending and lower taxes to stimulate economic activity and reduce unemployment. Conversely, during periods of economic expansion, the government may decrease spending and raise taxes to prevent overheating and inflation. This countercyclical approach helps to stabilize the economy and mitigate the negative effects of economic fluctuations.

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  • 4. 

    If the government spends more than it takes in, what is that called?

    • A.

      Balanced budget

    • B.

      Budget deficit

    • C.

      Budget surplus

    • D.

      Discretionary budget

    Correct Answer
    B. Budget deficit
    Explanation
    A budget deficit occurs when the government spends more money than it collects in revenue. This means that the government is running a deficit and needs to borrow money to cover its expenses. A budget deficit can lead to an increase in national debt and can have long-term economic consequences if not properly managed.

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  • 5. 

    What is the government doing when it issues bonds?

    • A.

      Investing in the stock market

    • B.

      Paying the growing interest on the national debt

    • C.

      Borrowing money it will have to repay in the future

    • D.

      Encouraging foreigners to invest in this country

    Correct Answer
    C. Borrowing money it will have to repay in the future
    Explanation
    When the government issues bonds, it is essentially borrowing money from investors. These investors, which can include individuals, institutions, and even foreign governments, purchase these bonds and in return, the government promises to repay the borrowed amount at a future date, along with interest. Therefore, the correct answer is that the government is borrowing money it will have to repay in the future.

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  • 6. 

    What is the opposite of discretionary fiscal policy?

    • A.

      Automatic stabilizers

    • B.

      Contractionary fiscal policy

    • C.

      Expansionary fiscal policy

    • D.

      Rational expectations

    Correct Answer
    A. Automatic stabilizers
    Explanation
    The opposite of discretionary fiscal policy is automatic stabilizers. Discretionary fiscal policy refers to deliberate changes in government spending or taxation to influence the economy, while automatic stabilizers are built-in mechanisms that automatically adjust government spending and taxation in response to changes in the economy. Unlike discretionary fiscal policy, automatic stabilizers do not require active decision-making or intervention by policymakers. They work automatically to stabilize the economy by reducing the impact of economic fluctuations. Therefore, automatic stabilizers can be seen as the opposite of discretionary fiscal policy.

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  • 7. 

    If the government wants to expand the economy, what action might it take?

    • A.

      Begin construction of a new dam

    • B.

      Maintain the level of funding for highway repairs

    • C.

      Increase income tax rates

    • D.

      Reduce federal aid to states

    Correct Answer
    A. Begin construction of a new dam
    Explanation
    To expand the economy, the government might begin construction of a new dam. This action would create job opportunities and stimulate economic growth in the construction sector. Additionally, the dam could provide a new source of renewable energy, further contributing to economic development.

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  • 8. 

    If the government wants to slow down the economy, what action might it take?

    • A.

      Hire workers to create a new national park

    • B.

      Offer states federal funds for text book purchases

    • C.

      Double the excise tax on sales of gasoline

    • D.

      Lower corporate income tax rates

    Correct Answer
    C. Double the excise tax on sales of gasoline
    Explanation
    To slow down the economy, the government might double the excise tax on sales of gasoline. This would increase the cost of gasoline, leading to higher prices for consumers and businesses. As a result, people would have less money to spend on other goods and services, which would reduce overall economic activity and slow down the economy. Additionally, higher gasoline prices could discourage people from driving, leading to a decrease in transportation-related economic activities.

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  • 9. 

    Which would be considered an automatic stabilizer?

    • A.

      Highway spending

    • B.

      Income tax

    • C.

      Military spending

    • D.

      Sales tax

    Correct Answer
    B. Income tax
    Explanation
    Income tax would be considered an automatic stabilizer because it adjusts based on an individual's income level. During an economic downturn, people's incomes tend to decrease, which leads to a decrease in income tax revenue. This decrease in revenue helps to stimulate the economy by providing individuals with more disposable income. Conversely, during an economic upturn, people's incomes tend to increase, resulting in higher income tax revenue. This increase in revenue helps to moderate economic growth and prevent overheating. Therefore, income tax acts as an automatic stabilizer by adjusting to the economic conditions and helping to stabilize the overall economy.

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  • 10. 

    As part of its contractionary fiscal policy, the government decides to tax raw minerals.  Before the tax takes effect, manufacturers buy minerals.  The price of minerals goes up, adding to inflation.  What does this illustrate?

    • A.

      Political issues

    • B.

      Rational expectations theory

    • C.

      Regional issues

    • D.

      Timing issues

    Correct Answer
    B. Rational expectations theory
    Explanation
    This situation illustrates the concept of rational expectations theory. According to this theory, individuals make economic decisions based on their rational expectations of future events. In this case, manufacturers anticipate that the government's decision to tax raw minerals will lead to an increase in their price. As a result, they buy minerals before the tax takes effect, causing the price to go up and contributing to inflation. This demonstrates how individuals' rational expectations can influence their economic behavior.

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  • 11. 

    The Fed provides banking services for

    • A.

      The national government and many private banks

    • B.

      The national government and only a few private banks the national government and only a few private banks

    • C.

      Only the national government

    • D.

      Only private banks

    Correct Answer
    A. The national government and many private banks
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the national government and many private banks". The Federal Reserve (the Fed) provides banking services for both the national government and many private banks. This includes services such as holding deposits, processing payments, and providing loans to these entities. By offering these services, the Fed plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability and functioning of the banking system in the United States.

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  • 12. 

    A central bank is

    • A.

      A bank centrally located in a region

    • B.

      A bank that has many branches

    • C.

      A city's primary bank

    • D.

      A nation's main monetary authority

    Correct Answer
    D. A nation's main monetary authority
    Explanation
    A central bank is a nation's main monetary authority. It is responsible for formulating and implementing monetary policies, controlling the money supply, and regulating the banking system. Central banks are independent institutions that work towards maintaining price stability, promoting economic growth, and ensuring financial stability in the country. They have the authority to issue and regulate the national currency, act as a lender of last resort to commercial banks, and supervise the overall functioning of the financial system.

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  • 13. 

    In general, demand for money increases when

    • A.

      Daily spending decrease

    • B.

      Income increases

    • C.

      Interest rates increase

    • D.

      Prices decrease

    Correct Answer
    B. Income increases
    Explanation
    When income increases, individuals have more money available to spend. This leads to an increase in the demand for money as people need more cash to make purchases and meet their expenses. With higher income, people may also have a greater desire to save and invest, further increasing the demand for money. Therefore, an increase in income typically results in an increased demand for money.

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  • 14. 

    In general, the demand for money decreases when

    • A.

      Daily spending increases

    • B.

      Income increases

    • C.

      Interest rates decrease

    • D.

      Prices decrease

    Correct Answer
    D. Prices decrease
    Explanation
    When prices decrease, the purchasing power of money increases. This means that individuals can buy more goods and services with the same amount of money. As a result, people may not feel the need to hold as much money for their daily spending, leading to a decrease in the demand for money.

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  • 15. 

    The money supply can be expanded by

    • A.

      Changing the required reserve ratio from 5 % to 10%

    • B.

      Changing the required reserve ratio from 10% to 5%

    • C.

      Keeping the required reserve ratio stable at 5%

    • D.

      Keeping the required reserve ratio stable at 10%

    Correct Answer
    B. Changing the required reserve ratio from 10% to 5%
    Explanation
    The required reserve ratio is the percentage of deposits that banks are required to hold as reserves. When the required reserve ratio is lowered, banks are allowed to hold a smaller portion of deposits as reserves and can lend out more money. This increases the amount of money that can be created through the lending process, expanding the money supply. Therefore, changing the required reserve ratio from 10% to 5% would allow banks to lend out more money and expand the money supply.

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  • 16. 

    The Federal Reserve System of the US is actually made up of

    • A.

      5 Federal Reserve District banks

    • B.

      12 Federal Reserve District banks

    • C.

      20 Federal Reserve District banks

    • D.

      50 Federal Reserve District banks, one for each state

    Correct Answer
    B. 12 Federal Reserve District banks
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 12 Federal Reserve District banks. The Federal Reserve System of the US is divided into 12 districts, each with its own Federal Reserve Bank. These banks are located in major cities across the country, including New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Atlanta. They serve as the central banks for their respective districts and are responsible for implementing monetary policy, supervising and regulating banks, and providing financial services to depository institutions.

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  • 17. 

    Currency is

    • A.

      Checks and money orders

    • B.

      Stocks and bonds

    • C.

      Securities and loans

    • D.

      Coins and paper money

    Correct Answer
    D. Coins and paper money
    Explanation
    The correct answer is coins and paper money. Currency refers to the physical forms of money that are widely accepted as a medium of exchange. Coins and paper money are the most common forms of currency used in everyday transactions. Checks and money orders are financial instruments that represent a specific amount of money, but they are not considered currency themselves. Stocks, bonds, securities, and loans are financial assets or instruments that represent ownership or debt, but they are not considered currency.

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  • 18. 

    Fiat money is money that is

    • A.

      Backed by the confidence of the government

    • B.

      Backed by reserves of silver and/or gold held by the government

    • C.

      Money that exists only electronically in bank accounts

    • D.

      Money in the form of checks and money orders

    Correct Answer
    A. Backed by the confidence of the government
    Explanation
    Fiat money is money that is backed by the confidence of the government rather than being backed by any physical commodity like silver or gold. It is essentially a form of currency that is declared legal tender by the government, and its value is derived from the trust and belief that people have in the government's ability to maintain its value. This means that fiat money does not have any intrinsic value and its worth is solely based on the trust placed in the government's ability to manage the economy and maintain the stability of the currency.

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  • 19. 

    The Federal Reserve Banks hold reserves.  Reserves are

    • A.

      Money banks use to cover their expenses

    • B.

      Money banks have to pay to the government to get permission to do business in the US

    • C.

      Money banks loan to customers

    • D.

      Money banks need to hold and not loan out

    Correct Answer
    D. Money banks need to hold and not loan out
    Explanation
    Reserves are the money that banks need to hold and not loan out. This is because reserves serve as a buffer to ensure that banks have enough liquidity to meet their obligations and handle any unexpected withdrawals by depositors. By holding reserves, banks can maintain stability in the financial system and prevent potential bank runs. Therefore, the correct answer is that reserves are money banks need to hold and not loan out.

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  • 20. 

    The deposit expansion multiplier is used to determine

    • A.

      How changing the automatic stabilizers will affect the money supply.

    • B.

      How changing the required reserve ration will affect the money supply.

    • C.

      How changing discretionary fiscal policy will affect the money supply.

    • D.

      How much the money supply needs to be increased or decreasd.

    Correct Answer
    A. How changing the automatic stabilizers will affect the money supply.
    Explanation
    The deposit expansion multiplier is used to determine how changing the automatic stabilizers will affect the money supply. Automatic stabilizers are government policies or programs that automatically adjust to stabilize the economy during periods of economic instability. These policies, such as unemployment benefits or progressive income taxes, can have an impact on the money supply. By using the deposit expansion multiplier, policymakers can assess the potential effects of changes in automatic stabilizers on the money supply. This allows them to make informed decisions regarding fiscal policy and its impact on the overall economy.

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