IAHCSMM Chapters 1-4 Random Questions

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IAHCSMM Chapters 1-4 Random Questions - Quiz

Here is a quiz that we have for you based on IAHCSMM. Are you ready for these IAHCSMM Chapters 1-4 random questions? IAHCSMM stands for The International Association of Healthcare Central Service Materiel Management. There are a lot of questions on this quiz that you will need to answer to pass the test. The test is not just to test your knowledge of the subject, but it will also increase your understanding of the subject. Let's see how well you perform. .


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Prions trigger the immune response and is not destroyed by extreme heat or cold.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Prions do not trigger the immune response and can be destroyed by extreme heat or cold. Prions are misfolded proteins that can cause other proteins to misfold as well, leading to diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They are not recognized by the immune system and therefore do not trigger an immune response. Additionally, prions can be denatured and rendered inactive by extreme heat or cold temperatures.

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  • 2. 

    Aerobic bacteria require the presence of air or free oxygen.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Aerobic bacteria are microorganisms that require oxygen to survive and carry out their metabolic processes. They use oxygen as a final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain, which allows them to generate energy through aerobic respiration. Without the presence of air or free oxygen, aerobic bacteria cannot function properly and may even die. Therefore, it is true that aerobic bacteria require the presence of air or free oxygen.

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  • 3. 

    Gram ____ bacteria have an outer membrane that will not retain the purple stain after treatment with iodine; they will stain pink.

    • A.

      Negative

    • B.

      Positive

    • C.

      Neutral

    Correct Answer
    A. Negative
    Explanation
    Gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane that is not able to retain the purple stain after treatment with iodine. This is because the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is thinner and more porous compared to Gram-positive bacteria. As a result, the purple stain is easily washed away, and the bacteria will instead stain pink.

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  • 4. 

    The nucleus is the functional center of a cell that governs activity and heredity.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The nucleus is indeed the functional center of a cell. It contains the cell's genetic material, DNA, which carries the instructions for cell growth, development, and reproduction. The nucleus also regulates the cell's activities by controlling the synthesis of proteins and other important molecules. Additionally, the nucleus plays a crucial role in heredity as it passes on genetic information from one generation to the next. Therefore, the statement "The nucleus is the functional center of a cell that governs activity and heredity" is true.

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  • 5. 

    The typical method of bacterial reproduction is in which a cell divides into two equal parts.

    • A.

      Binary fission

    • B.

      Binary fusion

    • C.

      Vancomycin fission

    • D.

      Klebsiella fusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Binary fission
    Explanation
    Binary fission is the correct answer because it is the typical method of bacterial reproduction where a single cell divides into two equal parts. This process allows bacteria to rapidly multiply and increase their population. Binary fusion is not a valid term for bacterial reproduction, and Vancomycin fission and Klebsiella fusion are not recognized methods of bacterial reproduction.

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  • 6. 

    Protozoa are one-celled animal organisms that vary widely in size and shape and contain no cell walls.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Protozoa are indeed one-celled animal organisms that lack cell walls. They are characterized by their ability to move independently and their diverse range of sizes and shapes. Unlike plants and fungi, protozoa do not possess cell walls, which allows for greater flexibility and mobility. Therefore, the statement "Protozoa are one-celled animal organisms that vary widely in size and shape and contain no cell walls" is true.

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  • 7. 

    This body system gives the body shape and support, allows movement, protects vital organs, produces blood cells, and stores calcium.

    • A.

      Skeletal system

    • B.

      Body system

    • C.

      Muscular system

    • D.

      Nervous system

    Correct Answer
    A. Skeletal system
    Explanation
    The skeletal system is responsible for giving the body shape and support, allowing movement, protecting vital organs, producing blood cells, and storing calcium. It consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. The bones provide a framework for the body, while the cartilage and ligaments connect the bones and provide flexibility. The skeletal system also plays a crucial role in protecting organs such as the heart and lungs. Additionally, bone marrow within the bones produces red and white blood cells. Finally, the skeletal system serves as a storage site for calcium, which is essential for various bodily functions.

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  • 8. 

    A unit that is used to measure the length of light waves.

    • A.

      Angstrom

    • B.

      Nanometer

    • C.

      Centimeter

    • D.

      Inches

    Correct Answer
    A. Angstrom
    Explanation
    Angstrom is a unit used to measure the length of light waves.

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  • 9. 

    Anaerobic bacteria require the presence of air or free oxygen.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Anaerobic bacteria can live in the absence of atmospheric oxygen.

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  • 10. 

    A pH of 7 is acidic and alkaline at the same time. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    a pH of 7 is neutral ( neither acidic nor alkaline )

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  • 11. 

    The process by which cartilage is replaced by bone.

    • A.

      Ossification

    • B.

      Cartilage

    • C.

      Binary fission

    • D.

      Osteo

    Correct Answer
    A. Ossification
    Explanation
    Ossification is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which cartilage is replaced by bone. During ossification, the cartilage tissue is gradually replaced by bone tissue, resulting in the formation of a bone. This process is essential for the growth and development of bones in the body.

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  • 12. 

    Decontamination is the process where all microbes, viruses, and spores are destroyed by using sterilization.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Decontamination is the physical or chemical process that renders an inanimate object, such as a medical device that may be contaminated with harmful microbes, safe for further handling.

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  • 13. 

    Vegetative stage: State of active growth of microorganisms (as opposed to the resting or spore stages).

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the vegetative stage refers to the active growth phase of microorganisms, where they are actively dividing and reproducing. This stage is characterized by high metabolic activity and the production of various enzymes and proteins. In contrast, the resting or spore stages are periods of dormancy or reduced activity, where the microorganisms are not actively growing or reproducing. Therefore, the correct answer is true.

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  • 14. 

    pH measure of alkalinity or acidity is based on a scale of ___ to ___.

    • A.

      0 to 14

    • B.

      1 to 14

    • C.

      0 to 18

    • D.

      0 to 12

    Correct Answer
    A. 0 to 14
    Explanation
    The pH measure of alkalinity or acidity is based on a scale of 0 to 14. A pH value of 7 is considered neutral, values below 7 are acidic, and values above 7 are alkaline. This scale is logarithmic, meaning that each unit represents a tenfold difference in acidity or alkalinity. Therefore, a pH of 0 is extremely acidic, while a pH of 14 is extremely alkaline.

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  • 15. 

    Microorganisms that do not cause illness are called pathogens.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because microorganisms that do not cause illness are called non-pathogens or non-pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogens are microorganisms that can cause diseases or illnesses in their host organisms.

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  • 16. 

    A Joint is any place where two bones meet.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because a joint is indeed the point where two bones come together. Joints allow for movement and flexibility in the body. Without joints, the bones would be rigid and unable to perform various activities such as walking, running, or even simple tasks like bending or lifting objects. Joints are crucial for the proper functioning of the skeletal system and the overall movement of the body.

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  • 17. 

    A cord of fibrous tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone

    • A.

      Tendon

    • B.

      Ligament

    • C.

      Joint

    • D.

      Ossification

    Correct Answer
    A. Tendon
    Explanation
    A tendon is a cord of fibrous tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone. It is responsible for transmitting the force generated by the muscle to the bone, allowing movement to occur. Ligaments, on the other hand, connect bones to other bones, providing stability and support to joints. Joints are the areas where two or more bones come together, allowing for movement. Ossification refers to the process of bone formation. Therefore, the correct answer is tendon.

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  • 18. 

    What is the Psychrophiles (bacteria) optimum temperature for growth?

    • A.

      59 F to 68 F

    • B.

      68 F to 113 F

    • C.

      122 F to 158 F

    • D.

      48 F to 58 F

    Correct Answer
    A. 59 F to 68 F
    Explanation
    Psychrophiles are bacteria that thrive in cold temperatures. The given answer range of 59 F to 68 F indicates the optimum temperature for the growth of psychrophiles. This means that these bacteria will grow most efficiently and actively within this temperature range. Temperatures outside of this range may be too cold or too warm for psychrophiles to survive and reproduce effectively.

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  • 19. 

    Skeletal muscles are organized into thin, flat sheets of tissue.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons. As skeletal muscles contract, the arms, legs, head or other body parts to which they are attached move. They move only when we want them to move.

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  • 20. 

    pH below 7 is acidic and pH above 7 is alkaline.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    pH is a scale used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A pH below 7 indicates that the solution is acidic, while a pH above 7 indicates that the solution is alkaline. Therefore, the statement that pH below 7 is acidic and pH above 7 is alkaline is correct.

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  • 21. 

    A Case car usually contain all instruments, supplies and utensils needed for a specific procedure.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A Case car is typically equipped with all the necessary instruments, supplies, and utensils required for a specific medical procedure. This ensures that healthcare professionals have everything they need readily available in one place, allowing for efficient and organized procedures. Therefore, the statement "A Case car usually contains all instruments, supplies, and utensils needed for a specific procedure" is true.

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  • 22. 

    These bacteria are shaped like a circle or sphere.

    • A.

      Cocci

    • B.

      Bacillus

    • C.

      Spirilla

    • D.

      Spores

    Correct Answer
    A. Cocci
    Explanation
    Cocci are bacteria that are shaped like a circle or sphere. This shape is characteristic of cocci bacteria and differentiates them from other types of bacteria. Bacillus bacteria are rod-shaped, spirilla bacteria are spiral-shaped, and spores are reproductive structures formed by some bacteria. Therefore, the correct answer is cocci.

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  • 23. 

    Central Services technicians use these lists to assemble the items needed for individual procedures.

    • A.

      Case cart pull sheet

    • B.

      Task list

    • C.

      Instructions for Use

    • D.

      Management sheet

    Correct Answer
    A. Case cart pull sheet
    Explanation
    The case cart pull sheet is used by Central Services technicians to assemble the items needed for individual procedures. This sheet provides a list of all the necessary items and equipment that should be included in the case cart for a specific procedure. Technicians use this sheet as a guide to ensure that all the required items are gathered and organized properly before they are taken to the operating room or procedure area.

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  • 24. 

    ______ muscles are organized into thin, flat sheets of tissue. These muscles are called involuntary or visceral muscles because they contract and function without our conscious control.

    • A.

      Smooth muscles

    • B.

      Skeletal muscles

    • C.

      Chest muscles

    • D.

      Ribs muscles

    Correct Answer
    A. Smooth muscles
    Explanation
    Smooth muscles are organized into thin, flat sheets of tissue. These muscles are called involuntary or visceral muscles because they contract and function without our conscious control. Smooth muscles are found in various organs and structures in the body, such as the digestive system, blood vessels, and respiratory system. They play a crucial role in functions like digestion, blood flow regulation, and breathing. Unlike skeletal muscles, smooth muscles do not have striations or voluntary control, making them distinct in their structure and function.

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  • 25. 

    These bacteria are shaped like rods or bricks

    • A.

      Bacillus

    • B.

      Cocci

    • C.

      Spirilla

    • D.

      Endospores

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacillus
    Explanation
    Bacillus is the correct answer because it refers to bacteria that are shaped like rods or bricks. Bacilli are cylindrical or rod-shaped bacteria that can occur singly or in chains. They are one of the three main bacterial shapes, along with cocci (spherical) and spirilla (spiral-shaped). Endospores, on the other hand, are dormant structures formed by some bacteria as a survival mechanism and are not related to bacterial shape.

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  • 26. 

    Spiral- These bacteria are shaped like spirals

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because spiral bacteria are indeed shaped like spirals. These bacteria have a helical or corkscrew shape, which allows them to move and navigate through their environment. This unique shape also provides them with increased surface area, which can be beneficial for nutrient absorption and attachment to surfaces. Examples of spiral bacteria include spirochetes and spirilla.

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  • 27. 

     What is the Mesophiles (Bacteria ) optimum temperature for growth ?

    • A.

      68 F to 113 F

    • B.

      59 F to 68 F

    • C.

      122 F to 158 F

    • D.

      48 F to 58 F

    Correct Answer
    A. 68 F to 113 F
    Explanation
    Mesophiles (Bacteria) grows best at moderate temperatures: 68 degree F to 113 degree F.

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  • 28. 

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes fluid resistant protective clothing, disposable gloves, eye protection, face masks and shoe covers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because personal protective equipment (PPE) does indeed include fluid resistant protective clothing, disposable gloves, eye protection, face masks, and shoe covers. PPE is used to protect individuals from potential hazards and prevent the spread of infections or diseases. These specific items mentioned in the statement are commonly used forms of PPE in various industries, such as healthcare, construction, and manufacturing.

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  • 29. 

    Microorganisms that are capable of forming a thick wall around themselves enabling them to survive in adverse conditions.

    • A.

      Endospores (spores)

    • B.

      Rod (bacillus)

    • C.

      Spiral

    • D.

      Spherical (coccus)

    Correct Answer
    A. Endospores (spores)
    Explanation
    Endospores are microorganisms that have the ability to form a thick protective wall around themselves, allowing them to survive in harsh or adverse conditions. This protective wall, known as an endospore, helps the microorganism to withstand extreme temperatures, high levels of radiation, and lack of nutrients. Endospores can remain dormant for long periods of time until conditions become favorable for growth and reproduction. This adaptation enables them to survive in environments where other microorganisms may not be able to thrive.

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  • 30. 

    In the preparation and packaging area each item is carefully inspected for ______, ______, and _______. 

    • A.

      Weight, color and price.

    • B.

      Virus, spores and bacteria.

    • C.

      Cleanliness, proper function and possible defects.

    • D.

      Coccus, bacillus and spirillum

    Correct Answer
    C. Cleanliness, proper function and possible defects.
    Explanation
    In the preparation and packaging area, it is important to carefully inspect each item for cleanliness to ensure that it is free from dirt, contaminants, or any foreign substances. Proper function refers to checking if the item is in working condition and meets the required standards. Possible defects should also be examined to identify any flaws or imperfections that may affect the quality or functionality of the item. This thorough inspection helps to ensure that only high-quality products are being prepared and packaged.

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  • 31. 

    It is the basic level of infection control to prevent transmission of infectious organisms from contact with blood and all other body fluids to non-intact skin, and mucous membranes.

    • A.

      Standard precautions

    • B.

      Standard Sterilization

    • C.

      The use of high level disinfectant

    • D.

      The use of Case car pull sheet

    Correct Answer
    A. Standard precautions
    Explanation
    Standard precautions: Method of using appropriate barriers to reduce the risk of transmission of blood borne and other pathogens from both recognized and unrecognized sources. It is the basic level of infection control.

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  • 32. 

    The state of being soiled by contact with infectious organisms or other material.

    • A.

      Contamination

    • B.

      Sterile

    • C.

      Dangerous

    • D.

      Pathogens

    Correct Answer
    A. Contamination
    Explanation
    Contamination is the state of being soiled by contact with infectious organisms or other material.

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  • 33. 

    Viruses are the smallest microorganism and are about _____ times smaller than bacteria.

    • A.

      1,000

    • B.

      10

    • C.

      100

    • D.

      1

    Correct Answer
    A. 1,000
    Explanation
    Viruses are significantly smaller than bacteria, with a size that is about 1,000 times smaller. This means that viruses are much tinier in comparison to bacteria.

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  • 34. 

    What is the Thermophiles (bacteria) optimum temperature for growth?

    • A.

      122 F to 158 F

    • B.

      59 F to 68 F

    • C.

      68 F to 113 F

    • D.

      48 F to 58 F

    Correct Answer
    A. 122 F to 158 F
    Explanation
    Thermophiles bacteria grow best at a temperature of 122 F to 158 F.

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  • 35. 

    CS technicians must be able to identify hundreds of surgical instruments.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    CS technicians, also known as central service technicians or sterile processing technicians, play a crucial role in hospitals and surgical centers. They are responsible for cleaning, sterilizing, and maintaining surgical instruments and equipment. In order to perform their duties effectively, CS technicians must have a thorough understanding of the different types of surgical instruments and be able to identify them accurately. This is important to ensure that instruments are properly cleaned, sterilized, and prepared for surgical procedures. Therefore, it is true that CS technicians must be able to identify hundreds of surgical instruments.

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  • 36. 

    Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is an infection that is not present when a patient is admitted to a hospital or healthcare facility , but develops in a patient on or after day three of the admission to the hospital or healthcare facility. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) refers to an infection that occurs after a patient has been admitted to a hospital or healthcare facility for at least three days. This means that the infection was not present when the patient was initially admitted. Therefore, the statement "Healthcare-associated infection is an infection that is not present when a patient is admitted to a hospital or healthcare facility, but develops in a patient on or after day three of the admission" is true.

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  • 37. 

    The majority of medical terms are of either _____ or _____ origin.

    • A.

      Greek or Latin

    • B.

      Arpitan or Laotian

    • C.

      Greek or Arabic

    • D.

      Italian or Portuguese

    Correct Answer
    A. Greek or Latin
    Explanation
    The majority of medical terms are of Greek or Latin origin. This is because ancient Greek and Latin were the languages of science and medicine in the Western world for many centuries. Medical terminology is heavily influenced by these languages, with many words and roots derived from Greek or Latin. This allows for a standardized and universal language in the medical field, as these terms are understood and recognized by healthcare professionals worldwide.

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  • 38. 

    _____ are abnormal, pathogenic agents that are transmissible and able to induce abnormal folding of specific normal cellular proteins.

    • A.

      Prions

    • B.

      Protozoa

    • C.

      Bacillus

    • D.

      Candida

    Correct Answer
    A. Prions
    Explanation
    Prions are abnormal, pathogenic agents that are transmissible and able to induce abnormal folding of specific normal cellular proteins. Unlike other infectious agents like bacteria or fungi, prions do not have DNA or RNA. They are composed solely of proteins that have a misfolded shape. When a prion comes into contact with a normal protein, it causes the normal protein to adopt the misfolded shape, leading to the accumulation of these misfolded proteins in the brain. This accumulation can result in neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and mad cow disease.

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  • 39. 

    Tells the primary meaning of a medical term, which can then be modified.

    • A.

      Root word element

    • B.

      Prefix word element

    • C.

      Suffix word element

    • D.

      Coccus word element

    Correct Answer
    A. Root word element
    Explanation
    The primary meaning of a medical term is determined by the root word element. This root word element forms the core of the term and provides the essential meaning. It can be modified by adding prefix or suffix word elements to further specify or alter the term. The coccus word element is not related to the primary meaning of a medical term and is therefore not the correct answer.

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  • 40. 

    Fungi are a large group of plant-like organisms that include molds, mushrooms and yeasts. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fungi are indeed a large group of plant-like organisms that encompass molds, mushrooms, and yeasts. They share characteristics with plants, such as having cell walls, but they are distinct from plants as they cannot produce their own food through photosynthesis. Instead, fungi obtain nutrients by breaking down organic matter in their surroundings. This makes the statement "Fungi are a large group of plant-like organisms that include molds, mushrooms, and yeasts" true.

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  • 41. 

    Comes before the root (at the beginning of a word.)

    • A.

      Prefix word element

    • B.

      Suffix word element

    • C.

      Bacillus word element

    • D.

      Root word element

    Correct Answer
    A. Prefix word element
    Explanation
    A prefix is a word element that is added to the beginning of a word to modify its meaning. It comes before the root of the word. In this case, the correct answer is "Prefix word element" because it accurately describes a word element that comes before the root at the beginning of a word.

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  • 42. 

    Cleaning is the first step in the sterilization process.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cleaning is indeed the first step in the sterilization process. Before any sterilization method can be effective, it is important to remove dirt, debris, and organic matter from the surfaces or objects being sterilized. This is because these contaminants can interfere with the sterilization process and reduce its effectiveness. Therefore, cleaning is necessary to ensure that the sterilization process can successfully eliminate microorganisms and achieve the desired level of sterility.

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  • 43. 

    Combining vowel is sometimes used to ease the pronunciation of a medical word.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Combining vowels are commonly used in medical terminology to make the pronunciation of complex words easier. By adding a vowel between word parts, it helps to create a smoother flow and improves the overall clarity of the word. This is especially helpful when dealing with long, technical terms that may be difficult to pronounce without the addition of a combining vowel. Therefore, the statement that combining vowels are sometimes used to ease the pronunciation of a medical word is true.

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  • 44. 

    Anatomy: The study of the functions of body parts and the body as a whole.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Anatomy: The study of the structure and relationships between body parts.
    Physiology: The study of the functions of body parts and the body as a whole.

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  • 45. 

    Minimally invasive procedure required complex instrumentation and that instrumentation requires _______

    • A.

      Less time to clean.

    • B.

      More complex processing protocols

    • C.

      Simple processing protocols

    • D.

      Less chemical to sterilize

    Correct Answer
    B. More complex processing protocols
    Explanation
    Minimally invasive procedures involve the use of complex instrumentation, which in turn requires more complex processing protocols. This is because the instruments used in these procedures are delicate and intricate, making them more difficult to clean and sterilize. The complex processing protocols ensure that all parts of the instruments are thoroughly cleaned and sterilized to maintain patient safety. Therefore, the correct answer is more complex processing protocols.

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  • 46. 

    What is a cell?

    • A.

      All of them.

    • B.

      The basic unit of life.

    • C.

      The smallest structural unit of living organism.

    • D.

      Capable of performing all basic functions of life.

    Correct Answer
    A. All of them.
    Explanation
    A cell is the basic unit of life. The smallest structural unit of living organism capable of performing all basic functions of life.

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  • 47. 

    Gram staining is used most frequently and is a multi-step process using several stains and rinses.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gram staining is indeed used most frequently in microbiology laboratories. It is a multi-step process that involves several stains and rinses. The purpose of Gram staining is to differentiate bacteria into two groups: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. This technique is essential for identifying and classifying bacteria based on their cell wall composition. Therefore, the statement "Gram staining is used most frequently and is a multi-step process using several stains and rinses" is true.

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  • 48. 

    A Virus is a cell that moves.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The virus itself has no means of movement and depends on air, water, insects, humans or other animals to carry it from one host to another.

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  • 49. 

    Fungi can reproduce______

    • A.

      Sexually, asexually or both

    • B.

      Sexually

    • C.

      Asexually

    • D.

      Binary fission

    Correct Answer
    A. Sexually, asexually or both
    Explanation
    Fungi have the ability to reproduce in multiple ways, including sexually, asexually, or a combination of both. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of gametes from two different individuals, resulting in genetic variation. Asexual reproduction, on the other hand, does not involve the fusion of gametes and produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent. Some fungi can also reproduce through a combination of both sexual and asexual methods, allowing for increased adaptability and survival in different environments.

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