# Module 4 - Structural Design - Annayazu

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• 1.

### A body acted upon by a balanced force system. The resultant is equal to zero. The action and reaction forces between two particles area always equal and oppositely directed.

• A.

Static Equilibrium

• B.

Force

• C.

Resultant

• D.

Transmissibility

A. Static Equilibrium
Explanation
Static equilibrium refers to a state in which a body is at rest and not moving. In this state, the forces acting on the body are balanced, meaning that the resultant force is equal to zero. This means that the body is not experiencing any acceleration or movement. The statement also mentions that the action and reaction forces between two particles are always equal and oppositely directed. This is known as Newton's third law of motion, which states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Therefore, the correct answer is static equilibrium, as it describes the balance of forces and lack of movement.

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• 2.

### Action of one body upon another; due to direct contact, magnetic / gravitational attraction, or generated by moving bodies (inertia.)

• A.

Static Equilibrium

• B.

Force

• C.

Resultant

• D.

Transmissibility

B. Force
Explanation
The explanation for the correct answer "Force" is that force is defined as the action of one body upon another. It can occur due to direct contact between two bodies, or through magnetic or gravitational attraction. Additionally, force can also be generated by moving bodies due to inertia. Therefore, force encompasses all the mentioned scenarios and is the most appropriate answer.

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• 3.

### Is a single force, a couple, or a force and a couple which acting alone will produce the same effect as the force system.

• A.

Static Equilibrium

• B.

Force

• C.

Resultant

• D.

Transmissibility

C. Resultant
Explanation
A resultant is a single force that has the same effect as a force system consisting of multiple forces. In other words, it is the net force that combines all the individual forces into one. When a force system is in static equilibrium, the resultant force is zero, meaning that all the forces cancel each other out and there is no net force or movement. Therefore, the resultant force alone can produce the same effect as the force system.

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• 4.

### States that the external effect of a force on a body acted upon is independent of the point of application of the force but the same for all points along its line of action.

• A.

Static Equilibrium

• B.

Force

• C.

Resultant

• D.

Transmissibility

D. Transmissibility
Explanation
Transmissibility refers to the property of a force where its external effect on a body remains the same regardless of the point of application of the force, as long as it is applied along the same line of action. This means that the force will produce the same result at any point along its line of action. In other words, the effect of the force on the body is independent of where it is applied, as long as it is applied along the same line.

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• 5.

### Select the important characteristics of a force.

• A.

Magnitude

• B.

Position or the point of application

• C.

Direction

• D.

Midichlorians

• E.

Source

• F.

Distance

A. Magnitude
B. Position or the point of application
C. Direction
Explanation
The important characteristics of a force include its magnitude, which refers to the strength or intensity of the force. The position or point of application is also crucial as it determines where the force is being applied. The direction of the force indicates the path or orientation in which the force is acting. However, "midichlorians" and "source" are not relevant characteristics of a force, and "distance" is not mentioned as an option in the question.

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• 6.

### Identify the resultant below:

• A.

Force

• B.

Couple

• C.

Force / Couple

A. Force
Explanation
The resultant in this case refers to the final or net force that is produced when multiple forces act on an object. It is the overall effect or combination of all the forces. In this given list, the term "Force" is the only option that represents a single force acting on its own without any combination or interaction with other forces. Therefore, "Force" is the correct answer.

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• 7.

### Identify the resultant below:

• A.

Force

• B.

Couple

• C.

Force / Couple

B. Couple
Explanation
The resultant in this case is a couple. A couple is a pair of equal and opposite forces that act on a body but do not produce any translational motion. Instead, they create a rotational effect on the body. In other words, a couple produces a turning effect or torque without any linear displacement.

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• 8.

### Identify the resultant below:

• A.

Force

• B.

Couple

• C.

Force / Couple

C. Force / Couple
Explanation
The given answer "Force / Couple" suggests that the resultant is a combination of both force and couple. This means that there is an applied force acting on an object along with a couple, which is a pair of forces with equal magnitude but opposite direction and parallel lines of action. The presence of both force and couple indicates that there is both a linear and rotational effect on the object.

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• 9.

### Is an arrangement of any two or more forces that act on a body or on a group of related bodies.

• A.

Force System

• B.

Force

• C.

Resultant

• D.

Free Body Diagram (FBD)

A. Force System
Explanation
A force system refers to the arrangement of any two or more forces that act on a body or a group of related bodies. It involves the combination of forces and their interactions, which can determine the overall effect or resultant force on the body. Understanding force systems is essential in analyzing the equilibrium or motion of objects and is often represented using diagrams such as free body diagrams (FBDs).

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• 10.

### A sketch of a body showing the forces exerted by other bodies on the one being considered.

• A.

Force System

• B.

Force

• C.

Resultant

• D.

Free Body Diagram (FBD)

D. Free Body Diagram (FBD)
Explanation
A free body diagram (FBD) is a sketch that shows the forces exerted by other bodies on the one being considered. It is used to analyze the forces acting on a body in a given situation. By isolating the body and representing all the external forces acting on it, a FBD helps in understanding the forces involved and their effects on the body. This diagram is an essential tool in physics and engineering to solve problems related to force systems and determine the resultant force acting on a body.

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• 11.

### Load is acting parallel to member axis. Stress is uniform for homogeneous sections. If due to tension - tends to elongate the body. If due to compression - Tends to shorten the body

• A.

Axial Deformation

• B.

Bending

• C.

Shear

• D.

Torsion

• E.

Bearing

A. Axial Deformation
Explanation
Axial deformation refers to the change in length of a member along its axis due to the application of an axial load. When a member is subjected to tension, it tends to elongate, causing axial deformation. Similarly, when a member is subjected to compression, it tends to shorten, resulting in axial deformation. This is because the load is acting parallel to the member axis, and the stress is uniform for homogeneous sections. Therefore, the correct answer is axial deformation.

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• 12.

### Stress due to a bending moment about the perpendicular axis of the member.

• A.

Axial Deformation

• B.

Bending

• C.

Shear

• D.

Torsion

• E.

Bearing

B. Bending
Explanation
Bending refers to the stress caused by a bending moment acting on a member about its perpendicular axis. When a member is subjected to a bending moment, it experiences tension on one side and compression on the other side, resulting in deformation. This type of stress is commonly seen in beams and other structural elements.

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• 13.

### Stress due to a load acting perpendicular / parallel to member axis.

• A.

Axial Deformation

• B.

Bending

• C.

Shear

• D.

Torsion

• E.

Bearing

C. Shear
Explanation
Shear stress occurs when two forces act parallel to each other but in opposite directions, causing one section of the member to slide or deform relative to the other. This can result in a shearing deformation of the material. In the given options, axial deformation refers to the change in length of a member due to an axial load, bending refers to the deformation caused by a load perpendicular to the member's axis, torsion refers to twisting deformation, and bearing refers to the deformation caused by the contact between two surfaces. Therefore, shear is the only option that accurately describes stress due to a load acting parallel to the member axis.

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• 14.

### Stress due to a moment about the member axis.

• A.

Axial Deformation

• B.

Bending

• C.

Shear

• D.

Torsion

• E.

Bearing

D. Torsion
Explanation
Torsion is the correct answer because it refers to the stress caused by a moment about the member axis. Torsion typically occurs in cylindrical or circular members, where twisting forces are applied that cause the member to deform. This deformation leads to shear stress within the material, which is known as torsional stress. Therefore, torsion is the most suitable explanation for the given correct answer.

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• 15.

### Stress due to direct contact between two bodies.

• A.

Axial Deformation

• B.

Bending

• C.

Shear

• D.

Torsion

• E.

Bearing

E. Bearing
Explanation
Bearing is the correct answer because stress due to direct contact between two bodies is commonly referred to as bearing stress. When two bodies come into direct contact with each other, the stress is distributed over a small area, resulting in high pressure between the contact surfaces. This type of stress is often seen in applications where one body supports the weight or load of another body, such as in mechanical bearings.

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• 16.

### An articulated structure composed of links or bars assumed to be connected by frictionless pins at the joints and arranged so that an area enclosed within the boundaries of the structure is subdivided by the bars into geometric figures which are usually triangles.

• A.

Truss

• B.

Beams / Girders

• C.

Deflection

• D.

Frames

A. Truss
Explanation
A truss is a type of structure made up of interconnected bars or links that are joined together with frictionless pins at the joints. The bars in a truss are arranged in such a way that they divide the enclosed area of the structure into geometric figures, typically triangles. Trusses are commonly used in engineering and construction to provide support and stability to buildings, bridges, and other structures. They are known for their strength and efficiency in distributing loads.

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• 17.

### Select the types of truss used for roofs:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice / Parker / Baltimore

A. Pratt Truss
B. Howe Truss
C. Fink Truss
D. Modified Fink Truss
E. Bowstring Truss
F. Crescent Truss
Explanation
The given answer lists the types of truss that are commonly used for roofs. These truss types include Pratt Truss, Howe Truss, Fink Truss, Modified Fink Truss, Bowstring Truss, and Crescent Truss. These truss designs are chosen based on their structural efficiency, load-bearing capacity, and aesthetic appeal. Each truss type has its own unique configuration and characteristics, making them suitable for different roof designs and construction requirements.

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• 18.

### Select the types of truss used for Bridges

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice / Parker / Baltimore

G. Through Pratt Truss
H. Through Howe Truss
I. Deck Warren Truss
J. Through Warren Subdivided
K. K Truss
L. Lattice / Parker / Baltimore
Explanation
The given answer lists various types of trusses that are commonly used for bridges. These include Through Pratt Truss, Through Howe Truss, Deck Warren Truss, Through Warren Subdivided, K Truss, and Lattice/Parker/Baltimore truss. Each of these truss types has its own unique design and structural characteristics that make them suitable for different bridge applications.

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• 19.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

M. Baltimore Truss
• 20.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

E. Bowstring Truss
• 21.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

F. Crescent Truss
• 22.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

I. Deck Warren Truss
• 23.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

C. Fink Truss
• 24.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

B. Howe Truss
• 25.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

K. K Truss
• 26.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

L. Lattice Truss
• 27.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

D. Modified Fink Truss
• 28.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

N. Parker Truss
• 29.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

A. Pratt Truss
• 30.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Pratt Truss

• B.

Howe Truss

• C.

Fink Truss

• D.

Modified Fink Truss

• E.

Bowstring Truss

• F.

Crescent Truss

• G.

Through Pratt Truss

• H.

Through Howe Truss

• I.

Deck Warren Truss

• J.

Through Warren Subdivided

• K.

K Truss

• L.

Lattice Truss

• M.

Baltimore Truss

• N.

Parker Truss

H. Through Howe Truss
• 31.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Parker Truss

• B.

Pratt Truss

• C.

Howe Truss

• D.

Fink Truss

• E.

Modified Fink Truss

• F.

Bowstring Truss

• G.

Crescent Truss

• H.

Through Pratt Truss

• I.

Through Howe Truss

• J.

Deck Warren Truss

• K.

Through Warren Subdivided

• L.

K Truss

• M.

Lattice Truss

• N.

Baltimore Truss

H. Through Pratt Truss
• 32.

### Identify the truss:

• A.

Parker Truss

• B.

Pratt Truss

• C.

Howe Truss

• D.

Fink Truss

• E.

Modified Fink Truss

• F.

Bowstring Truss

• G.

Crescent Truss

• H.

Through Pratt Truss

• I.

Through Howe Truss

• J.

Deck Warren Truss

• K.

Through Warren Subdivided

• L.

K Truss

• M.

Lattice Truss

• N.

Baltimore Truss

K. Through Warren Subdivided
• 33.

### Method of analyzing truss structures wherein: > Joints are in equilibrium > Axial forces of members enclosing a triangle forms a force polygon > Analysis must start at a joint with known external forces and must have two members connecting that joint.

• A.

Method of Joints

• B.

Method of Sections

• C.

Method of Pull-Out

• D.

Method of Jointed Sections

A. Method of Joints
Explanation
The method of joints is a technique used to analyze truss structures. It involves analyzing the equilibrium of each joint in the truss. The axial forces of the members enclosing a triangle are represented by a force polygon. The analysis starts at a joint with known external forces and requires two members connecting that joint. This method allows for the determination of the forces in each member of the truss.

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• 34.

### Method of analyzing truss structures wherein: > Cut a section across truss length passing members with unknown forces that is not more than 3 to provide non-concurrent force system. > Analyze FBD of the section with less number of forces or the convenient one. > Assume any direction of the member force and choose an arbitrary point to solve for one unknown using the equilibrium equation EM = 0. The positive calculated value indicated that the assumed direction is correct. On the other hand, the negative value indicates that the assumed direction is wrong but the magnitude is correct.

• A.

Method of Joints

• B.

Method of Sections

• C.

Method of Pull-Out

• D.

Method of Jointed Sections

B. Method of Sections
Explanation
The method of sections is a technique used to analyze truss structures. It involves cutting a section across the truss length, passing through members with unknown forces, but not more than 3 members. This creates a non-concurrent force system. The next step is to analyze the free body diagram of the section, considering the forces that are acting on it. By assuming a direction for the member force and choosing an arbitrary point, the equilibrium equation EM = 0 can be used to solve for one unknown force. If the calculated value is positive, it indicates that the assumed direction is correct. If the calculated value is negative, it means that the assumed direction is wrong, but the magnitude is correct.

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• 35.

### Are usually a horizontal or nearly horizontal element carrying a stress primarily due to shear and flexure. It usually carries a load directly from the floor.

• A.

Truss

• B.

Beams / Girders

• C.

Deflection

• D.

Frames

B. Beams / Girders
Explanation
Beams/Girders are usually a horizontal or nearly horizontal element that carries a stress primarily due to shear and flexure. They are designed to support and distribute the load directly from the floor or other structural elements. Beams/Girders are commonly used in construction to provide structural support and stability to buildings and bridges.

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• 36.

### A structure in which the reaction components and internal stresses can be completely determined using the equations of static equilibrium.

• A.

Determinate Structure

• B.

Indeterminate Structure

• C.

Degree of Indeterminancy

• D.

Static Equilibrium

A. Determinate Structure
Explanation
A determinate structure is a type of structure in which the reaction components and internal stresses can be completely determined using the equations of static equilibrium. This means that all the forces and moments acting on the structure can be calculated and the structure can be analyzed using the principles of statics. In a determinate structure, the number of unknowns is equal to the number of equations available, allowing for a unique solution to be obtained. This is in contrast to an indeterminate structure, where the number of unknowns exceeds the number of equations, resulting in multiple possible solutions.

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• 37.

### A stable structure in which the reaction components and internal stress cannot be solved completely using the equations of static equilibrium.

• A.

Determinate Structure

• B.

Indeterminate Structure

• C.

Degree of Indeterminancy

• D.

Static Equilibrium

B. Indeterminate Structure
Explanation
An indeterminate structure refers to a stable structure in which the reaction components and internal stress cannot be solved completely using the equations of static equilibrium. This means that the structure has more unknown forces or reactions than the number of equations available to solve them. As a result, additional analysis techniques such as the method of virtual work or flexibility method are required to determine the unknowns and solve the structure.

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• 38.

### Refers to the number of unknowns over and above the equations of static equilibrium.

• A.

Determinate Structure

• B.

Indeterminate Structure

• C.

Degree of Indeterminancy

• D.

Static Equilibrium

C. Degree of Indeterminancy
Explanation
The term "degree of indeterminancy" refers to the number of unknowns that exceed the equations of static equilibrium in a structure. This means that the structure has more unknowns than the number of equations available to solve them. In other words, it indicates the level of complexity or redundancy in the structure.

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• 39.

### A derived formula due to flexure.

• A.

Truss

• B.

Beams / Girders

• C.

Deflection

• D.

Frames

C. Deflection
Explanation
The given options represent different components or concepts related to structures. Truss, beams/girders, and frames are all types of structures. Deflection, on the other hand, is a term used to describe the bending or deformation of a structure under a load. It is a derived formula that helps calculate the amount of deflection in a structure due to flexure. Therefore, the correct answer is deflection.

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• 40.

### Allowable deflection for members supporting or attached to non-structural elements not likely to be damaged by large deflection.

• A.

L/240

• B.

L/360

• C.

L/180

• D.

L/480

A. L/240
Explanation
The allowable deflection for members supporting or attached to non-structural elements that are not likely to be damaged by large deflection is L/240. This means that the maximum deflection of the member should not exceed 1/240th of its span length. This criterion ensures that the deflection of the member is within acceptable limits and will not cause any significant damage or discomfort to the non-structural elements attached to it.

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• 41.

### Allowable deflection for members not supporting or attached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections (immediate deflection due to live load only.)

• A.

L/240

• B.

L/360

• C.

L/180

• D.

L/480

B. L/360
Explanation
The correct answer is L/360. This means that the allowable deflection for members not supporting or attached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections, due to live load only, is L/360. This indicates that the deflection of the member should not exceed the span length divided by 360. This criterion is commonly used in structural design to ensure that the deflection of the member remains within acceptable limits to prevent damage or failure.

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• 42.

### Allowable deflection for members carrying flat roofs not supporting or attached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections.

• A.

L/240

• B.

L/360

• C.

L/180

• D.

L/480

C. L/180
Explanation
The allowable deflection for members carrying flat roofs not supporting or attached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections is L/180. This means that the maximum deflection of the member should not exceed the span length divided by 180. This requirement ensures that the deflection of the member is within acceptable limits to prevent any damage to the non-structural elements supported by the roof.

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• 43.

### Allowable deflection for members roof or floor construction supporting or attached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections.

• A.

L/240

• B.

L/360

• C.

L/180

• D.

L/480

D. L/480
Explanation
The correct answer is L/480. This means that the allowable deflection for members of roof or floor construction supporting or attached to non-structural elements that are likely to be damaged by large deflections is L/480. This is a more stringent requirement compared to the other options, such as L/240 or L/360, which means that the deflection allowed is smaller. A smaller deflection ensures better stability and reduces the risk of damage to the non-structural elements.

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• 44.

### Identify the type of frame:

• A.

Rigid / semi-rigid frame

• B.

Frame with shear truss

• C.

Frame with shear wall

• D.

Frame with shear truss / outrigger

• E.

Frame with shear wall / outrigger

• F.

Exterior diagonalized tube

A. Rigid / semi-rigid frame
Explanation
The correct answer is Rigid / semi-rigid frame. This type of frame is characterized by its ability to resist deformation and maintain its shape under applied loads. It is not completely rigid, as it allows for some flexibility and movement. This type of frame is commonly used in construction to provide stability and support to structures.

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• 45.

### Identify the type of frame:

• A.

Rigid / semi-rigid frame

• B.

Frame with shear truss

• C.

Frame with shear wall

• D.

Frame with shear truss / outrigger

• E.

Frame with shear wall / outrigger

• F.

Exterior diagonalized tube

B. Frame with shear truss
Explanation
The given correct answer is "Frame with shear truss". This type of frame refers to a structural system that consists of both a frame and a truss. The frame provides stability and support, while the truss helps to distribute and resist shear forces. The combination of these two elements makes the frame more rigid and capable of withstanding lateral loads.

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• 46.

### Identify the type of frame:

• A.

Rigid / semi-rigid frame

• B.

Frame with shear truss

• C.

Frame with shear wall

• D.

Frame with shear truss / outrigger

• E.

Frame with shear wall / outrigger

• F.

Exterior diagonalized tube

C. Frame with shear wall
Explanation
The correct answer is "Frame with shear wall." This type of frame incorporates a shear wall, which is a structural element designed to resist lateral forces such as wind or seismic loads. The shear wall provides stiffness and stability to the frame, preventing excessive horizontal movement. This type of frame is commonly used in high-rise buildings to enhance their structural integrity and reduce the risk of collapse during earthquakes or strong winds.

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• 47.

### Identify the type of frame:

• A.

Rigid / semi-rigid frame

• B.

Frame with shear truss

• C.

Frame with shear wall

• D.

Frame with shear truss / outrigger

• E.

Frame with shear wall / outrigger

• F.

Exterior diagonalized tube

D. Frame with shear truss / outrigger
Explanation
The correct answer is "Frame with shear truss / outrigger." This type of frame includes both shear trusses and outriggers, which are structural elements used to provide additional stability and resistance against lateral forces such as wind or earthquakes. The shear trusses and outriggers help distribute the lateral loads and prevent excessive deflection or deformation of the frame.

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• 48.

### Identify the type of frame:

• A.

Rigid / semi-rigid frame

• B.

Frame with shear truss

• C.

Frame with shear wall

• D.

Frame with shear truss / outrigger

• E.

Frame with shear wall / outrigger

• F.

Exterior diagonalized tube

E. Frame with shear wall / outrigger
Explanation
The given answer "Frame with shear wall / outrigger" suggests that the type of frame being referred to is a combination of a frame with shear walls and outriggers. Shear walls are vertical elements designed to resist lateral forces such as wind or seismic loads, while outriggers are horizontal elements that connect the core of the building to the exterior columns, enhancing the overall stability and stiffness of the structure. This combination of shear walls and outriggers is commonly used in tall buildings to improve their resistance to lateral loads.

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• 49.

### Identify the type of frame:

• A.

Rigid / semi-rigid frame

• B.

Frame with shear truss

• C.

Frame with shear wall

• D.

Frame with shear truss / outrigger

• E.

Frame with shear wall / outrigger

• F.

Exterior diagonalized tube

F. Exterior diagonalized tube
Explanation
The correct answer is "Exterior diagonalized tube." This type of frame refers to a structural system commonly used in high-rise buildings. It consists of a network of diagonal braces located on the exterior of the building, forming a tube-like structure. These diagonal braces are designed to resist lateral forces such as wind and seismic loads, providing stability and rigidity to the building. The exterior diagonalized tube system is an efficient and effective way to distribute and dissipate these forces, ensuring the structural integrity of the building.

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• 50.

### Method of analyzing frames wherein: > Inflection points are at midspan of all members > Shear of interior columns is twice the shear of exterior columns > Summation of horizontal shear on columns at certain level is equal to the sum of all horizontal forces above that level.

• A.

Method of Joints

• B.

Method of Sections

• C.

Portal Method

• D.

Method of Jointed Sections

C. Portal Method
Explanation
The correct answer is Portal Method. The Portal Method is a method of analyzing frames that is used to determine the internal forces and moments in the members of a structure. In this method, the inflection points are assumed to be at the midspan of all members. It also assumes that the shear of interior columns is twice the shear of exterior columns. Additionally, it states that the summation of horizontal shear on columns at a certain level is equal to the sum of all horizontal forces above that level. This method is commonly used for analyzing portal frames, which are a type of structural system often used in buildings and bridges.

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• Current Version
• Mar 20, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Dec 28, 2019
Quiz Created by
Ninoyabut

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